Isolation and characterization of RAD51C, a new human member of the RAD51 family of related genes.
ABSTRACT: The yeast and human RAD51 genes encode strand-transfer proteins that are thought to be involved in both recombinational repair of DNA damage and meiotic recombination. In yeast, the Rad51 family of related proteins also includes Rad55, Rad57 and Dmc1. In mammalian cells, five genes in this family have been identified (HsRAD51, XRCC2, XRCC3, RAD51B/hREC2 and HsDMC1), and here we report the isolation of the sixth member, RAD51C. RAD51C was originally identified by a computer screen of the EST database. A full-length approximately 1.3 kb cDNA clone has been isolated that encodes a protein of 376 aa, having a 18-26% aa identity with other human Rad51 family members. RAD51C includes a previously mapped sequenced-tagged site location near the end of chromosome 17q. The RAD51C transcript is expressed in various human tissues, with highest level of expression in testis, followed by heart muscle, spleen and prostate. Yeast two-hybrid experiments indicate that the Rad51C protein binds to two other members of the Rad51 protein family (Xrcc3 and Rad51B) but not to itself. These findings suggest that Rad51C may function similarly to the yeast Rad55 or Rad57 proteins, rather than as a Rad51 functional homolog.
Project description:The eukaryotic RecA homologue Rad51 is a key factor in homologous recombination and recombinational repair. Rad51-like proteins have been identified in yeast (Rad55, Rad57 and Dmc1), plants and vertebrates (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3 and DMC1). RAD51 and DMC1 are the strand-exchange proteins forming a nucleofilament for strand invasion, however, the function of the paralogues in the process of homologous recombination is less clear. In yeast the two Rad51 paralogues, Rad55 and Rad57, have been shown to be involved in somatic and meiotic HR and they are essential to the formation of the Rad51/DNA nucleofilament counterbalancing the anti-recombinase activity of the SRS2 helicase. Here, we examined the role of RAD51B in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Mutant analysis shows that RAD51B is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity, for resistance to DNA damaging agents and for gene targeting. Furthermore, we set up methods to investigate meiosis in Physcomitrella and we demonstrate that the RAD51B protein is essential for meiotic homologous recombination. Finally, we show that all these functions are independent of the SRS2 anti-recombinase protein, which is in striking contrast to what is found in budding yeast where the RAD51 paralogues are fully dependent on the SRS2 anti-recombinase function.
Project description:The five human Rad51 paralogs are suggested to play an important role in the maintenance of genome stability through their function in DNA double-strand break repair. These proteins have been found to form two distinct complexes in vivo, Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-Xrcc2 (BCDX2) and Rad51C-Xrcc3 (CX3). Based on the recent Pyrococcus furiosus Rad51 structure, we have used homology modeling to design deletion mutants of the Rad51 paralogs. The models of the human Rad51B, Rad51C, Xrcc3 and murine Rad51D (mRad51D) proteins reveal distinct N-terminal and C-terminal domains connected by a linker region. Using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we have demonstrated that a fragment of Rad51B containing amino acid residues 1-75 interacts with the C-terminus and linker of Rad51C, residues 79-376, and this region of Rad51C also interacts with mRad51D and Xrcc3. We have also determined that the N-terminal domain of mRad51D, residues 4-77, binds to Xrcc2 while the C-terminal domain of mRad51D, residues 77-328, binds Rad51C. By this, we have identified the binding domains of the BCDX2 and CX3 complexes to further characterize the interaction of these proteins and propose a scheme for the three-dimensional architecture of the BCDX2 and CX3 paralog complexes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Most currently known breast cancer predisposition genes play a role in DNA repair by homologous recombination. Recent studies conducted on RAD51 paralogs, involved in the same DNA repair pathway, have identified rare germline mutations conferring breast and/or ovarian cancer predisposition in the RAD51C, RAD51D and XRCC2 genes. The present study analysed the five RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) to estimate their contribution to breast and ovarian cancer predisposition. METHODS:The study was conducted on 142 unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer either with early onset or with a breast/ovarian cancer family history. Patients were referred to a French family cancer clinic and had been previously tested negative for a BRCA1/2 mutation. Coding sequences of the five genes were analysed by EMMA (Enhanced Mismatch Mutation Analysis). Detected variants were characterized by Sanger sequencing analysis. RESULTS:Three splicing mutations and two likely deleterious missense variants were identified: RAD51B c.452 + 3A > G, RAD51C c.706-2A > G, RAD51C c.1026 + 5_1026 + 7del, RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys and XRCC3 c.448C > T/p.Arg150Cys. No RAD51D and XRCC2 gene mutations were detected. These mutations and variants were detected in families with both breast and ovarian cancers, except for the RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys variant that occurred in a family with 3 breast cancer cases. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified the first RAD51B mutation in a breast and ovarian cancer family and is the first report of XRCC3 mutation analysis in breast and ovarian cancer. It confirms that RAD51 paralog mutations confer breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and are rare events. In view of the low frequency of RAD51 paralog mutations, international collaboration of family cancer clinics will be required to more accurately estimate their penetrance and establish clinical guidelines in carrier individuals.
