A novel Drosophila alkaline phosphatase specific to the ellipsoid body of the adult brain and the lower Malpighian (renal) tubule.
ABSTRACT: Two independent Drosophila melanogaster P(GAL4) enhancer-trap lines revealed identical GAL4-directed expression patterns in the ellipsoid body of the brain and in the Malpighian (renal) tubules in the abdomen. Both P-element insertions mapped to the same chromosomal site (100B2). The genomic locus, as characterized by plasmid rescue of flanking DNA, restriction mapping, and DNA sequencing, revealed the two P(GAL4) elements to be inserted in opposite orientations, only 46 bp apart. Three genes flanking the insertions have been identified. Calcineurin A1 (previously mapped to 21E-F) lies to one side, and two very closely linked genes lie to the other. The nearer encodes Aph-4, the first Drosophila alkaline phosphatase gene to be identified; the more distant gene [l(3)96601] is novel, with a head-elevated expression, and with distant similarity to transcription regulatory elements. Both in situ hybridization with Aph-4 probes and direct histochemical determination of alkaline phosphatase activity precisely matches the enhancer-trap pattern reported by the original lines. Although the P-element insertions are not recessive lethals, they display tubule phenotypes in both heterozygotes and homozygotes. Rates of fluid secretion in tubules from c507 homozygotes are reduced, both basally, and after stimulation by CAP(2b), cAMP, or Drosophila leucokinin. The P-element insertions also disrupt the expression of Aph-4, causing misexpression in the tubule main segment. This disruption extends to tubule pigmentation, with c507 homozygotes displaying white-like transparent main segments. These results suggest that Aph-4, while possessing a very narrow range of expression, nonetheless plays an important role in epithelial function.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network consists of tubules with high membrane curvature in cross-section, generated by the reticulons and REEPs. These proteins have two pairs of trans-membrane (TM) segments, followed by an amphipathic helix (APH), but how they induce curvature is poorly understood. Here, we show that REEPs form homodimers by interaction within the membrane. When overexpressed or reconstituted at high concentrations with phospholipids, REEPs cause extreme curvature through their TMs, generating lipoprotein particles instead of vesicles. The APH facilitates curvature generation, as its mutation prevents ER network formation of reconstituted proteoliposomes, and synthetic L- or D-amino acid peptides abolish ER network formation in Xenopus egg extracts. In Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, the APH is required for reticulon's exclusive ER-tubule localization and restricted mobility. Thus, the TMs and APH cooperate to generate high membrane curvature. We propose that the formation of splayed REEP/reticulon dimers is responsible for ER tubule formation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The ability to localise or follow endogenous proteins in real time in vivo is of tremendous utility for cell biology or systems biology studies. Protein trap screens utilise the random genomic insertion of a transposon-borne artificial reporter exon (e.g. encoding the green fluorescent protein, GFP) into an intron of an endogenous gene to generate a fluorescent fusion protein. Despite recent efforts aimed at achieving comprehensive coverage of the genes encoded in the Drosophila genome, the repertoire of genes that yield protein traps is still small. RESULTS:We analysed the collection of available protein trap lines in Drosophila melanogaster and identified potential biases that are likely to restrict genome coverage in protein trap screens. The protein trap screens investigated here primarily used P-element vectors and thus exhibit some of the same positional biases associated with this transposon that are evident from the comprehensive Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. We further found that protein trap target genes usually exhibit broad and persistent expression during embryonic development, which is likely to facilitate better detection. In addition, we investigated the likely influence of the GFP exon on host protein structure and found that protein trap insertions have a significant bias for exon-exon boundaries that encode disordered protein regions. 38.8% of GFP insertions land in disordered protein regions compared with only 23.4% in the case of non-trapping P-element insertions landing in coding sequence introns (p < 10(-4)). Interestingly, even in cases where protein domains are predicted, protein trap insertions frequently occur in regions encoding surface exposed areas that are likely to be functionally neutral. Considering the various biases observed, we predict that less than one third of intron-containing genes are likely to be amenable to trapping by the existing methods. CONCLUSION:Our analyses suggest that the utility of P-element vectors for protein trap screens has largely been exhausted, and that approximately 2,800 genes may still be amenable using piggyBac vectors. Thus protein trap strategies based on current approaches are unlikely to offer true genome-wide coverage. We suggest that either transposons with reduced insertion bias or recombineering-based targeting techniques will be required for comprehensive genome coverage in Drosophila.
