The coiled-coil domain of the Nop56/58 core protein is dispensable for sRNP assembly but is critical for archaeal box C/D sRNP-guided nucleotide methylation.
ABSTRACT: Archaeal box C/D sRNAs guide the methylation of specific nucleotides in archaeal ribosomal and tRNAs. Three Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sRNP core proteins (ribosomal protein L7, Nop56/58, and fibrillarin) bind the box C/D sRNAs to assemble the sRNP complex, and these core proteins are essential for nucleotide methylation. A distinguishing feature of the Nop56/58 core protein is the coiled-coil domain, established by alpha-helices 4 and 5, that facilitates Nop56/58 self-dimerization in vitro. The function of this coiled-coil domain has been assessed for box C/D sRNP assembly, sRNP structure, and sRNP-guided nucleotide methylation by mutating or deleting this protein domain. Protein pull-down experiments demonstrated that Nop56/58 self-dimerization and Nop56/58 dimerization with the core protein fibrillarin are mutually exclusive protein:protein interactions. Disruption of Nop56/58 homodimerization by alteration of specific amino acids or deletion of the entire coiled-coil domain had no obvious effect upon core protein binding and sRNP assembly. Site-directed mutation of the Nop56/58 homodimerization domain also had no apparent effect upon either box C/D RNP- or C'/D' RNP-guided nucleotide modification. However, deletion of this domain disrupted guided methylation from both RNP complexes. Nuclease probing of the sRNP assembled with Nop56/58 proteins mutated in the coiled-coil domain indicated that while functional complexes were assembled, box C/D and C'/D' RNPs were altered in structure. Collectively, these experiments revealed that the self-dimerization of the Nop56/58 coiled-coil domain is not required for assembly of a functional sRNP, but the coiled-coil domain is important for the establishment of wild-type box C/D and C'/D' RNP structure essential for nucleotide methylation.
Project description:Box C/D RNA-protein complexes (RNPs) guide the 2'-O-methylation of nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic ribosomal RNAs. The archaeal box C/D and C'/D' RNP subcomplexes are each assembled with three sRNP core proteins. The archaeal Nop56/58 core protein mediates crucial protein-protein interactions required for both sRNP assembly and the methyltransferase reaction by bridging the L7Ae and fibrillarin core proteins. The interaction of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mj) Nop56/58 with the methyltransferase fibrillarin has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids in the N-terminal domain of Nop56/58 that interacts with fibrillarin. Extensive mutagenesis revealed an unusually strong Nop56/58-fibrillarin interaction. Only deletion of the NTD itself prevented dimerization with fibrillarin. The extreme stability of the Nop56/58-fibrillarin heterodimer was confirmed in both chemical and thermal denaturation analyses. However, mutations that did not affect Nop56/58 binding to fibrillarin or sRNP assembly nevertheless disrupted sRNP-guided nucleotide modification, revealing a role for Nop56/58 in methyltransferase activity. This conclusion was supported with the cross-linking of Nop56/58 to the target RNA substrate. The Mj Nop56/58 NTD was further characterized by solving its three-dimensional crystal structure to a resolution of 1.7 Å. Despite low primary sequence conservation among the archaeal Nop56/58 homologs, the overall structure of the archaeal NTD domain is very well conserved. In conclusion, the archaeal Nop56/58 NTD exhibits a conserved domain structure whose exceptionally stable interaction with fibrillarin plays a role in both RNP assembly and methyltransferase activity.
Project description:Box C/D small nucleolar and Cajal body ribonucleoprotein particles (sno/scaRNPs) direct site-specific 2'-O-methylation of ribosomal and spliceosomal RNAs and are critical for gene expression. Here we report crystal structures of an archaeal box C/D RNP containing three core proteins (fibrillarin, Nop56/58, and L7Ae) and a half-mer box C/D guide RNA paired with a substrate RNA. The structure reveals a guide-substrate RNA duplex orientation imposed by a composite protein surface and the conserved GAEK motif of Nop56/58. Molecular modeling supports a dual C/D RNP structure that closely mimics that recently visualized by electron microscopy. The substrate-bound dual RNP model predicts an asymmetric protein distribution between the RNP that binds and methylates the substrate RNA. The predicted asymmetric nature of the holoenzyme is consistent with previous biochemical data on RNP assembly and provides a simple solution for accommodating base-pairing between the C/D guide RNA and large ribosomal and spliceosomal substrate RNAs.
