Genetic study of interactions between the cytoskeletal assembly protein sla1 and prion-forming domain of the release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Striking similarities between cytoskeletal assembly and the "nucleated polymerization" model of prion propagation suggest that similar or overlapping sets of proteins may assist in both processes. We show that the C-terminal domain of the yeast cytoskeletal assembly protein Sla1 (Sla1C) specifically interacts with the N-terminal prion-forming domain (Sup35N) of the yeast release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in the two-hybrid system. Sla1C and several other Sup35N-interacting proteins also exhibit two-hybrid interactions with the poly-Gln-expanded N-proximal fragment of human huntingtin, which promotes Huntington disease-associated aggregation. The Sup35N-Sla1C interaction is inhibited by Sup35N alterations that make Sup35 unable to propagate the [PSI(+)] state and by the absence of the chaperone protein Hsp104, which is essential for [PSI] propagation. In a Sla1(-) background, [PSI] curing by dimethylsulfoxide or excess Hsp104 is increased, while translational readthrough and de novo [PSI] formation induced by excess Sup35 or Sup35N are decreased. These data show that, in agreement with the proposed function of Sla1 during cytoskeletal formation, Sla1 assists in [PSI] formation and propagation, but is not required for these processes. Sla1(-) strains are sensitive to some translational inhibitors, and some sup35 mutants, obtained in a Sla1(-) background, are sensitive to Sla1, suggesting that the interaction between Sla1 and Sup35 proteins may play a role in the normal function of the translational apparatus. We hypothesize that Sup35N is involved in regulatory interactions with intracellular structural networks, and [PSI] prion may be formed as a by-product of this process.
Project description:The yeast prion [PSI(+)] represents an aggregated state of the translational release factor Sup35 (eRF3) and deprives termination complexes of functional Sup35, resulting in nonsense codon suppression. Protein-remodeling factor Hsp104 is involved in thermotolerance and [PSI(+)] propagation, however the structure-and-function relationship of Hsp104 for [PSI(+)] remains unclear. In this study, we engineered 58 chromosomal hsp104 mutants that affect residues considered structurally or functionally relevant to Hsp104 remodeling activity, yet most remain to be examined for their significance to [PSI(+)] in the same genetic background. Many of these hsp104 mutants were affected both in thermotolerance and [PSI(+)] propagation. However, nine mutants were impaired exclusively for [PSI(+)], while two mutants were impaired exclusively for thermotolerance. Mutations exclusively affecting [PSI(+)] are clustered around the lateral channel of the Hsp104 hexamer. These findings suggest that Hsp104 possesses shared as well as distinct remodeling activities for stress-induced protein aggregates and [PSI(+)] prion aggregates and that the lateral channel plays a role specific to [PSI(+)] prion propagation.
Project description:Inheritance of phenotypic traits depends on two key events: replication of the determinant of that trait and partitioning of these copies between mother and daughter cells. Although these processes are well understood for nucleic acid-based genes, the mechanisms by which protein-only or prion-based genetic elements direct phenotypic inheritance are poorly understood. Here, we report a process crucial for inheritance of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prion [PSI(+)], a self-replicating conformer of the Sup35 protein. By tightly controlling expression of a Sup35-GFP fusion, we directly observe remodeling of existing Sup35([PSI+]) complexes in vivo. This dynamic change in Sup35([PSI+]) is lost when the molecular chaperone Hsp104, a factor essential for propagation of all yeast prions, is functionally impaired. The loss of Sup35([PSI+]) remodeling by Hsp104 decreases the mobility of these complexes in the cytosol, creates a segregation bias that limits their transmission to daughter cells, and consequently diminishes the efficiency of conversion of newly made Sup35 to the prion form. Our observations resolve several seemingly conflicting reports on the mechanism of Hsp104 action and point to a single Hsp104-dependent event in prion propagation.
Project description:The [PSI+] determinant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, consisting of the cytosolic translation termination factor Sup35, is a prion-type genetic element that induces an inheritable conformational change and converts the Sup35 protein into amyloid fibers. The molecular chaperone Hsp104 is required to maintain self-replication of [PSI+]. We observe in vitro that addition of catalytic amounts of Hsp104 to the prion-determining region of the NM domain of Sup35, Sup355-26, results in the dissociation of oligomeric Sup35 into monomeric species. Several intermediates of Sup355-26 could be detected during this process. Strong interactions are found between Hsp104 and hexameric/tetrameric Sup355-26, whereas the intermediate and monomeric "release" forms show a decreased affinity with respect to Hsp104, as monitored by saturation transfer difference and diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopic experiments. Interactions are mediated mostly by the side chains of Gln, Asn, and Tyr residues in Sup355-26. No interaction can be detected between Hsp104 and higher oligomeric states (>/=8) of Sup355-26. Taking into account the fact that Hsp104 is required for maintenance of [PSI+], we suggest that low-oligomeric-weight species of Sup35 are important for prion propagation in yeast.