Project description:RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3) have recently been involved in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition: RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D in ovarian cancer, RAD51B and XRCC2 in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious variants in the five RAD51 paralogs to breast and ovarian cancers. The five RAD51 paralog genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing technologies in germline DNA from 2649 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Twenty-one different deleterious variants were identified in the RAD51 paralogs in 30 patients: RAD51B (n?=?4), RAD51C (n?=?12), RAD51D (n?=?7), XRCC2 (n?=?2), and XRCC3 (n?=?5). The overall deleterious variant rate was 1.13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.55%) (30/2649), including 15 variants in breast cancer only cases (15/2063; 0.73% (95% CI: 0.34-1.11%)) and 15 variants in cases with at least one ovarian cancer (15/570; 2.63% (95% CI: 1.24-4.02%)). This study is the first evaluation of the five RAD51 paralogs in breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and it demonstrates that deleterious variants can be present in breast cancer only cases. Moreover, this is the first time that XRCC3 deleterious variants have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer cases.
Project description:The conserved budding yeast Rad51 paralogues, including Rad55, Rad57, Csm2 and Psy3 are indispensable for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated chromosome damage repair. Rad55 and Rad57 are associated in a heterodimer, while Csm2 and Psy3 form the Shu complex with Shu1 and Shu2. Here we show that Rad55 bridges an interaction between Csm2 with Rad51 and Rad52 and, using a fully reconstituted system, demonstrate that the Shu complex synergizes with Rad55-Rad57 and Rad52 to promote nucleation of Rad51 on single-stranded DNA pre-occupied by replication protein A (RPA). The csm2-F46A allele is unable to interact with Rad55, ablating the ability of the Shu complex to enhance Rad51 presynaptic filament assembly in vitro and impairing HR in vivo. Our results reveal that Rad55-Rad57, the Shu complex and Rad52 act as a functional ensemble to promote Rad51-filament assembly, which has important implications for understanding the role of the human RAD51 paralogues in Fanconi anaemia and cancer predisposition.
Project description:Metazoan Rad51 plays a central role in homologous DNA recombination, and its activity is controlled by a number of Rad51 cofactors. These include five Rad51 paralogs, Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3. We previously hypothesized that all five paralogs participate collaboratively in repair. However, this idea was challenged by the biochemical identification of two independent complexes composed of either Rad51B/C/D/XRCC2 or Rad51C/XRCC3. To investigate if this biochemical finding is matched by genetic interactions, we made double mutants in either the same complex (rad51b/rad51d) or in both complexes (xrcc3/rad51d). In agreement with the biochemical findings the double deletion involving both complexes had an additive effect on the sensitivity to camptothecin and cisplatin. The double deletion of genes in the same complex, on the other hand, did not further increase the sensitivity to these agents. Conversely, all mutants tested displayed comparatively mild sensitivity to gamma-irradiation and attenuated gamma-irradiation-induced Rad51 foci formation. Thus, in accord with our previous conclusion, all paralogs appear to collaboratively facilitate Rad51 action. In conclusion, our detailed genetic study reveals a complex interplay between the five Rad51 paralogs and suggests that some of the Rad51 paralogs can separately operate in later step of homologous recombination.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, homologous recombination is an accurate mechanism to generate genetic diversity, and it is also used to repair DNA double strand-breaks. RAD52 epistasis group genes involved in recombinational DNA repair, including mre11, rad50, nsb1/xrs2, rad51, rad51c/rad57, rad51b/rad55, rad51d, xrcc2, xrcc3, rad52, rad54, rad54b/rdh54 and rad59 genes, have been studied in human and yeast cells. Notably, the RAD51 recombinase catalyses strand transfer between a broken DNA and its undamaged homologous strand, to allow damaged region repair. In protozoan parasites, homologous recombination generating antigenic variation and genomic rearrangements is responsible for virulence variation and drug resistance. However, in Entamoeba histolytica the protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, DNA repair and homologous recombination mechanisms are still unknown. RESULTS: In this paper, we initiated the study of the mechanism for DNA repair by homologous recombination in the primitive eukaryote E. histolytica using UV-C (150 J/m2) irradiated trophozoites. DNA double strand-breaks were evidenced in irradiated cells by TUNEL and comet assays and evaluation of the EhH2AX histone phosphorylation status. In E. histolytica genome, we identified genes homologous to yeast and human RAD52 epistasis group genes involved in DNA double strand-breaks repair by homologous recombination. Interestingly, the E. histolytica RAD52 epistasis group related genes were differentially expressed before and after UV-C treatment. Next, we focused on the characterization of the putative recombinase EhRAD51, which conserves the typical architecture of RECA/RAD51 proteins. Specific antibodies immunodetected EhRAD51 protein in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Moreover, after DNA damage, EhRAD51 was located as typical nuclear foci-like structures in E. histolytica trophozoites. Purified recombinant EhRAD51 exhibited DNA binding and pairing activities and exchanging reactions between homologous strands in vitro. CONCLUSION: E. histolytica genome contains most of the RAD52 epistasis group related genes, which were differentially expressed when DNA double strand-breaks were induced by UV-C irradiation. In response to DNA damage, EhRAD51 protein is overexpressed and relocalized in nuclear foci-like structures. Functional assays confirmed that EhRAD51 is a bonafide recombinase. These data provided the first insights about the potential roles of the E. histolytica RAD52 epistasis group genes and EhRAD51 protein function in DNA damage response of this ancient eukaryotic parasite.