Project description:Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles guide the 2'-O-ribose methylation of target nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic RNAs. These complexes contain two functional centers, assembled around the C/D and C'/D' motifs in the box C/D RNA. The C/D and C'/D' RNPs of the archaeal snoRNA-like RNP (sRNP) are spatially and functionally coupled. Here, we show that similar coupling also occurs in eukaryotic box C/D snoRNPs. The C/D RNP guided 2'-O-methylation when the C'/D' motif was either mutated or ablated. In contrast, the C'/D' RNP was inactive as an independent complex. Additional experiments demonstrated that the internal C'/D' RNP is spatially coupled to the terminal box C/D complex. Pulldown experiments also indicated that all four core proteins are independently recruited to the box C/D and C'/D' motifs. Therefore, the spatial-functional coupling of box C/D and C'/D' RNPs is an evolutionarily conserved feature of both archaeal and eukaryotic box C/D RNP complexes.
Project description:MuRF1 (TRIM63) is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase with a predicted tripartite TRIM fold. TRIM proteins rely upon the correct placement of an N-terminal RING domain, with respect to C-terminal, specific substrate-binding domains. The TRIM domain organization is orchestrated by a central helical domain that forms an antiparallel coiled-coil motif and mediates the dimerization of the fold. MuRF1 has a reduced TRIM composition characterized by a lack of specific substrate binding domains, but contains in its helical domain a conserved sequence motif termed COS-box that has been speculated to fold independently into an ?-hairpin. These characteristics had led to question whether MuRF1 adopts a canonical TRIM fold. Using a combination of electron paramagnetic resonance, on spin-labeled protein, and disulfide crosslinking, we show that TRIM63 follows the structural conservation of the TRIM dimerization domain, observed in other proteins. We also show that the COS-box motif folds back onto the dimerization coiled-coil motif, predictably forming a four-helical bundle at the center of the protein and emulating the architecture of canonical TRIMs.
Project description:Box C/D small (nucleolar) ribonucleoproteins [s(no)RNPs] catalyze RNA-guided 2'-O-ribose methylation in two of the three domains of life. Recent structural studies have led to a controversy over whether box C/D sRNPs functionally assemble as monomeric or dimeric macromolecules. The archaeal box C/D sRNP from Methanococcus jannaschii (Mj) has been shown by glycerol gradient sedimentation, gel filtration chromatography, native gel analysis, and single-particle electron microscopy (EM) to adopt a di-sRNP architecture, containing four copies of each box C/D core protein and two copies of the Mj sR8 sRNA. Subsequently, investigators used a two-stranded artificial guide sRNA, CD45, to assemble a box C/D sRNP from Sulfolobus solfataricus with a short RNA methylation substrate, yielding a crystal structure of a mono-sRNP. To more closely examine box C/D sRNP architecture, we investigate the role of the omnipresent sRNA loop as a structural determinant of sRNP assembly. We show through sRNA mutagenesis, native gel electrophoresis, and single-particle EM that a di-sRNP is the near exclusive architecture obtained when reconstituting box C/D sRNPs with natural or artificial sRNAs containing an internal loop. Our results span three distantly related archaeal species--Sulfolobus solfataricus, Pyrococcus abyssi, and Archaeoglobus fulgidus--indicating that the di-sRNP architecture is broadly conserved across the entire archaeal domain.
