Functional correlation between a novel amino acid insertion at codon 19 in the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and polymorphism in the p1/p6 Gag cleavage site in drug resistance and replication fitness.
ABSTRACT: Population-based sequence analysis revealed the presence of a variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) containing an insertion of amino acid Ile in the protease gene at codon 19 (19I) and amino acid substitutions in the protease at codons 21 (E21D) and 22 (A22V) along with multiple mutations associated with drug resistance, M46I/P63L/A71V/I84V/I93L, in a patient who had failed protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the P63L/A71V/I93L changes were present prior to PI therapy. Polymorphisms in the Gag sequence were only seen in the p1/p6 cleavage site at the P1' position (Leu to Pro) and the P5' position (Pro to Leu). To characterize the role of these mutations in drug susceptibility and replication capacity, a chimeric HIV-1 strain containing the 19I/E21D/A22V mutations with the M46I/P63L/A71V/I84V/I93L and p1/p6 mutations was constructed. The chimera displayed high-level resistance to multiple PIs, but not to lopinavir, and grew to 30% of that of the wild type. To determine the relative contribution of each mutation to the phenotypic characteristic of the virus, a series of mutants was constructed using site-directed mutagenesis. A high level of resistance was only seen in mutants containing the 19I/A22V and p1/p6 mutations. The E21D mutation enhanced viral replication. These results suggest that the combination of the 19I/E21D/A22V mutations may emerge and lead to high-level resistance to multiple PIs. The combination of the 19I/A22V mutations may be associated with PI resistance; however, the drug resistance may be caused by the presence of a unique set of mutations in the p1/p6 mutations. The E21D mutation contributes to replication fitness rather than drug resistance.
Project description:Drug resistance is an important cause of antiretroviral therapy failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Mutations in the protease render the virus resistant to protease inhibitors (PIs). Gag cleavage sites also mutate, sometimes correlating with resistance mutations in the protease, but their contribution to resistance has not been systematically analyzed. The present study examines mutations in Gag cleavage sites that associate with protease mutations and the impact of these associations on drug susceptibilities. Significant associations were observed between mutations in the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) and p1-p6 cleavage sites and various PI resistance-associated mutations in the protease. Several patterns were frequently observed, including mutations in the NC-p1 cleavage site in combination with I50L, V82A, and I84V within the protease and mutations within the p1-p6 cleavage site in combination with D30N, I50V, and I84V within the protease. For most patterns, viruses with mutations both in the protease and in either cleavage site were significantly less susceptible to specific PIs than viruses with mutations in the protease alone. Altered PI resistance in HIV-1 was found to be associated with the presence of Gag cleavage site mutations. These studies suggest that associated cleavage site mutations may contribute to PI susceptibility in highly specific ways depending on the particular combinations of mutations and inhibitors. Thus, cleavage site mutations should be considered when assessing the level of PI resistance.
Project description:Differences in baseline polymorphisms between subtypes may result in development of diverse mutational pathways during antiretroviral treatment. We compared drug resistance in patients with human immunodeficiency virus subtype C (referred to herein as "subtype-C-infected patients") versus subtype-B-infected patients following protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. Genotype, phenotype, and replication capacity (Phenosense; Virologic) were determined. We evaluated 159 subtype-C- and 65 subtype-B-infected patients failing first PI treatment. Following nelfinavir treatment, the unique nelfinavir mutation D30N was substantially less frequent in C (7%) than in B (23%; P = 0.03) while L90M was similar (P < 0.5). Significant differences were found in the rates of M36I (98 and 36%), L63P (35 and 59%), A71V (3 and 32%), V77I (0 and 36%), and I93L (91 and 32%) (0.0001 < P < 0.05) in C and B, respectively. Other mutations were L10I/V, K20R, M46I, V82A/I, I84V, N88D, and N88S. Subtype C samples with mutation D30N showed a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) change in susceptibility to nelfinavir only. Other mutations increased IC(50) correlates to all PIs. Following accumulation of mutations, replication capacity of the C virus was reduced from 43% +/- 22% to 22% +/- 15% (P = 0.04). We confirmed the selective nature of the D30N mutation in C, and the broader cross-resistance of other common protease inhibitor mutations. The rates at which these mutational pathways develop differ in C and subtype-B-infected patients failing therapy, possibly due to the differential impact of baseline polymorphisms. Because mutation D30N is not preferentially selected in nelfinavir-treated subtype-C-infected patients, as it is in those infected with subtype B, the consideration of using this drug initially to preserve future protease inhibitor options is less relevant for subtype-C-infected patients.
