A 3347-locus genetic recombination map of sequence-tagged sites reveals features of genome organization, transmission and evolution of cotton (Gossypium).
ABSTRACT: We report genetic maps for diploid (D) and tetraploid (AtDt) Gossypium genomes composed of sequence-tagged sites (STS) that foster structural, functional, and evolutionary genomic studies. The maps include, respectively, 2584 loci at 1.72-cM ( approximately 600 kb) intervals based on 2007 probes (AtDt) and 763 loci at 1.96-cM ( approximately 500 kb) intervals detected by 662 probes (D). Both diploid and tetraploid cottons exhibit negative crossover interference; i.e., double recombinants are unexpectedly abundant. We found no major structural changes between Dt and D chromosomes, but confirmed two reciprocal translocations between At chromosomes and several inversions. Concentrations of probes in corresponding regions of the various genomes may represent centromeres, while genome-specific concentrations may represent heterochromatin. Locus duplication patterns reveal all 13 expected homeologous chromosome sets and lend new support to the possibility that a more ancient polyploidization event may have predated the A-D divergence of 6-11 million years ago. Identification of SSRs within 312 RFLP sequences plus direct mapping of 124 SSRs and exploration for CAPS and SNPs illustrate the "portability" of these STS loci across populations and detection systems useful for marker-assisted improvement of the world's leading fiber crop. These data provide new insights into polyploid evolution and represent a foundation for assembly of a finished sequence of the cotton genome.
Project description:Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (P genome) is cultivated as pasture fodder and can provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. With the development of genomics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology, probes for identifying plant chromosomes were also developed. However, there are few reports on A. cristatum chromosomes. Here, FISH with the repeated sequences pAcTRT1 and pAcpCR2 enabled the identification of all diploid A. cristatum chromosomes. An integrated idiogram of A. cristatum chromosomes was constructed based on the FISH patterns of five diploid A. cristatum individuals. Structural polymorphisms of homologous chromosomes were observed not only among different individuals but also within individuals. Moreover, seventeen wheat-A. cristatum introgression lines containing different P genome chromosomes were identified with pAcTRT1 and pAcpCR2 probes. The arrangement of chromosomes in diploid A. cristatum was determined by identifying correspondence between the P chromosomes in these genetically identified introgression lines and diploid A. cristatum chromosomes. The two probes were also effective for discriminating all chromosomes of tetraploid A. cristatum, and the differences between two tetraploid A. cristatum accessions were similar to the polymorphisms among individuals of diploid A. cristatum. Collectively, the results provide an effective means for chromosome identification and phylogenetic studies of P genome chromosomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has and continues to be an important research goal to facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection in breeding. Even though a few maps have been developed, they were constructed using diploid or interspecific tetraploid populations. The most recently published intra-specific map was constructed from the cross of cultivated peanuts, in which only 135 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were sparsely populated in 22 linkage groups. The more detailed linkage map with sufficient markers is necessary to be feasible for QTL identification and marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a genetic linkage map of cultivated peanut using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived primarily from peanut genomic sequences, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and by "data mining" sequences released in GenBank.<h4>Results</h4>Three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations were constructed from three crosses with one common female parental line Yueyou 13, a high yielding Spanish market type. The four parents were screened with 1044 primer pairs designed to amplify SSRs and 901 primer pairs produced clear PCR products. Of the 901 primer pairs, 146, 124 and 64 primer pairs (markers) were polymorphic in these populations, respectively, and used in genotyping these RIL populations. Individual linkage maps were constructed from each of the three populations and a composite map based on 93 common loci were created using JoinMap. The composite linkage maps consist of 22 composite linkage groups (LG) with 175 SSR markers (including 47 SSRs on the published AA genome maps), representing the 20 chromosomes of A. hypogaea. The total composite map length is 885.4 cM, with an average marker density of 5.8 cM. Segregation distortion in the 3 populations was 23.0%, 13.5% and 7.8% of the markers, respectively. These distorted loci tended to cluster on LG1, LG3, LG4 and LG5. There were only 15 EST-SSR markers mapped due to low polymorphism. By comparison, there were potential synteny, collinear order of some markers and conservation of collinear linkage groups among the maps and with the AA genome but not fully conservative.