Genetic and molecular characterization of the maize rp3 rust resistance locus.
ABSTRACT: In maize, the Rp3 gene confers resistance to common rust caused by Puccinia sorghi. Flanking marker analysis of rust-susceptible rp3 variants suggested that most of them arose via unequal crossing over, indicating that rp3 is a complex locus like rp1. The PIC13 probe identifies a nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) gene family that maps to the complex. Rp3 variants show losses of PIC13 family members relative to the resistant parents when probed with PIC13, indicating that the Rp3 gene is a member of this family. Gel blots and sequence analysis suggest that at least 9 family members are at the locus in most Rp3-carrying lines and that at least 5 of these are transcribed in the Rp3-A haplotype. The coding regions of 14 family members, isolated from three different Rp3-carrying haplotypes, had DNA sequence identities from 93 to 99%. Partial sequencing of clones of a BAC contig spanning the rp3 locus in the maize inbred line B73 identified five different PIC13 paralogues in a region of approximately 140 kb.
Project description:The maize Rp1 rust resistance locus is a complex consisting of a family of closely related resistance genes. The number of Rp1 paralogs in different maize lines (haplotypes) varied from a single gene in some stocks of the inbred A188 to >50 genes in haplotypes carrying the Rp1-A and Rp1-H specificities. The sequences of paralogs in unrelated haplotypes differ, indicating that the genetic diversity of Rp1-related genes is extremely broad in maize. Two unrelated haplotypes with five or nine paralogs had identical resistance phenotypes (Rp1-D) encoded in genes that differed by three nucleotides resulting in a single amino acid substitution. Genes in some haplotypes are more similar to each other than to any of the genes in other haplotypes indicating that they are evolving in a concerted fashion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rp1 is a complex locus of maize, which carries a set of genes controlling race-specific resistance to the common rust fungus, Puccinia sorghi. The resistance response includes the "Hypersensitive response" (HR), a rapid response triggered by a pathogen recognition event that includes localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration and the induction of pathogenesis associated genes. The Rp1-D21gene is an autoactive allelic variant at the Rp1 locus, causing spontaneous activation of the HR response, in the absence of pathogenesis. Previously we have shown that the severity of the phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 is highly dependent on genetic background. RESULTS: In this study we show that the phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 is highly dependent on temperature, with lower temperatures favoring the expression of the HR lesion phenotype. This temperature effect was observed in all the 14 genetic backgrounds tested. Significant interactions between the temperature effects and genetic background were observed. When plants were grown at temperatures above 30°C, the spontaneous HR phenotype conferred by Rp1-D21 was entirely suppressed. Furthermore, this phenotype could be restored or suppressed by alternately reducing and increasing the temperature appropriately. Light was also required for the expression of this phenotype. By examining the expression of genes associated with the defense response we showed that, at temperatures above 30°C, the Rp1-D21 phenotype was suppressed at both the phenotypic and molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that the lesion phenotype conferred by maize autoactive resistance gene Rp1-D21 is temperature sensitive in a reversible manner, that the temperature-sensitivity phenotype interacts with genetic background and that the phenotype is light sensitive. This is the first detailed demonstration of this phenomenon in monocots and also the first demonstration of the interaction of this effect with genetic background. The use of temperature shifts to induce a massive and synchronous HR in plants carrying the Rp1-D21 genes will be valuable in identifying components of the defense response pathway.
Project description:Rp1 is a complex rust resistance locus of maize. The HRp1-D haplotype is composed of Rp1-D and eight paralogues, seven of which also code for predicted nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins similar to the Rp1-D gene. The paralogues are polymorphic (DNA identities 91-97%), especially in the C-terminal LRR domain. The remaining family member encodes a truncated protein that has no LRR domain. Seven of the nine family members, including the truncated gene, are transcribed. Sequence comparisons between paralogues provide evidence for past recombination events between paralogues and diversifying selection, particularly in the C-terminal half of the LRR domain. Variants selected for complete or partial loss of Rp1-D resistance can be explained by unequal crossing over that occurred mostly within coding regions. The Rp1-D gene is altered or lost in all variants, the recombination breakpoints occur throughout the genes, and most recombinant events (9/14 examined) involved the same untranscribed paralogue with the Rp1-D gene. One recombinant with a complete LRR from Rp1-D, but the amino-terminal portion from another homologue, conferred the Rp1-D specificity but with a reduced level of resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Common rust, caused by Puccinia sorghi, is an important foliar disease of maize that has been associated with up to 50% grain yield loss. Development of resistant maize germplasm is the ideal strategy to combat P. sorghi. RESULTS:Association mapping performed using a mixed linear model (MLM), integrating population structure and family relatedness identified 25 QTL (P?<?3.12?×?10-?5) that were associated with resistance to common rust and distributed on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, and 10. We identified three QTLs associated with all three disease parameters (final disease rating, mean disease rating, and area under disease progress curve) located on chromosomes 1, 3, and 8. A total of 5 QTLs for resistance to common rust were identified in the RIL population. Nine candidate genes located on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, and 10 for resistance to common rust associated loci were identified through detailed annotation. CONCLUSIONS:Using a diverse set of inbred lines genotyped with high density markers and evaluated for common rust resistance in multiple environments, it was possible to identify QTL significantly associated with resistance to common rust and several candidate genes. The results point to the need for fine mapping common rust resistance by targeting regions identified in common between this study and others using diverse germplasm.