Project description:Plasma-derived sequences of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease from 1,162 patients (457 drug-naive patients and 705 patients receiving protease inhibitor [PI]-containing antiretroviral regimens) led to the identification and characterization of 17 novel protease mutations potentially associated with resistance to PIs. Fourteen mutations were positively associated with PIs and significantly correlated in pairs and/or clusters with known PI resistance mutations, suggesting their contribution to PI resistance. In particular, E34Q, K43T, and K55R, which were associated with lopinavir treatment, correlated with mutations associated with lopinavir resistance (E34Q with either L33F or F53L, or K43T with I54A) or clustered with multi-PI resistance mutations (K43T with V82A and I54V or V82A, V32I, and I47V, or K55R with V82A, I54V, and M46I). On the other hand, C95F, which was associated with treatment with saquinavir and indinavir, was highly expressed in clusters with either L90M and I93L or V82A and G48V. K45R and K20T, which were associated with nelfinavir treatment, were specifically associated with D30N and N88D and with L90M, respectively. Structural analysis showed that several correlated positions were within 8 A of each other, confirming the role of the local environment for interactions among mutations. We also identified three protease mutations (T12A, L63Q, and H69N) whose frequencies significantly decreased in PI-treated patients compared with that in drug-naive patients. They never showed positive correlations with PI resistance mutations; if anything, H69N showed a negative correlation with the compensatory mutations M36I and L10I. These mutations may prevent the appearance of PI resistance mutations, thus increasing the genetic barrier to PI resistance. Overall, our study contributes to a better definition of protease mutational patterns that regulate PI resistance and strongly suggests that other (novel) mutations beyond those currently known to confer resistance should be taken into account to better predict resistance to antiretroviral drugs.
Project description:Nelfinavir was once one of the most commonly used protease inhibitors (PIs). To investigate the genetic mechanisms of multidrug resistance in protease isolates with the primary nelfinavir resistance mutation D30N, we analyzed patterns of protease mutations in 582 viruses with D30N from 460 persons undergoing HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing at Stanford University Hospital from 1997 to 2005. Three patterns of mutational associations were identified. First, D30N was positively associated with N88D but negatively associated with N88S. Second, D30N and L90M were negatively associated except in the presence of N88D, which facilitated the co-occurrence of D30N and L90M. Third, D30N+N88D+L90M formed a stable genetic backbone for the accumulation of additional protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations. In 16 patients having isolates with more than one combination of mutations at positions 30, 88, and 90, all exhibited one of the steps in the following progression: D30N-->D30N+N88D-->D30N+N88D+L90M-->D30N+N88D+L90M+(L33F+/-I84V or M46I/L+/-I54V). Although nelfinavir is now used less frequently than other PIs, the well-delineated mutational pathway we describe is likely to influence patterns of cross-resistance in viruses from persons who experience virologic failure while receiving this PI.
Project description:ABT-378, a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor which is significantly more active than ritonavir in cell culture, is currently under investigation for the treatment of AIDS. Development of viral resistance to ABT-378 in vitro was studied by serial passage of HIV-1 (pNL4-3) in MT-4 cells. Selection of viral variants with increasing concentrations of ABT-378 revealed a sequential appearance of mutations in the protease gene: I84V-L10F-M46I-T91S-V32I-I47V. Further selection at a 3.0 microM inhibitor concentration resulted in an additional change at residue 47 (V47A), as well as reversion at residue 32 back to the wild-type sequence. The 50% effective concentration of ABT-378 against passaged virus containing these additional changes was 338-fold higher than that against wild-type virus. In addition to changes in the protease gene, sequence analysis of passaged virus revealed mutations in the p1/p6 (P1' residue Leu to Phe) and p7/p1 (P2 residue Ala to Val) gag proteolytic processing sites. The p1/p6 mutation appeared in several clones derived from early passages and was present in all clones obtained from passage P11 (0.42 microM ABT-378) onward. The p7/p1 mutation appeared very late during the selection process and was strongly associated with the emergence of the additional change at residue 47 (V47A) and the reversion at residue 32 back to the wild-type sequence. Furthermore, this p7/p1 mutation was present in all clones obtained from passage P17 (3.0 microM ABT-378) onward and always occurred in conjunction with the p1/p6 mutation. Full-length molecular clones containing protease mutations observed very late during the selection process were constructed and found to be viable only in the presence of both the p7/p1 and p1/p6 cleavage-site mutations. This suggests that mutation of these gag proteolytic cleavage sites is required for the growth of highly resistant HIV-1 selected by ABT-378 and supports recent work demonstrating that mutations in the p7/p1/p6 region play an important role in conferring resistance to protease inhibitors (L. Doyon et al., J. Virol. 70:3763-3769, 1996; Y. M. Zhang et al., J. Virol. 71:6662-6670, 1997).
Project description:Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ?1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir.
Project description:In our study we examined the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity of a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor, PNU-140690 (tipranavir), against patient-derived isolates resistant to multiple other protease inhibitors (PIs). The aim of our experiments was to investigate the genotypes and the in vitro phenotypes of drug resistance of PNU-140690. We carried out drug susceptibility tests with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a fixed amount of infectious virus (1,000 50% tissue culture infective doses) to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) and IC(90), PCR assays for the detection of drug resistance mutations in RNA in plasma, and direct sequencing of PCR products. Phenotypic resistance to PIs was invariably related to genotypic mutations. The substitutions among the amino acid residues of the protease included L10I, K20R, L24I, M36I, N37D, G48V, I54V, L63P, I64V, A71V, V77I, V82A, I84V, and L90M. Isolates from all of the patients had developed a maximal degree of resistance to indinavir, ritonavir, and nelfinavir (IC(50)s, >0.1 microM). We also compared these mutations with the amino acid changes previously described in association with in vivo tipranavir administration. The mutations included the following: I15V, E35D, N37D, R41K, D60E, and A71T. Infections with IIIB, 14aPre, and N70 were inhibited by an average drug IC(90) of 0.18 +/- 0.02 microM in multiple experiments. The average mean +/- standard error of mean IC(90) for the entire group of multidrug-resistant isolates derived from the mean values for two culture wells with p24 antigen supernatant appeared to be 0.619 +/- 0.055 microM (range, 0.31 to 0.86 microM). Tipranavir retained a sustained antiviral activity against PI-MDR clinical isolates and might be useful in combination regimens with other antiretroviral agents for patients who have already failed other PI-containing therapies.