Project description:Transposon-based forward and reverse genetic technologies will contribute greatly to ongoing efforts to study mosquito functional genomics. A piggyBac transposon-based enhancer-trap system was developed that functions efficiently in the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. The system consists of six transgenic lines of Anopheles stephensi, each with a single piggyBac-Gal4 element in a unique genomic location; six lines with a single piggyBac-UAStdTomato element; and two lines, each with a single Minos element containing the piggyBac-transposase gene under the regulatory control of the hsp70 promoter from Drosophila melanogaster. Enhancer detection depended upon the efficient remobilization of piggyBac-Gal4 transposons, which contain the yeast transcription factor gene Gal4 under the regulatory control of a basal promoter. Gal4 expression was detected through the expression of the fluorescent protein gene tdTomato under the regulatory control of a promoter with Gal4-binding UAS elements. From five genetic screens for larval- and adult-specific enhancers, 314 progeny were recovered from 24,250 total progeny (1.3%) with unique patterns of tdTomato expression arising from the influence of an enhancer. The frequency of piggyBac remobilization and enhancer detection was 2.5- to 3-fold higher in female germ lines compared with male germ lines. A small collection of enhancer-trap lines are described in which Gal4 expression occurred in adult female salivary glands, midgut, and fat body, either singly or in combination. These three tissues play critical roles during the infection of Anopheles stephensi by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites. This system and the lines generated using it will be valuable resources to ongoing mosquito functional genomics efforts.
Project description:How inorganic phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is regulated in Drosophila is currently unknown. We here identify MFS2 as a key Pi transporter in fly renal (Malpighian) tubules. Consistent with its role in Pi excretion, we found that dietary Pi induces MFS2 expression. This results in the formation of Malpighian calcium-Pi stones, while RNAi-mediated knockdown of MFS2 increases blood (hemolymph) Pi and decreases formation of Malpighian tubule stones in flies cultured on high Pi medium. Conversely, microinjection of adults with the phosphaturic human hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) induces tubule expression of MFS2 and decreases blood Pi. This action of FGF23 is blocked by genetic ablation of MFS2. Furthermore, genetic overexpression of the fly FGF branchless (bnl) in the tubules induces expression of MFS2 and increases Malpighian tubule stones suggesting that bnl is the endogenous phosphaturic hormone in adult flies. Finally, genetic ablation of MFS2 increased fly life span, suggesting that Malpighian tubule stones are a key element whereby high Pi diet reduces fly longevity previously reported by us. In conclusion, MFS2 mediates excretion of Pi in Drosophila, which is as in higher species under the hormonal control of FGF-signaling.
Project description:We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos-mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ?C31 integrase attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNAmanipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to revert to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp recombinase system. Insertions in coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the D. melanogaster toolkit.
Project description:Targeted gene expression is a powerful approach to study the function of genes and cells in vivo. In Drosophila, the P element-mediated Gal4-UAS method has been successfully used for this purpose. However, similar methods have not been established in vertebrates. Here we report the development of a targeted gene expression methodology in zebrafish based on the Tol2 transposable element and its application to the functional study of neural circuits. First, we developed gene trap and enhancer trap constructs carrying an engineered yeast Gal4 transcription activator (Gal4FF) and transgenic reporter fish carrying the GFP or the RFP gene downstream of the Gal4 recognition sequence (UAS) and showed that the Gal4FF can activate transcription through UAS in zebrafish. Second, by using this Gal4FF-UAS system, we performed large-scale screens and generated a large collection of fish lines that expressed Gal4FF in specific tissues, cells, and organs. Finally, we developed transgenic effector fish carrying the tetanus toxin light chain (TeTxLC) gene downstream of UAS, which is known to block synaptic transmission. We crossed the Gal4FF fish with the UAS:TeTxLC fish and analyzed double transgenic embryos for defects in touch response. From this analysis, we discovered that targeted expression of TeTxLC in distinct populations of neurons in the brain and the spinal cord caused distinct abnormalities in the touch response behavior. These studies illustrate that our Gal4FF gene trap and enhancer trap methods should be an important resource for genetic analysis of neuronal functions and behavior in vertebrates.
