Inadequate histone deacetylation during oocyte meiosis causes aneuploidy and embryo death in mice.
ABSTRACT: Errors in meiotic chromosome segregation are the leading cause of spontaneous abortions and birth defects. Almost all such aneuploidy derives from meiotic errors in females, with increasing maternal age representing a major risk factor. It was recently reported that histones are globally deacetylated in mammalian oocytes during meiosis but not mitosis. In the present study, inhibition of meiotic histone deacetylation was found to induce aneuploidy in fertilized mouse oocytes, which resulted in embryonic death in utero at an early stage of development. In addition, a histone remained acetylated in the oocytes of older (10-month-old) female mice, suggesting that the function for histone deacetylation is decreased in the oocytes of such mice. Thus, histone deacetylation may be involved in the fair distribution of chromosomes during meiotic division. The high incidence of aneuploidy in the embryos of older females may be due to inadequate meiotic histone deacetylation.
Project description:During mouse oocyte maturation histones are deacetylated, and inhibiting this deacetylation leads to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. RBBP7 is a component of several different complexes that contain histone deacetylases, and therefore could be implicated in histone deacetylation. We find that Rbbp7 is a dormant maternal mRNA that is recruited for translation during oocyte maturation to regulate the histone deacetylation. Importantly, we show that the maturation-associated decrease of histone acetylation is required for localization and function of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) during oocyte meiotic maturation. This finding can explain the phenotypes of oocytes where Rbbp7 is depleted by an siRNA/morpholino cocktail including severe chromosome misalignment, improper kinetochore-microtubule attachments, impaired SAC function, cytokinesis defects, and increased incidence of aneuploidy at metaphase II (Met II). These results implicate RBBP7 as a novel regulator of histone deacetylation during oocyte maturation and provide evidence that such deacetylation is required for proper chromosome segregation by regulating localized CPC function.
Project description:It has been widely reported that advanced maternal age impairs oocyte quality. To date, various molecules have been discovered to be involved in this process. However, prevention of fertility issues associated with maternal age is still a challenge. In the present study, we find that both in vitro supplement and in vivo administration of melatonin are capable of alleviating the meiotic phenotypes of aged oocytes, specifically the spindle/chromosome disorganization and aneuploidy generation. Furthermore, we identify SIRT2 as a critical effector mediating the effects of melatonin on meiotic structure in old oocytes. Candidate screening shows that SIRT2-controlled deacetylation of histone H4K16 is essential for maintaining the meiotic apparatus in oocytes. Importantly, non-acetylatable-mimetic mutant H4K16R partially rescues the meiotic deficits in oocytes from reproductive aged mice. In contrast, overexpression of acetylation-mimetic mutant H4K16Q abolishes the beneficial effects of melatonin on the meiotic phenotypes in aged oocytes. To sum up, our data uncover that melatonin alleviates advanced maternal aged-associated meiotic defects in oocytes through the SIRT2-depenendet H4K16 deacetylation pathway.
Project description:Changes in histone acetylation occur during oocyte development and maturation, but the role of specific histone deacetylases in these processes is poorly defined. We report here that mice harboring Hdac1(-/+)/Hdac2(-/-) or Hdac2(-/-) oocytes are infertile or sub-fertile, respectively. Depleting maternal HDAC2 results in hyperacetylation of H4K16 as determined by immunocytochemistry--normal deacetylation of other lysine residues of histone H3 or H4 is observed--and defective chromosome condensation and segregation during oocyte maturation occurs in a sub-population of oocytes. The resulting increased incidence of aneuploidy likely accounts for the observed sub-fertility of mice harboring Hdac2(-/-) oocytes. The infertility of mice harboring Hdac1(-/+)/Hdac2(-/-)oocytes is attributed to failure of those few eggs that properly mature to metaphase II to initiate DNA replication following fertilization. The increased amount of acetylated H4K16 likely impairs kinetochore function in oocytes lacking HDAC2 because kinetochores in mutant oocytes are less able to form cold-stable microtubule attachments and less CENP-A is located at the centromere. These results implicate HDAC2 as the major HDAC that regulates global histone acetylation during oocyte development and, furthermore, suggest HDAC2 is largely responsible for the deacetylation of H4K16 during maturation. In addition, the results provide additional support that histone deacetylation that occurs during oocyte maturation is critical for proper chromosome segregation.
Project description:Meiosis in human oocytes is a highly error-prone process with profound effects on germ cell and embryo development. The synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) transiently supports the structural organization of the meiotic chromosome axis. Offspring derived from murine Sycp3(-)(/)(-) females die in utero as a result of aneuploidy. We studied the nature of the proximal chromosomal defects that give rise to aneuploidy in Sycp3(-)(/)(-) oocytes and how these errors evade meiotic quality control mechanisms. We show that DNA double-stranded breaks are inefficiently repaired in Sycp3(-)(/)(-) oocytes, thereby generating a temporal spectrum of recombination errors. This is indicated by a strong residual gammaH2AX labeling retained at late meiotic stages in mutant oocytes and an increased persistence of recombination-related proteins associated with meiotic chromosomes. Although a majority of the mutant oocytes are rapidly eliminated at early postnatal development, a subset with a small number of unfinished crossovers evades the DNA damage checkpoint, resulting in the formation of aneuploid gametes.