Project description:We generated a novel nonpeptidic protease inhibitor (PI), GRL-02031, by incorporating a stereochemically defined fused cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) which exerted potent activity against a wide spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, including multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. GRL-02031 was highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates, including subtypes A, B, C, and E (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] range, 0.015 to 0.038 microM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration, >100 microM in CD4(+) MT-2 cells), although it was less active against two HIV-2 strains (HIV-2(EHO) and HIV-2(ROD)) (EC(50), approximately 0.60 microM) than against HIV-1 strains. GRL-02031 at relatively low concentrations blocked the infection and replication of each of the HIV-1(NL4-3) variants exposed to and selected by up to 5 microM of saquinavir, amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, or ritonavir and 1 microM of lopinavir or atazanavir (EC(50) range, 0.036 to 0.14 microM). GRL-02031 was also potent against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to the conventional antiretroviral regimens that then existed, with EC(50)s ranging from 0.014 to 0.042 microM (changes in the EC(50)s were less than twofold the EC(50) for wild-type HIV-1). Upon selection of HIV-1(NL4-3) in the presence of GRL-02031, mutants carrying L10F, L33F, M46I, I47V, Q58E, V82I, I84V, and I85V in the protease-encoding region and G62R (within p17), L363M (p24-p2 cleavage site), R409K (within p7), and I437T (p7-p1 cleavage site) in the gag-encoding region emerged. GRL-02031 was potent against a variety of HIV-1(NL4-3)-based molecular infectious clones containing a single primary mutation reported previously or a combination of such mutations, although it was slightly less active against HIV-1 variants containing consecutive amino acid substitutions: M46I and I47V or I84V and I85V. Structural modeling analysis demonstrated a distinct bimodal binding of GRL-02031 to protease, which may provide advantages to GRL-02031 in blocking the replication of a wide spectrum of HIV-1 variants resistant to PIs and in delaying the development of resistance of HIV-1 to GRL-02031. The present data warrant the further development of GRL-02031 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections with primary and multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants.
Project description:In order to track the evolution of primary protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, baseline and follow-up protease sequences were obtained from patients undergoing salvage PI therapy who presented initially with isolates containing a single primary PI resistance mutation. Among 78 patients meeting study selection criteria, baseline primary PI resistance mutations included L90M (42% of patients), V82A/F/T (27%), D30N (21%), G48V (6%), and I84V (4%). Despite the switching of treatment to a new PI, primary PI resistance mutations present at the baseline persisted in 66 of 78 (85%) patients. D30N persisted less frequently than L90M (50% versus 100%, respectively; P < 0.001) and V82A/F/T (50% versus 81%, respectively; P = 0.05). HIV-1 isolates from 38 (49%) patients failing PI salvage therapy developed new primary PI resistance mutations including L90M, I84V, V82A, and G48V. Common combinations of primary and secondary PI resistance mutations after salvage therapy included mutations at amino acid positions 10, 82, and 46 and/or 54 in 16 patients; 10, 90, and 71 and/or 73 in 14 patients; 10, 73, 84, 90, and 46 and/or 54 in 5 patients; 10, 48, and 82 in 5 patients; and 30, 88 and 90 in 5 patients. In summary, during salvage PI therapy, most HIV-1 isolates with a single primary PI resistance mutation maintained their original mutations, and 49% developed additional primary PI resistance mutations. The persistence of L90M, V82A/F/T, G48V, and I84V during salvage therapy suggests that these mutations play a role in clinical resistance to multiple PIs.
Project description:We studied drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in 2623 pol sequences. Out of 94,828 amino acid substitutions that were detected, 8749 corresponded to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 3765 to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 7141 to protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations. The most common DRMs were L10I, I54V, L90M, V82A, A71V, L10V, M46I, M184V, M41L, T215Y, D67N, L210W, K70R, N348I, V118I, K103N, Y181C, G190A, K101E, V108I, L100I, V90I, K101Q, and A98G. As expected, DRMs frequencies depended on viral genotype. The amounts of NRTI and PI resistance mutations among B and BF sequences from children were higher than among sequences from adults. The frequencies of PI and NRTI resistance mutations among B and BF sequences from adult men were higher than among sequences from women. Some of these observations can be explained in light of the available epidemiological information, but some cannot, indicating that further studies are needed to understand the antiretroviral resistance epidemics in Argentina.