Project description:The cytosolic chaperone network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is intimately associated with the emergence and maintenance of prion traits. Recently, the Hsp110 protein, Sse1, has been identified as a nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) for both cytosolic Hsp70 chaperone family members, Ssa1 and Ssb1. We have investigated the role of Sse1 in the de novo formation and propagation of [PSI(+)], the prion form of the translation termination factor, Sup35. As observed by others, we find that Sse1 is essential for efficient prion propagation. Our results suggest that the NEF activity is required for maintaining sufficient levels of substrate-free Ssa1. However, Sse1 exhibits an additional NEF-independent activity; it stimulates in vitro nucleation of Sup35NM, the prion domain of Sup35. We also observe that high levels of Sse1, but not of an unrelated NEF, very potently inhibit Hsp104-mediated curing of [PSI(+)]. Taken together, these results suggest a chaperone-like activity of Sse1 that assists in stabilization of early folding intermediates of the Sup35 prion conformation. This activity is not essential for prion formation under conditions of Sup35 overproduction, however, it may be relevant for spontaneous [PSI(+)] formation as well as for protection of the prion trait upon physiological Hsp104 induction.
Project description:Self-perpetuating transmissible protein aggregates, termed prions, are implicated in mammalian diseases and control phenotypically detectable traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast stress-inducible chaperone proteins, including Hsp104 and Hsp70-Ssa that counteract cytotoxic protein aggregation, also control prion propagation. Stress-damaged proteins that are not disaggregated by chaperones are cleared from daughter cells via mother-specific asymmetric segregation in cell divisions following heat shock. Short-term mild heat stress destabilizes [PSI+ ], a prion isoform of the yeast translation termination factor Sup35 This destabilization is linked to the induction of the Hsp104 chaperone. Here, we show that the region of Hsp104 known to be required for curing by artificially overproduced Hsp104 is also required for heat-shock-mediated [PSI+ ] destabilization. Moreover, deletion of the SIR2 gene, coding for a deacetylase crucial for asymmetric segregation of heat-damaged proteins, also counteracts heat-shock-mediated destabilization of [PSI+ ], and Sup35 aggregates are colocalized with aggregates of heat-damaged proteins marked by Hsp104-GFP. These results support the role of asymmetric segregation in prion destabilization. Finally, we show that depletion of the heat-shock noninducible ribosome-associated chaperone Hsp70-Ssb decreases heat-shock-mediated destabilization of [PSI+ ], while disruption of a cochaperone complex mediating the binding of Hsp70-Ssb to the ribosome increases prion loss. Our data indicate that Hsp70-Ssb relocates from the ribosome to the cytosol during heat stress. Cytosolic Hsp70-Ssb has been shown to antagonize the function of Hsp70-Ssa in prion propagation, which explains the Hsp70-Ssb effect on prion destabilization by heat shock. This result uncovers the stress-related role of a stress noninducible chaperone.
Project description:Yeast prions are a powerful model for understanding the dynamics of protein aggregation associated with a number of human neurodegenerative disorders. The AAA+ protein disaggregase Hsp104 can sever the amyloid fibrils produced by yeast prions. This action results in the propagation of "seeds" that are transmitted to daughter cells during budding. Overexpression of Hsp104 eliminates the [PSI+] prion but not other prions. Using biochemical methods we identified Hsp104 binding sites in the highly charged middle domain of Sup35, the protein determinant of [PSI+]. Deletion of a short segment of the middle domain (amino acids 129-148) diminishes Hsp104 binding and strongly affects the ability of the middle domain to stimulate the ATPase activity of Hsp104. In yeast, [PSI+] maintained by Sup35 lacking this segment, like other prions, is propagated by Hsp104 but cannot be cured by Hsp104 overexpression. These results provide new insight into the enigmatic specificity of Hsp104-mediated curing of yeast prions and sheds light on the limitations of the ability of Hsp104 to eliminate aggregates produced by other aggregation-prone proteins.
Project description:[PSI(+)] yeast, containing the misfolded amyloid conformation of Sup35 prion, is cured by inactivation of Hsp104. There has been controversy as to whether inactivation of Hsp104 by guanidine treatment or by overexpression of the dominant negative Hsp104 mutant, Hsp104-2KT, cures [PSI(+)] by the same mechanism- inhibition of the severing of the prion seeds. Using live cell imaging of Sup35-GFP, overexpression of Hsp104-2KT caused the foci to increase in size, then decrease in number, and finally disappear when the cells were cured, similar to that observed in cells cured by depletion of Hsp104. In contrast, guanidine initially caused an increase in foci size but then the foci disappeared before the cells were cured. By starving the yeast to make the foci visible in cells grown with guanidine, the number of cells with foci was found to correlate exactly with the number of [PSI(+)] cells, regardless of the curing method. Therefore, the fluorescent foci are the prion seeds required for maintenance of [PSI(+)] and inactivation of Hsp104 cures [PSI(+)] by preventing severing of the prion seeds. During curing with guanidine, the reduction in seed size is an Hsp104-dependent effect that cannot be explained by limited severing of the seeds. Instead, in the presence of guanidine, Hsp104 retains an activity that trims or reduces the size of the prion seeds by releasing Sup35 molecules that are unable to form new prion seeds. This Hsp104 activity may also occur in propagating yeast.