Project description:Meiosis I (MI), the division that generates haploids, is prone to errors that lead to aneuploidy in females. Haspin is a kinase that phosphorylates histone H3 on threonine 3, thereby recruiting Aurora kinase B (AURKB) and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to kinetochores to regulate mitosis. Haspin and AURKC, an AURKB homolog, are enriched in germ cells, yet their significance in regulating MI is not fully understood. Using inhibitors and overexpression approaches, we show a role for haspin during MI in mouse oocytes. Haspin-perturbed oocytes display abnormalities in chromosome morphology and alignment, improper kinetochore-microtubule attachments at metaphase I and aneuploidy at metaphase II. Unlike in mitosis, kinetochore localization remained intact, whereas the distribution of the CPC along chromosomes was absent. The meiotic defects following haspin inhibition were similar to those observed in oocytes where AURKC was inhibited, suggesting that the correction of microtubule attachments during MI requires AURKC along chromosome arms rather than at kinetochores. Our data implicate haspin as a regulator of the CPC and chromosome segregation during MI, while highlighting important differences in how chromosome segregation is regulated between MI and mitosis.
Project description:The rate of chromosome segregation errors that emerge during meiosis I in the mammalian female germ line are known to increase with maternal age; however, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. The objective of this study was to analyze meiotic progression of mouse oocytes in relation to maternal age. Using the mouse as a model system, we analyzed the timing of nuclear envelope breakdown and the morphology of the nuclear lamina of oocytes obtained from young (2 months old) and aged females (12 months old). Oocytes obtained from older females display a significantly faster progression through meiosis I compared to the ones obtained from younger females. Furthermore, in oocytes from aged females, lamin A/C structures exhibit rapid phosphorylation and dissociation. Additionally, we also found an increased abundance of MPF components and increased translation of factors controlling translational activity in the oocytes of aged females. In conclusion, the elevated MPF activity observed in aged female oocytes affects precocious meiotic processes that can multifactorially contribute to chromosomal errors in meiosis I.
Project description:Advanced reproductive age is unequivocally associated with increased aneuploidy in human oocytes, which contributes to infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects. The frequency of meiotic chromosome segregation errors in oocytes derived from reproductively aged mice appears to be similar to that observed in humans, but a limitation of this important model system is our inability to accurately identify chromosome-specific aneuploidy. Here we report the validation and application of a new low-pass whole-genome sequencing approach to comprehensively screen chromosome aneuploidy in individual mouse oocytes and blastocysts. First, we validated this approach by using single mouse embryonic fibroblasts engineered to have stable trisomy 16. We further validated this method by identifying reciprocal chromosome segregation errors in the products of meiosis I (gamete and polar body) in oocytes from reproductively aged mice. Finally, we applied this technology to investigate the incidence of aneuploidy in blastocysts derived from in vitro- and in vivo-matured oocytes in both young and reproductively aged mice. Using this next generation sequencing approach, we quantitatively assessed meiotic and mitotic segregation errors at the single chromosome level, distinguished between errors due to premature separation of sister chromatids and classical nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes, and quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation in individual cells. This whole-genome sequencing technique, therefore, greatly improves the utility of the mouse model system for the study of aneuploidy and is a powerful quantitative tool with which to examine the molecular underpinnings of mammalian gamete and early embryo chromosome segregation in the context of reproductive aging and beyond.
Project description:Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and several genetic disorders such as Down syndrome. Most aneuploidy results from chromosome segregation errors during the meiotic divisions of an oocyte, the egg's progenitor cell. The basis for particularly error-prone chromosome segregation in human oocytes is not known. We analyzed meiosis in more than 100 live human oocytes and identified an error-prone chromosome-mediated spindle assembly mechanism as a major contributor to chromosome segregation defects. Human oocytes assembled a meiotic spindle independently of either centrosomes or other microtubule organizing centers. Instead, spindle assembly was mediated by chromosomes and the small guanosine triphosphatase Ran in a process requiring ~16 hours. This unusually long spindle assembly period was marked by intrinsic spindle instability and abnormal kinetochore-microtubule attachments, which favor chromosome segregation errors and provide a possible explanation for high rates of aneuploidy in human eggs.
Project description:Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here, we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.
Project description:In humans, ~50% of conceptuses are chromosomally aneuploid as a consequence of errors in meiosis, and most of these aneuploid conceptuses result in spontaneous miscarriage. Of these aneuploidy events, 70% originate during maternal meiosis, with the majority proposed to arise as a direct result of defective crossing over during meiotic recombination in prophase I. By contrast, <1%-2% of mouse germ cells exhibit prophase I-related nondisjunction events. This disparity among mammalian species is surprising, given the conservation of genes and events that regulate meiotic progression. To understand the mechanisms that might be responsible for the high error rates seen in human females, we sought to further elucidate the regulation of meiotic prophase I at the molecular cytogenetic level. Given that these events occur during embryonic development in females, samples were obtained during a defined period of gestation (17-24 weeks). Here, we demonstrate that human oocytes enter meiotic prophase I and progress through early recombination events in a similar temporal framework to mice. However, at pachynema, when chromosomes are fully paired, we find significant heterogeneity in the localization of the MutL homologs, MLH1 and MLH3, among human oocyte populations. MLH1 and MLH3 have been shown to mark late-meiotic nodules that correlate well with--and are thought to give rise to--the sites of reciprocal recombination between homologous chromosomes, which suggests a possible 10-fold variation in the processing of nascent recombination events. If such variability persists through development and into adulthood, these data would suggest that as many as 30% of human oocytes are predisposed to aneuploidy as a result of prophase I defects in MutL homolog-related events.