The ESCRT-III subunit hVps24 is required for degradation but not silencing of the epidermal growth factor receptor.
ABSTRACT: The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are thought to mediate the biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. Here, we have compared the importance of the ESCRT-I subunit tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) and the ESCRT-III subunit hVps24/CHMP3 for endosomal functions and receptor signaling. Like Tsg101, endogenous hVps24 localized mainly to late endosomes. Depletion of hVps24 by siRNA showed that this ESCRT subunit, like Tsg101, is important for degradation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and for transport of the receptor from early endosomes to lysosomes. Surprisingly, however, whereas depletion of Tsg101 caused sustained EGF activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, depletion of hVps24 had no such effect. Moreover, depletion of Tsg101 but not of hVps24 caused a major fraction of internalized EGF to accumulate in nonacidified endosomes. Electron microscopy of hVps24-depleted cells showed an accumulation of EGFRs in MVEs that were significantly smaller than those in control cells, probably because of an impaired fusion with lyso-bisphosphatidic acid-positive late endosomes/lysosomes. Together, our results reveal functional differences between ESCRT-I and ESCRT-III in degradative protein trafficking and indicate that degradation of the EGFR is not required for termination of its signaling.
Project description:The biogenesis of multivesicular bodies and endosomal sorting of membrane cargo are driven forward by the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III. ESCRT-I is characterized in yeast as a complex consisting of Vps23, Vps28, and Vps37. Whereas mammalian homologues of Vps23 and Vps28 (named Tsg101 and hVps28, respectively) have been identified and characterized, a mammalian counterpart of Vps37 has not yet been identified. Here, we show that a regulator of proliferation, hepatocellular carcinoma related protein 1 (HCRP1), interacts with Tsg101, hVps28, and their upstream regulator Hrs. The ability of HCRP1 (which we assign the alternative name hVps37A) to interact with Tsg101 is conferred by its mod(r) domain and is shared with hVps37B and hVps37C, two other mod(r) domain-containing proteins. HCRP1 cofractionates with Tsg101 and hVps28 by size exclusion chromatography and colocalizes with hVps28 on LAMP1-positive endosomes. Whereas depletion of Tsg101 by siRNA reduces cellular levels of both hVps28 and HCRP1, depletion of HCRP1 has no effect on Tsg101 or hVps28. Nevertheless, HCRP1 depletion strongly retards epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor degradation. Together, these results indicate that HCRP1 is a subunit of mammalian ESCRT-I and that its function is essential for lysosomal sorting of EGF receptors.
Project description:Lysosomal degradation is essential for the termination of EGF-stimulated EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling. This requires EGFR sorting to the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multi-vesicular endosomes (MVEs). Cytosolic proteins including the ESCRT machineries are key regulators of EGFR intraluminal sorting, but roles for endosomal transmembrane proteins in receptor sorting are poorly defined. Here, we show that LAPTM4B, an endosomal transmembrane oncoprotein, inhibits EGF-induced EGFR intraluminal sorting and lysosomal degradation, leading to enhanced and prolonged EGFR signaling. LAPTM4B blocks EGFR sorting by promoting ubiquitination of Hrs (an ESCRT-0 subunit), which inhibits the Hrs association with ubiquitinated EGFR. This is counteracted by the endosomal PIP kinase, PIPKI?i5, which directly binds LAPTM4B and neutralizes the inhibitory function of LAPTM4B in EGFR sorting by generating PtdIns(4,5)P2 and recruiting SNX5. PtdIns(4,5)P2 and SNX5 function together to protect Hrs from ubiquitination, thereby promoting EGFR intraluminal sorting. These results reveal an essential layer of EGFR trafficking regulated by LAPTM4B, PtdIns(4,5)P2 signaling, and the ESCRT complex and define a mechanism by which the oncoprotein LAPTM4B can transform cells and promote tumor progression.
