Human recombinant antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 cloned from peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals with immunity to malaria demonstrate antiparasitic properties.
ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulins from individuals with immunity to malaria have a strong antiparasitic effect when transferred to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infected patients. One prominent target of antiparasitic antibodies is the merozoite surface antigen 3 (MSP-3). We have investigated the antibody response against MSP-3 residues 194 to 257 (MSP-3(194-257)) on the molecular level. mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes from clinically immune individuals was used as a source of Fab (fragment antibody) genes. A Fab-phage display library was made, and three distinct antibodies designated RAM1, RAM2, and RAM3 were isolated by panning. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 full-length antibodies have been produced in CHO cells. Reactivity with the native parasite protein was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. Furthermore, the antiparasitic effect of RAM1 has been tested in vitro in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. Both the IgG1 and the IgG3 versions of the antibody show an inhibitory effect on parasite growth.
Project description:Human IgG comprises four subclasses with different biological functions. The IgG3 subclass has a unique character, exhibiting high effector function and Fab arm flexibility. However, it is not used as a therapeutic drug owing to an enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis. Antibody aggregation control is also important for therapeutic antibody development. To date, there have been few reports of IgG3 aggregation during protein expression and the low pH conditions needed for purification and virus inactivation. This study explored the potential of IgG3 antibody for therapeutics using anti-CD20 IgG3 as a model to investigate aggregate formation. Initially, anti-CD20 IgG3 antibody showed substantial aggregate formation during expression and low pH treatment. To circumvent this phenomenon, we systematically exchanged IgG3 constant domains with those of IgG1, a stable IgG. IgG3 antibody with the IgG1 CH3 domain exhibited reduced aggregate formation during expression. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of individual amino acid substitutions revealed that two amino acid mutations in the CH3 domain, N392K and M397V, reduced aggregation and increased CH3 transition temperature. The engineered human IgG3 antibody was further improved by additional mutations of R435H to obtain IgG3KVH to achieve protein A binding and showed similar antigen binding as wild-type IgG3. IgG3KVH also exhibited high binding activity for Fc?RIIIa and C1q. In summary, we have successfully established an engineered human IgG3 antibody with reduced aggregation during bioprocessing, which will contribute to the better design of therapeutic antibodies with high effector function and Fab arm flexibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies reporting the natural immune responses against malaria in children from different geographical settings in endemic areas are not readily available. This study was aimed at comparing the immune responses against Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 antigen in children from five contrasting bioecological zones in Cameroon. METHODS:In a cross-sectional survey, children between 2 and 15 years, were enrolled from five ecological strata including the south Cameroonian equatorial forest, sudano-sahelian, high inland plateau, high western plateau, and the coastal strata. The children were screened for clinical malaria (defined by malaria parasitaemia ??5000 parasites/µl plus axillary temperature ??37.5 °C). Their antibody responses were measured against P. falciparum MSP-119 antigen using standard ELISA technique. RESULTS:In all, 415 children comprising 217 (52.3%) males participated. Total IgG and IgG1-IgG4 titres were observed to increase with age in all the strata except in the sudano-sahelian and high inland plateau strata. Total IgG and IgG1-IgG4 titres were significantly higher in the coastal strata and lowest in the high inland plateau (for IgG1 and IgG2) and sudano-sahelian strata (for IgG3 and IgG4). Titres of the cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3) were significantly higher than the non-cytophilic antibodies (IgG2 and IgG4) in all the strata except in the sudano-sahelian and high inland plateau strata. Total IgG and IgG subclass titres were significantly higher in children positive for clinical malaria compared to negative children in all study sites except in the high western plateau and coastal (for IgG1 and IgG3), and the sudano-sahelian strata (for all antibodies). Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between parasite density and IgG2 or IgG4 titres in all study sites except in the south Cameroonian equatorial forest and sudano-sahelian strata. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that antibody responses against MSP-119 vary considerably in children from the different bioecological strata in Cameroon and could be linked to the differential exposure to malaria in the different strata. Furthermore, the rate of antibody acquisition was not observed to increase in an age-dependent manner in low transmission settings.