Project description:Propagation of the yeast prion [PSI+], a self-replicating aggregated form of Sup35p, requires Hsp104. One model to explain this phenomenon proposes that, in the absence of Hsp104, Sup35p aggregates enlarge but fail to replicate thus becoming diluted out as the yeast divide. To test this model, we used live imaging of Sup35p-GFP to follow the changes that occur in [PSI+] cells after the addition of guanidine to inactivate Hsp104. After guanidine addition there was initially an increase in aggregation of Sup35p-GFP; but then, before the yeast divided, the aggregates began to dissolve, and after approximately 6 h the Sup35-GFP looked identical to the Sup35-GFP in [psi+] cells. Although plating studies showed that the yeast were still [PSI+], this reduction in aggregation suggested that curing of [PSI+] by inactivation of Hsp104 might be independent of cell division. This was tested by measuring the rate of curing of [PSI+] cells in both dividing and nondividing cells. Cell division was inhibited by adding either alpha factor or farnesol. Remarkably, with both of these methods, we found that the rate of curing was not significantly affected by cell division. Thus, cell division is not a determining factor for curing [PSI+] by inactivating Hsp104 with guanidine. Rather, curing apparently occurs because Sup35-GFP polymers slowly depolymerize in the absence of Hsp104 activity. Hsp104 then counteracts this curing possibly by catalyzing formation of new polymers.
Project description:Yeast prion [PSI(+)] is a self-perpetuating amyloid of the translational termination factor Sup35. Although [PSI(+)] propagation is modulated by heat shock proteins (Hsps), high temperature was previously reported to have little or no effect on [PSI(+)]. Our results show that short-term exposure of exponentially growing yeast culture to mild heat shock, followed by immediate resumption of growth, leads to [PSI(+)] destabilization, sometimes persisting for several cell divisions after heat shock. Prion loss occurring in the first division after heat shock is preferentially detected in a daughter cell, indicating the impairment of prion segregation that results in asymmetric prion distribution between a mother cell and a bud. Longer heat shock or prolonged incubation in the absence of nutrients after heat shock led to [PSI(+)] recovery. Both prion destabilization and recovery during heat shock depend on protein synthesis. Maximal prion destabilization coincides with maximal imbalance between Hsp104 and other Hsps such as Hsp70-Ssa. Deletions of individual SSA genes increase prion destabilization and/or counteract recovery. The dynamics of prion aggregation during destabilization and recovery are consistent with the notion that efficient prion fragmentation and segregation require a proper balance between Hsp104 and other (e.g., Hsp70-Ssa) chaperones. In contrast to heat shock, [PSI(+)] destabilization by osmotic stressors does not always depend on cell proliferation and/or protein synthesis, indicating that different stresses may impact the prion via different mechanisms. Our data demonstrate that heat stress causes asymmetric prion distribution in a cell division and confirm that the effects of Hsps on prions are physiologically relevant.
Project description:Chaperones and autophagy are components of the protein quality control system that contribute to the management of proteins that are misfolded and aggregated. Here, we use yeast prions, which are self-perpetuating aggregating proteins, as a means to understand how these protein quality control systems influence aggregate loss. Chaperones, such as Hsp104, fragment prion aggregates to generate more prion seeds for propagation. While much is known about the role of chaperones, little is known about how other quality control systems contribute to prion propagation. We show that the aprotic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cures a range of [PSI+] prion variants, which are related to several misfolded aggregated conformations of the Sup35 protein. Our studies show that DMSO-mediated curing is quicker and more efficient than guanidine hydrochloride, a prion curing agent that inactivates the Hsp104 chaperone. Instead, DMSO appears to induce Hsp104 expression. Using the yTRAP system, a recently developed transcriptional reporting system for tracking protein solubility, we found that DMSO also rapidly induces the accumulation of soluble Sup35 protein, suggesting a potential link between Hsp104 expression and disassembly of Sup35 from the prion aggregate. However, DMSO-mediated curing appears to also be associated with other quality control systems. While the induction of autophagy alone does not lead to curing, we found that DMSO-mediated curing is dramatically impaired in autophagy related (atg) gene mutants, suggesting that other factors influence this DMSO mechanism of curing. Our data suggest that DMSO-mediated curing is not simply dependent upon Hsp104 overexpression alone, but may further depend upon other aspects of proteostasis.