Project description:The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is targeted for lysosomal degradation by ubiquitin-mediated interactions with the ESCRTs (endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport) in multivesicular bodies (MVBs). We show that secretory carrier membrane protein, SCAMP3, localizes in part to early endosomes and negatively regulates EGFR degradation through processes that involve its ubiquitylation and interactions with ESCRTs. SCAMP3 is multimonoubiquitylated and is able to associate with Nedd4 HECT ubiquitin ligases and the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 via its PY and PSAP motifs, respectively. SCAMP3 also associates with the ESCRT-0 subunit Hrs. Depletion of SCAMP3 in HeLa cells by inhibitory RNA accelerated degradation of EGFR and EGF while inhibiting recycling. Conversely, overexpression enhanced EGFR recycling unless ubiquitylatable lysines, PY or PSAP motifs in SCAMP3 were mutated. Notably, dual depletions of SCAMP3 and ESCRT subunits suggest that SCAMP3 has a distinct function in parallel with the ESCRTs that regulates receptor degradation. This function may affect trafficking of receptors from prelysosomal compartments as SCAMP3 depletion appeared to sustain the incidence of EGFR-containing MVBs detected by immunoelectron microscopy. Together, our results suggest that SCAMP3, its modification with ubiquitin, and its interactions with ESCRTs coordinately regulate endosomal pathways and affect the efficiency of receptor down-regulation.
Project description:After ligand binding and endocytosis, cell surface receptors can continue to signal from endosomal compartments until sequestered from the cytoplasm. An important mechanism for receptor downregulation in vivo is via the inward budding of receptors into intralumenal vesicles to form specialized endosomes called multivesicular bodies (MVBs) that subsequently fuse with lysosomes, degrading their cargo. This process requires four heterooligomeric protein complexes collectively termed the ESCRT machinery. In yeast, ESCRT-I is a heterotetrameric complex comprised of three conserved subunits and a fourth subunit for which identifiable metazoan homologs were lacking. Using C. elegans, we identify MVB-12, a fourth metazoan ESCRT-I subunit. Depletion of MVB-12 slows the kinetics of receptor downregulation in vivo, but to a lesser extent than inhibition of other ESCRT-I subunits. Consistent with these findings, targeting of MVB-12 to membranes requires the other ESCRT-I subunits, but MVB-12 is not required to target the remaining ESCRT-I components. Both endogenous and recombinant ESCRT-I are stable complexes with a 1:1:1:1 subunit stoichiometry. MVB-12 has two human homologs that co-localize and co-immunoprecipitate with the ESCRT-I component TSG101. Thus, MVB-12 is a conserved core component of metazoan ESCRT-I that regulates its activity during MVB biogenesis.
Project description:Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles that coexist with lysosomes within melanocytes. The pathways by which melanosomal proteins are diverted from endocytic organelles toward melanosomes are incompletely defined. In melanocytes from mouse models of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome that lack BLOC-1, melanosomal proteins such as tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1) accumulate in early endosomes. Whether this accumulation represents an anomalous pathway or an arrested normal intermediate in melanosome protein trafficking is not clear. Here, we show that early endosomes are requisite intermediates in the trafficking of Tyrp1 from the Golgi to late stage melanosomes in normal melanocytic cells. Kinetic analyses show that very little newly synthesized Tyrp1 traverses the cell surface and that internalized Tyrp1 is inefficiently sorted to melanosomes. Nevertheless, nearly all Tyrp1 traverse early endosomes since it becomes trapped within enlarged, modified endosomes upon overexpression of Hrs. Although Tyrp1 localization is not affected by Hrs depletion, depletion of the ESCRT-I component, Tsg101, or inhibition of ESCRT function by dominant-negative approaches results in a dramatic redistribution of Tyrp1 to aberrant endosomal membranes that are largely distinct from those harboring traditional ESCRT-dependent, ubiquitylated cargoes such as MART-1. The lysosomal protein content of some of these membranes and the lack of Tyrp1 recycling to the plasma membrane in Tsg101-depleted cells suggests that ESCRT-I functions downstream of BLOC-1. Our data delineate a novel pathway for Tyrp1 trafficking and illustrate a requirement for ESCRT-I function in controlling protein sorting from vacuolar endosomes to the limiting membrane of a lysosome-related organelle.
Project description:The formation of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) mediates the turnover of numerous integral membrane proteins and has been implicated in the down-regulation of growth factor signaling, thereby exhibiting properties of a tumor suppressor. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery plays a key role in MVE biogenesis, enabling cargo selection and intralumenal vesicle (ILV) budding. However, the spatiotemporal pattern of endogenous ESCRT complex assembly and disassembly in mammalian cells remains poorly defined. By combining CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and live cell imaging using lattice light sheet microscopy (LLSM), we determined the native dynamics of both early- and late-acting ESCRT components at MVEs under multiple growth conditions. Specifically, our data indicate that ESCRT-0 accumulates quickly on endosomes, typically in less than 30 seconds, and its levels oscillate in a manner dependent on the downstream recruitment of ESCRT-I. Similarly, levels of the ESCRT-I complex also fluctuate on endosomes, but its average residency time is more than fivefold shorter compared with ESCRT-0. Vps4 accumulation is the most transient, however, suggesting that the completion of ILV formation occurs rapidly. Upon addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), both ESCRT-I and Vps4 are retained at endosomes for dramatically extended periods of time, while ESCRT-0 dynamics are only modestly affected. Our findings are consistent with a model in which growth factor stimulation stabilizes late-acting components of the ESCRT machinery at endosomes to accelerate the rate of ILV biogenesis and attenuate signal transduction initiated by receptor activation.