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A composite linkage map was constructed from three individual mapping populations with 175 SSR markers in 22 composite linkage groups. This composite genetic linkage map is among the first "true" tetraploid peanut maps produced. This map also consists of 47 SSRs that have been used in the published AA genome maps, and could be used in comparative mapping studies. The primers described in this study are PCR-based markers, which are easy to share for genetic mapping in peanuts. All 1044 primer pairs are provided as additional files and the three RIL populations will be made available to public upon request for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and linkage map improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Triticum monococcum (2n = 2x = 14) is an ancient diploid wheat with many useful traits and is used as a model for wheat gene discovery. DArT (Diversity Arrays Technology) employs a hybridisation-based approach to type thousands of genomic loci in parallel. DArT markers were developed for T. monococcum to assess genetic diversity, compare relationships with hexaploid genomes, and construct a genetic linkage map integrating DArT and microsatellite markers. RESULTS:A DArT array, consisting of 2304 hexaploid wheat, 1536 tetraploid wheat, 1536 T. monococcum as well as 1536 T. boeoticum representative genomic clones, was used to fingerprint 16 T. monococcum accessions of diverse geographical origins. In total, 846 polymorphic DArT markers were identified, of which 317 were of T. monococcum origin, 246 of hexaploid, 157 of tetraploid, and 126 of T. boeoticum genomes. The fingerprinting data indicated that the geographic origin of T. monococcum accessions was partially correlated with their genetic variation. DArT markers could also well distinguish the genetic differences amongst a panel of 23 hexaploid wheat and nine T. monococcum genomes. For the first time, 274 DArT markers were integrated with 82 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and two morphological trait loci in a genetic map spanning 1062.72 cM in T. monococcum. Six chromosomes were represented by single linkage groups, and chromosome 4Am was formed by three linkage groups. The DArT and SSR genetic loci tended to form independent clusters along the chromosomes. Segregation distortion was observed for one third of the DArT loci. The Ba (black awn) locus was refined to a 23.2 cM region between the DArT marker locus wPt-2584 and the microsatellite locus Xgwmd33 on 1Am; and the Hl (hairy leaf) locus to a 4.0 cM region between DArT loci 376589 and 469591 on 5Am. CONCLUSION:DArT is a rapid and efficient approach to develop many new molecular markers for genetic studies in T. monococcum. The constructed genetic linkage map will facilitate localisation and map-based cloning of genes of interest, comparative mapping as well as genome organisation and evolution studies between this ancient diploid species and other crops.
Project description:Both ancient and recent polyploidy, together with post-polyploidization loss of many duplicated gene copies, complicates angiosperm comparative genomics. To explore an approach by which these challenges might be mitigated, genetic maps of extant diploid and tetraploid cottons (Gossypium spp.) were used to infer the approximate order of 3016 loci along the chromosomes of their hypothetical common ancestor. The inferred Gossypium gene order corresponded more closely than the original maps did to a similarly inferred ancestral gene order predating an independent paleopolyploidization (alpha) in Arabidopsis. At least 59% of the cotton map and 53% of the Arabidopsis transcriptome showed correspondence in multilocus gene arrangements based on one or both of two software packages (CrimeStatII, FISH). Genomic regions in which chromosome structural rearrangement has been rapid (obscuring gene order correspondence) have also been subject to greater divergence of individual gene sequences. About 26%-44% of corresponding regions involved multiple Arabidopsis or cotton chromosomes, in some cases consistent with known, more ancient, duplications. The genomic distributions of multiple-locus probes provided early insight into the consequences for chromosome structure of an ancient large-scale duplication in cotton. Inferences that mitigate the consequences of ancient duplications improve leveraging of genomic information for model organisms in the study of more complex genomes.
Project description:Rose (Rosa sp.) is one of the most economically important ornamental crops worldwide. The present work contains a genetic linkage map for tetraploid roses that was constructed from an F1 segregation population using AFLPs and SSRs on 189 individuals. The preliminary 'Yunzheng Xiawei' and 'Sun City' maps consisted of 298 and 255 markers arranged into 26 and 32 linkage groups, respectively. The recombined parental maps covered 737 and 752 cM of the genome, respectively. The integrated linkage map was composed of 295 polymorphic markers that spanned 874 cM, and it had a mean intermarker distance of 2.9 cM. In addition, a set of newly developed EST-SSRs that are distributed evenly throughout the mapping population were released. The work identified 67 anchoring points that came from 43 common SSRs. The results that were produced from a large number of individuals (189) and polymorphic SSRs (242) will enhance the ability to construct higher density consensus maps with the available diploid level rose maps, and they will definitely serve as a tool for accurate QTL detection and marker assisted selection.
Project description:A high-density linkage map was constructed using 1,885 newly obtained loci and 3,747 previously published loci, which included 5,152 loci with 4696.03 cM in total length and 0.91 cM in mean distance. Homology analysis in the cotton genome further confirmed the 13 expected homologous chromosome pairs and revealed an obvious inversion on Chr10 or Chr20 and repeated inversions on Chr07 or Chr16. In addition, two reciprocal translocations between Chr02 and Chr03 and between Chr04 and Chr05 were confirmed. Comparative genomics between the tetraploid cotton and the diploid cottons showed that no major structural changes exist between DT and D chromosomes but rather between AT and A chromosomes. Blast analysis between the tetraploid cotton genome and the mixed genome of two diploid cottons showed that most AD chromosomes, regardless of whether it is from the AT or DT genome, preferentially matched with the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid A genome, and then the corresponding homologous chromosome in the diploid D genome, indicating that the diploid D genome underwent converted evolution by the diploid A genome to form the DT genome during polyploidization. In addition, the results reflected that a series of chromosomal translocations occurred among Chr01/Chr15, Chr02/Chr14, Chr03/Chr17, Chr04/Chr22, and Chr05/Chr19.