Project description:P element-mediated mutagenesis has been used to disrupt an estimated 25% of genes essential for Drosophila adult viability. Mutation of all genes in the fly genome, however, poses a problem, because P elements show significant hotspots of integration. In addition, advanced screening scenarios often require the use of P element-based tools like the generation of germ-line mosaics using FLP recombinase-mediated recombination or gene misexpression using the UAS/Gal4 system. These techniques are P element-based and can therefore not be combined with the use of P elements as mutagenic agents. To circumvent these limitations, we have developed an insertional mutagenesis system using non-P element transposons. An enhanced yellow fluorescent protein-marked piggyBac-based mutator element was mobilized by a piggyBac specific transposase source expressed from a Hermes-based jump-starter transposon marked with enhanced cyan fluorescent protein. In a pilot screen, we have generated 798 piggyBac insertions on FRT bearing third chromosomes of which 9% have sustained a putatively piggyBac-related lethal hit. The FRTs present on the target chromosome remained stably integrated during the screen and could subsequently be used to generate germ-line clones associated with maternal and zygotic phenotypes. PCR-based analysis of insertion loci shows that 57% of the insertions are in genes for which no P element insertions have been reported. Our data demonstrate the potential of this technique to facilitate the quest for saturation mutagenesis of the Drosophila genome. The system is Drosophila nonspecific and potentially applicable in a broad spectrum of nonmodel organisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Gal4 enhancer trap systems driving expression of LacZ and GFP reporters have been characterized and widely used in Drosophila. However, a Gal4 enhancer trap system in Arabidopsis has not been described in the primary literature. In Drosophila, the reporters possess a Gal4 upstream activation sequence (UAS) as five repeats (5XUAS) and lines that express Gal4 from tissue specific enhancers have also been used for the ectopic expression of any transgene (driven by a 5XUAS). While Gal4 transactivation has been demonstrated in Arabidopsis, wide use of a trap has not emerged in part because of the lack of detailed analysis, which is the purpose of the present study. RESULTS: A key feature of this study is the use of luciferase (LUC) as the primary reporter and rsGFP-GUS as secondary reporters. Reporters driven by a 5XUAS are better suited in Arabidopsis than those containing a 1X or 2X UAS. A 5XUAS-LUC reporter is expressed at high levels in Arabidopsis lines transformed with Gal4 driven by the full, enhanced 35S promoter. In contrast, a minimum 35S (containing the TATA region) upstream of Gal4 acts as an enhancer trap system. Luciferase expression in trap lines of the T1, T2, and T3 generations are generally stable but by the T4 generation approximately 25% of the lines are significantly silenced. This silencing is reversed by growing plants on media containing 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Quantitative multiplex RT-PCR on the Gal4 and LUC mRNA indicate that this silencing can occur at the level of Gal4 or LUC transcription. Production of a 10,000 event library and observations on screening, along with the potential for a Gal4 driver system in other plant species are discussed. CONCLUSION: The Gal4 trap system described here uses the 5XUAS-LUC and 5XUAS rsGFP-GUS as reporters and allows for in planta quantitative screening, including the rapid monitoring for silencing. We conclude that in about 75% of the cases silencing is at the level of transcription of the Gal4 transgene and is at an acceptable frequency to make the Gal4 trap system in Arabidopsis of value. This system will be useful for the isolation and comprehensive characterization of specific reporter and driver lines.
Project description:This is an affymetrix array experiment comparing the transcriptome of the Malpighian tubule (or renal tubule) of 7-day adult Oregon R strain Drosophila melanogaster with matched whole fly samples. There are five tubule samples (each derived from approx 1000 tubules (!)), and 5 matched whole-fly samples. i.e. tubule 2 is dissected from the same vial as WholeFly2. As the tubule is probably the premier tissue for true physiology in Drosophila, the dataset can usefully be interrogated in conjunction with the detailed physiological understanding of the tissue: see http://fly.to/tubules
Project description:Transposable elements (such as the P-element and piggyBac) have been used to introduce thousands of transgenic constructs into the Drosophila genome. These transgenic constructs serve many roles, from assaying gene/cell function, to controlling chromosome arm rearrangement. Knowing the precise genomic insertion site for the transposable element is often desired. This enables identification of genomic enhancer regions trapped by an enhancer trap, identification of the gene mutated by a transposon insertion, or simplifying recombination experiments. The most commonly used transgene mapping method is inverse PCR (iPCR). Although usually effective, limitations with iPCR hinder its ability to isolate flanking genomic DNA in complex genomic loci, such as those that contain natural transposons. Here we report the adaptation of the splinkerette PCR (spPCR) method for the isolation of flanking genomic DNA of any P-element or piggyBac. We report a simple and detailed protocol for spPCR. We use spPCR to 1) map a GAL4 enhancer trap located inside a natural transposon, pinpointing a master regulatory region for olfactory neuron expression in the brain; and 2) map all commonly used centromeric FRT insertion sites. The ease, efficiency, and efficacy of spPCR could make it a favored choice for the mapping of transposable element in Drosophila.