Project description:Recent investigations have identified homologs of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in Archaea termed sRNAs. Archaeal homologs of the box C/D snoRNP core proteins fibrillarin and Nop56/58 have also been identified but a homolog for the eukaryotic 15.5kD snoRNP protein has not been described. Our sequence analysis of archaeal genomes reveals that the highly conserved ribosomal protein L7 exhibits extensive homology with the eukaryotic 15.5kD protein. Protein binding studies demonstrate that recombinant Methanoccocus jannaschii L7 protein binds the box C/D snoRNA core motif with the same specificity and affinity as the eukaryotic 15.5kD protein. Identical to the eukaryotic 15.5kD core protein, archaeal L7 requires a correctly folded box C/D core motif and intact boxes C and D. Mutational analysis demonstrates that critical features of the box C/D core motif essential for 15.5kD binding are also required for L7 interaction. These include stem I which juxtaposes boxes C and D, as well as the sheared G:A pairs and protruded pyrimidine nucleotide of the asymmetric bulge region. The demonstrated presence of L7Ae in the Haloarcula marismortui 50S ribosomal subunit, taken with our demonstration of the ability of L7 to bind to the box C/D snoRNA core motif, indicates that this protein serves a dual role in Archaea. L7 functioning as both an sRNP core protein and a ribosomal protein could potentially regulate and coordinate sRNP assembly with ribosome biogenesis.
Project description:Box C/D RNA protein complexes (RNPs) catalyze site-specific 2'-O-methylation of RNA with specificity determined by guide RNAs. In eukaryotic C/D RNP, the paralogous Nop58 and Nop56 proteins specifically associate with terminal C/D and internal C'/D' motifs of guide RNAs, respectively. We have reconstituted active C/D RNPs with recombinant proteins of the thermophilic yeast Chaetomium thermophilum. Nop58 and Nop56 could not distinguish between the two C/D motifs in the reconstituted enzyme, suggesting that the assembly specificity is imposed by trans-acting factors in vivo. The two C/D motifs are functionally independent and halfmer C/D RNAs can also guide site-specific methylation. Extensive pairing between C/D RNA and substrate is inhibitory to modification for both yeast and archaeal C/D RNPs. N6-methylated adenine at box D/D' interferes with the function of the coupled guide. Our data show that all C/D RNPs share the same functional organization and mechanism of action and provide insight into the assembly specificity of eukaryotic C/D RNPs.
Project description:MukB, a divergent structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein, is important for chromosomal segregation and condensation in gamma-proteobacteria. MukB and canonical SMC proteins share a characteristic five-domain structure. Globular N- and C-terminal domains interact to form an ATP-binding cassette-like ATPase or "head" domain, which is connected to a smaller dimerization or "hinge" domain by a long, antiparallel coiled coil. In addition to mediating dimerization, this hinge region has been implicated in both conformational flexibility and dynamic protein-DNA interactions. We report here the first crystallographic model of the MukB hinge domain. This model also contains approximately 20% of the coiled-coil domain, including an unusual coiled-coil deviation. These results will facilitate studies to clarify the roles of both the hinge and the coiled-coil domains in MukB function.
Project description:Processive movements of unconventional myosins on actin filaments generally require motor dimerization. A commonly accepted myosin dimerization mechanism is via formation of a parallel coiled-coil dimer by a stretch of amino acid residues immediately carboxyl-terminal to the motor's lever-arm domain. Here, we discover that the predicted coiled-coil region of myosin X forms a highly stable, antiparallel coiled-coil dimer (anti-CC). Disruption of the anti-CC either by single-point mutations or by replacement of the anti-CC with a parallel coiled coil with a similar length compromised the filopodial induction activity of myosin X. We further show that the anti-CC and the single ?-helical domain of myosin X are connected by a semirigid helical linker. The anti-CC-mediated dimerization may enable myosin X to walk on both single and bundled actin filaments.
Project description:Protein-protein and protein-substrate interactions are critical to function and often depend on factors that are difficult to disentangle. Herein, a combined biochemical and biophysical approach, based on electrically switchable DNA biochips and single-molecule mass analysis, was used to characterize the DNA binding and protein oligomerization of the transcription factor, forkhead box protein?P2 (FOXP2). FOXP2 contains domains commonly involved in nucleic-acid binding and protein oligomerization, such as a C2 H2 -zinc finger (ZF), and a leucine zipper (LZ), whose roles in FOXP2 remain largely unknown. We found that the LZ mediates FOXP2 dimerization via coiled-coil formation but also contributes to DNA binding. The ZF contributes to protein dimerization when the LZ coiled-coil is intact, but it is not involved in DNA binding. The forkhead domain (FHD) is the key driver of DNA binding. Our data contributes to understanding the mechanisms behind the transcriptional activity of FOXP2.