Project description:Downy mildew (DM) is a major disease of maize that causes significant yield loss in subtropical and tropical regions around the world. A variety of DM strains have been reported, and the resistance to them is polygenically controlled. In this study, we analyzed the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in resistance to Peronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum DM), P. maydis (Java DM), and Sclerophthora macrospora (crazy top DM) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) from a cross between B73 (susceptible) and Ki11 (resistant), and the candidate genes for P. sorghi, P. maydis, and S. macrospora resistance were discovered. The linkage map was constructed with 234 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers, which was identified seven QTLs (chromosomes 2, 3, 6, and 9) for three DM strains. The major QTL, located on chromosome 2, consists of 12.95% of phenotypic variation explained (PVE) and a logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 14.12. Sixty-two candidate genes for P. sorghi, P. maydis, and S. macrospora resistance were obtained between the flanked markers in the QTL regions. The relative expression level of candidate genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using resistant (CML228, Ki3, and Ki11) and susceptible (B73 and CML270) genotypes. For the 62 candidate genes, 15 genes were upregulated in resistant genotypes. Among these, three (GRMZM2G028643, GRMZM2G128315, and GRMZM2G330907) and AC210003.2_FG004 were annotated as leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and peroxidase (POX) genes, respectively. These candidate genes in the QTL regions provide valuable information for further studies related to P. sorghi, P. maydis, and S. macrospora resistance.
Project description:Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus rp1. Multiple Rp1 accessions with distinct rp1 haplotypes in an otherwise susceptible accession exhibited hypersensitive responses upon inoculation. GW provides an excellent system for the genetic dissection of diseases caused by closely related subspecies of C. michiganesis. Further work will facilitate breeding strategies to control GW and provide needed insight into the resistance mechanism of important related diseases such as bacterial canker of tomato and bacterial ring rot of potato.
Project description:Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.
Project description:As an ancient segmental tetraploid, the maize (Zea mays L.) genome contains large numbers of paralogs that are expected to have diverged by a minimum of 10% over time. Nearly identical paralogs (NIPs) are defined as paralogous genes that exhibit > or = 98% identity. Sequence analyses of the "gene space" of the maize inbred line B73 genome, coupled with wet lab validation, have revealed that, conservatively, at least approximately 1% of maize genes have a NIP, a rate substantially higher than that in Arabidopsis. In most instances, both members of maize NIP pairs are expressed and are therefore at least potentially functional. Of evolutionary significance, members of many NIP families also exhibit differential expression. The finding that some families of maize NIPs are closely linked genetically while others are genetically unlinked is consistent with multiple modes of origin. NIPs provide a mechanism for the maize genome to circumvent the inherent limitation that diploid genomes can carry at most two "alleles" per "locus." As such, NIPs may have played important roles during the evolution and domestication of maize and may contribute to the success of long-term selection experiments in this important crop species.
Project description:Divergence of abundant genomic elements among the Zea and Tripsacum genera was examined cytologically and a tool kit established for subsequent studies. The LTR regions from the CRM, Huck, Grande, Prem1, Prem2/Ji, Opie, Cinful-1, and Tekay retroelement families were used as FISH probes on mitotic chromosome spreads from a "trispecies" hybrid containing chromosomes from each of three species: Zea mays (2n = 20), Z. diploperennis (2n = 20), and Tripsacum dactyloides (2n = 36). Except for Tekay, which painted both Zea and Tripsacum chromosomes with nearly equal intensity, the retroelement probes hybridized strongly to the Zea chromosomes, allowing them to be distinguished from those of Tripsacum. Huck and Grande hybridized more intensely to maize than to Z. diploperennis chromosomes. Tripsacum genomic clones containing retroelement sequences were isolated that specifically paint Tripsacum chromosomes. The retroelement paints proved effective for distinguishing different genomes in interspecific hybrids and visualizing alien chromatin from T. dactyloides introgressed into maize lines. Other FISH probes (180-bp knob, TR-1, 5S, NOR, Cent4, CentC, rp1, rp3, and alpha-ZeinA) could be simultaneously visualized with the retroelement probes, emphasizing the value of the retroelement probes for cytogenetic studies of Zea and Tripsacum.
Project description:The reduced acylation phenotype describes the inability of certain accessions of maize (Zea mays [L]) to produce significant amounts of acylated anthocyanins, which are typically the most abundant pigments. Acylated anthocyanins are important for their association with stability and are therefore important for the various industries using anthocyanins as natural colorants to replace synthetic dyes. Many anthocyanin acyltransferases have been characterized in other species; however, no anthocyanin acyltransferases have been characterized in maize. Therefore, a mapping population was developed from a cross between mutant stock 707G and wild-type acylation line B73 to identify the locus associated with the reduced acylation trait. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assay the pigment content and composition of 129 F2 lines generated in the mapping population. Recessive alleles of Colorless1, Colored1, and the reduced acylation mutant all decreased anthocyanin content while Intensifier1 increased anthocyanin content in aleurone tissue. The association of increased proportions of acylation with increased anthocyanin content indicates acylation may be important for increasing the stability of anthocyanins in vivo Genotyping-by-sequencing was used to create SNP markers to map the reduced acylation locus. In the QTL analysis, a segment of Chromosome 1 containing transferase family protein GRMZM2G387394 was found to be significant. A UniformMu Mu transposon knockout of GRMZM2G387394 demonstrated this gene has anthocyanidin malonyltransferase activity and will therefore be named Anthocyanin Acyltransferase1 (AAT1). AAT1 is the first anthocyanin acyltransferase characterized in a monocot species and will increase our knowledge of all acyltransferase family members.