Project description:Active Src localization at focal adhesions (FAs) is essential for cell migration. How this pool is linked mechanistically to the large pool of Src at late endosomes (LEs)/lysosomes (LY) is not well understood. Here, we used inducible Tsg101 gene deletion, TSG101 knockdown, and dominant-negative VPS4 expression to demonstrate that the localization of activated cellular Src and viral Src at FAs requires the endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway. Tsg101 deletion also led to impaired Src-dependent activation of STAT3 and focal adhesion kinase and reduced cell migration. Impairment of the ESCRT pathway or Rab7 function led to the accumulation of active Src at aberrant LE/LY compartments followed by its loss. Analyses using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching show that dynamic mobility of Src in endosomes is ESCRT pathway-dependent. These results reveal a critical role for an ESCRT pathway-dependent LE/LY trafficking step in Src function by promoting localization of active Src to FAs.
Project description:Degradation of most integral membrane proteins is directed by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, which selectively targets ubiquitin-modified cargoes into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) within multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). To better understand the mechanisms underlying ESCRT-mediated formation of ILVs, we exploited the rapid, de novo biogenesis of MVEs during the oocyte-to-embryo transition in C. elegans. In contrast to previous models suggesting that ILVs form individually, we demonstrate that they remain tethered to one another subsequent to internalization, arguing that they bud continuously from stable subdomains. In addition, we show that membrane bending and ILV formation are directed specifically by the ESCRT-III complex in vivo in a manner regulated by Ist1, which promotes ESCRT-III assembly and inhibits the incorporation of upstream ESCRT components into ILVs. Our findings underscore essential actions for ESCRT-III in membrane remodeling, cargo selection, and cargo retention, which act repetitively to maximize the rate of ILV formation.
Project description:Endosomes along the degradation pathway leading to lysosomes accumulate membranes in their lumen and thus exhibit a characteristic multivesicular appearance. These lumenal membranes typically incorporate down-regulated EGF receptor destined for degradation, but the mechanisms that control their formation remain poorly characterized. Here, we describe a novel quantitative biochemical assay that reconstitutes the formation of lumenal vesicles within late endosomes in vitro. Vesicle budding into the endosome lumen was time-, temperature-, pH-, and energy-dependent and required cytosolic factors and endosome membrane components. Our light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the compartment supporting the budding process was accessible to endocytosed bulk tracers and EGF receptor. We also found that the EGF receptor became protected against trypsin in our assay, indicating that it was sorted into the intraendosomal vesicles that were formed in vitro. Our data show that the formation of intralumenal vesicles is ESCRT-dependent, because the process was inhibited by the K173Q dominant negative mutant of hVps4. Moreover, we find that the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 and its partner Alix control intralumenal vesicle formation, by acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively. We conclude that budding of the limiting membrane toward the late endosome lumen, which leads to the formation of intraendosomal vesicles, is controlled by the positive and negative functions of Tsg101 and Alix, respectively.
Project description:Although lysosomes perform a number of essential cellular functions, damaged lysosomes represent a potential hazard to the cell. Such lysosomes are therefore engulfed by autophagic membranes in the process known as lysophagy, which is initiated by recognition of luminal glycoprotein domains by cytosolic lectins such as Galectin-3. Here, we show that, under various conditions that cause injury to the lysosome membrane, components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-I, ESCRT-II, and ESCRT-III are recruited. This recruitment occurs before that of Galectin-3 and the lysophagy machinery. Subunits of the ESCRT-III complex show a particularly prominent recruitment, which depends on the ESCRT-I component TSG101 and the TSG101- and ESCRT-III-binding protein ALIX Interference with ESCRT recruitment abolishes lysosome repair and causes otherwise reversible lysosome damage to become cell lethal. Vacuoles containing the intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii show reversible ESCRT recruitment, and interference with this recruitment reduces intravacuolar bacterial replication. We conclude that the cell is equipped with an endogenous mechanism for lysosome repair which protects against lysosomal damage-induced cell death but which also provides a potential advantage for intracellular pathogens.