Project description:The complex, tetraploid genome structure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) has obstructed advances in genetics and genomics in the species. The aim of this study is to understand the genome structure of Arachis by developing a high-density integrated consensus map. Three recombinant inbred line populations derived from crosses between the A genome diploid species, Arachis duranensis and Arachis stenosperma; the B genome diploid species, Arachis ipaënsis and Arachis magna; and between the AB genome tetraploids, A. hypogaea and an artificial amphidiploid (A. ipaënsis × A. duranensis)(4×), were used to construct genetic linkage maps: 10 linkage groups (LGs) of 544 cM with 597 loci for the A genome; 10 LGs of 461 cM with 798 loci for the B genome; and 20 LGs of 1442 cM with 1469 loci for the AB genome. The resultant maps plus 13 published maps were integrated into a consensus map covering 2651 cM with 3693 marker loci which was anchored to 20 consensus LGs corresponding to the A and B genomes. The comparative genomics with genome sequences of Cajanus cajan, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, and Medicago truncatula revealed that the Arachis genome has segmented synteny relationship to the other legumes. The comparative maps in legumes, integrated tetraploid consensus maps, and genome-specific diploid maps will increase the genetic and genomic understanding of Arachis and should facilitate molecular breeding.
Project description:Polyploidy is common among flowering plants, including the Asteraceae, a relatively recent angiosperm group. EST-SSRs were used to characterize polymorphism among 29 Chrysanthemum and Ajania spp. accessions of various ploidy levels. Most EST-SSR loci were readily transferable between the species, 29 accessions were separated into three groups in terms of the number of fragments. It inferred that the formation from tetraploid to hexaploid and from octoploid to decaploid may be a recent event, while from the diploid to the tetraploid may be an ancient one in the Chrysanthemum lineage. EST-SSR polymorphism was found and some transcripts containing an SSR were transcribed differently in the de novo autotetraploid C. nankingense and C. lavandulifolium than in their progenitor diploid. EST-SSR could provide a potential molecular basis of adaptation during evolution, while whole genome duplication has a major effect on the mutational dynamics of EST-SSR loci, which could also affect gene regulation.
Project description:The genus Avena (oats) contains diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species that evolved through hybridization and polyploidization. Four genome types (named A through D) are generally recognized. We used GBS markers to construct linkage maps of A genome diploid (Avena strigosa x A. wiestii, 2n?=?14), and AB genome tetraploid (A. barbata 2n?=?28) oats. These maps greatly improve coverage from older marker systems. Seven linkage groups in the tetraploid showed much stronger homology and synteny with the A genome diploids than did the other seven, implying an allopolyploid hybrid origin of A. barbata from distinct A and B genome diploid ancestors. Inferred homeologies within A. barbata revealed that the A and B genomes are differentiated by several translocations between chromosomes within each subgenome. However, no translocation exchanges were observed between A and B genomes. Comparison to a consensus map of ACD hexaploid A. sativa (2n?=?42) revealed that the A and D genomes of A. sativa show parallel rearrangements when compared to the A genomes of the diploids and tetraploids. While intergenomic translocations are well known in polyploid Avena, our results are most parsimoniously explained if translocations also occurred in the A, B and D genome diploid ancestors of polyploid Avena.
Project description:A consensus genetic map of tetraploid cotton was constructed using six high-density maps and after the integration of a sequence-based marker redundancy check. Public cotton SSR libraries (17,343 markers) were curated for sequence redundancy using 90% as a similarity cutoff. As a result, 20% of the markers (3,410) could be considered as redundant with some other markers. The marker redundancy information had been a crucial part of the map integration process, in which the six most informative interspecific Gossypium hirsutum×G. barbadense genetic maps were used for assembling a high density consensus (HDC) map for tetraploid cotton. With redundant markers being removed, the HDC map could be constructed thanks to the sufficient number of collinear non-redundant markers in common between the component maps. The HDC map consists of 8,254 loci, originating from 6,669 markers, and spans 4,070 cM, with an average of 2 loci per cM. The HDC map presents a high rate of locus duplications, as 1,292 markers among the 6,669 were mapped in more than one locus. Two thirds of the duplications are bridging homoeologous A(T) and D(T) chromosomes constitutive of allopolyploid cotton genome, with an average of 64 duplications per A(T)/D(T) chromosome pair. Sequences of 4,744 mapped markers were used for a mutual blast alignment (BBMH) with the 13 major scaffolds of the recently released Gossypium raimondii genome indicating high level of homology between the diploid D genome and the tetraploid cotton genetic map, with only a few minor possible structural rearrangements. Overall, the HDC map will serve as a valuable resource for trait QTL comparative mapping, map-based cloning of important genes, and better understanding of the genome structure and evolution of tetraploid cotton.