Project description:Majority of the known breast cancer susceptibility genes have a role in DNA repair and the most important high-risk genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are specifically involved in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand breaks. A central player in HRR is RAD51 that binds DNA at the damage site. The RAD51 paralogs RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, and XRCC3 facilitate the binding of RAD51 to DNA. While germline mutations in RAD51C and RAD51D are associated with high ovarian cancer risk and RAD51B polymorphisms with breast cancer, the contribution of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 is more unclear. To investigate the role of RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 in breast cancer predisposition and to identify putative recurrent founder mutations in the Finnish population where such mutations have been observed in most of the currently known susceptibility genes, we screened 182 familial Finnish breast or ovarian cancer patients for germline variation in the RAD51and XRCC3 genes and 342 patients for variation in XRCC2, with a subset of the patients selected on the basis of decreased RAD51 protein expression on tumors. We also performed haplotype analyses for 1516 breast cancer cases and 1234 controls to assess the common variation in these genes. No pathogenic mutations were detected in any of the genes and the distribution of haplotypes was similar between cases and controls. Our results suggest that RAD51, XRCC3, and XRCC2 do not substantially contribute to breast cancer predisposition in the Finnish population.
Project description:Homologous recombination is a high-fidelity DNA repair pathway. Besides a critical role in accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis, recombination functions in DNA repair and in the recovery of stalled or broken replication forks to ensure genomic stability. In contrast, inappropriate recombination contributes to genomic instability, leading to loss of heterozygosity, chromosome rearrangements and cell death. The RecA/UvsX/RadA/Rad51 family of proteins catalyses the signature reactions of recombination, homology search and DNA strand invasion. Eukaryotes also possess Rad51 paralogues, whose exact role in recombination remains to be defined. Here we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51 paralogues, the Rad55-Rad57 heterodimer, counteract the antirecombination activity of the Srs2 helicase. The Rad55-Rad57 heterodimer associates with the Rad51-single-stranded DNA filament, rendering it more stable than a nucleoprotein filament containing Rad51 alone. The Rad51-Rad55-Rad57 co-filament resists disruption by the Srs2 antirecombinase by blocking Srs2 translocation, involving a direct protein interaction between Rad55-Rad57 and Srs2. Our results demonstrate an unexpected role of the Rad51 paralogues in stabilizing the Rad51 filament against a biologically important antagonist, the Srs2 antirecombination helicase. The biological significance of this mechanism is indicated by a complete suppression of the ionizing radiation sensitivity of rad55 or rad57 mutants by concomitant deletion of SRS2, as expected for biological antagonists. We propose that the Rad51 presynaptic filament is a meta-stable reversible intermediate, whose assembly and disassembly is governed by the balance between Rad55-Rad57 and Srs2, providing a key regulatory mechanism controlling the initiation of homologous recombination. These data provide a paradigm for the potential function of the human RAD51 paralogues, which are known to be involved in cancer predisposition and human disease.
Project description:RecA/Rad51 protein family members (Rad51, Rad51b, Rad51c, Rad51d, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3) are essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination, and their role in cancers has been anticipated. Here we provide the first direct evidence for a tumor suppressor function for a member of the Rad51 family. We show that Rad51c deficiency leads to early embryonic lethality, which can be delayed on a Trp53-null background. To uncover the role of Rad51c in tumorigenesis, we have exploited the fact that Rad51c and Trp53 are both closely located on the mouse chromosome 11. We have generated double heterozygous (DH) mice carrying mutant alleles of both genes either on different (DH-trans) or on the same chromosome (DH-cis), the latter allowing for a deletion of wild-type alleles of both genes by loss of heterozygosity. DH-trans mice, in contrast to DH-cis, developed tumors with latency and spectrum similar to Trp53 heterozygous mice. Strikingly, Rad51c mutation in DH-cis mice promoted the development of tumors of specialized sebaceous glands and suppressed tumors characteristic of Trp53 mutation. In addition, DH-cis females developed tumors significantly earlier than any other group.