Project description:Antibody functions such as neutralization require recognition of antigen by the Fab region, while effector functions are additionally mediated by interactions of the Fc region with soluble factors and cellular receptors. The efficacy of individual antibodies varies based on Fab domain characteristics, such as affinity for antigen and epitope-specificity, and on Fc domain characteristics that include isotype, subclass, and glycosylation profile. Here, a series of HIV-specific antibody subclass and hinge variants were constructed and tested to define those properties associated with differential effector function. In the context of the broadly neutralizing CD4 binding site-specific antibody VRC01 and the variable loop (V3) binding antibody 447-52D, hinge truncation and extension had a considerable impact on the magnitude of phagocytic activity of both IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. The improvement in phagocytic potency of antibodies with extended hinges could not be attributed to changes in either intrinsic antigen or antibody receptor affinity. This effect was specific to phagocytosis and was generalizable to different phagocytes, at different effector cell to target ratios, for target particles of different size and composition, and occurred across a range of antibody concentrations. Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity and neutralization were generally independent of hinge length, and complement deposition displayed variable local optima. In vivo stability testing showed that IgG molecules with altered hinges can exhibit similar biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profiles as IgG1. Overall, these results suggest that when high phagocytic activity is desirable, therapeutic antibodies may benefit from being formatted as human IgG3 or engineered IgG1 forms with elongated hinges.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibodies to the blood stages of malaria parasites enhance parasite clearance and antimalarial efficacy. The antibody subclass and functions that contribute to parasite clearance during antimalarial treatment and their relationship to malaria transmission intensity have not been characterized. METHODS:Levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and C1q fixation in response to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (erythrocyte-binding antigen [EBA] 175RIII-V, merozoite surface protein 2 [MSP-2], and MSP-142) and opsonic phagocytosis of merozoites were measured in a multinational trial assessing the efficacy of artesunate therapy across 11 Southeast Asian sites. Regression analyses assessed the effects of antibody seropositivity on the parasite clearance half-life (PC½), having a PC½ of ≥5 hours, and having parasitemia 3 days after treatment. RESULTS:IgG3, followed by IgG1, was the predominant IgG subclass detected (seroprevalence range, 5%-35% for IgG1 and 27%-41% for IgG3), varied across study sites, and was lowest in study sites with the lowest transmission intensity and slowest mean PC½. IgG3, C1q fixation, and opsonic-phagocytosis seropositivity were associated with a faster PC½ (range of the mean reduction in PC½, 0.47-1.16 hours; P range, .001-.03) and a reduced odds of having a PC½ of ≥5 hours and having parasitemia 3 days after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of IgG3, complement-fixing antibodies, and merozoite phagocytosis vary according to transmission intensity, are associated with faster parasite clearance, and may be sensitive surrogates of an augmented clearance capacity of infected erythrocytes. Determining the functional immune mechanisms associated with parasite clearance will improve characterization of artemisinin resistance.
Project description:Cytophilic immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG3) to Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from malaria, yet the relative importance of transmission intensity and age in generation of subclass responses to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens have not been clearly defined. We analyzed IgG subclass responses to the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, LSA-1, and TRAP and the blood-stage antigens AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-1 in asymptomatic residents age 2 years or older in stable (n=116) and unstable (n=96) transmission areas in Western Kenya. In the area of stable malaria transmission, a high prevalence of cytophilic (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies to each antigen was seen in all age groups. Prevalence and levels of cytophilic antibodies to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens increased with age in the unstable transmission area, yet IgG1 and IgG3 responses to most antigens for all ages in the unstable transmission area were less prevalent and lower in magnitude than even the youngest age group from the stable transmission area. The dominance of cytophilic responses over non-cytophilic (IgG2 and IgG4) was more pronounced in the stable transmission area, and the ratio of IgG3 over IgG1 generally increased with age. In the unstable transmission area, the ratio of cytophilic to non-cytophilic antibodies did not increase with age, and tended to be IgG3-biased for pre-erythrocytic antigens yet IgG1-biased for blood-stage antigens. The differences between areas could not be attributed to active parasitemia status, as there were minimal differences in antibody responses between those positive and negative for Plasmodium infection by microscopy in the stable transmission area. Individuals in areas of unstable transmission have low cytophilic to non-cytophilic IgG subclass ratios and low IgG3:IgG1 ratios to P. falciparum antigens. These imbalances could contribute to the persistent risk of clinical malaria in these areas and serve as population-level, age-specific biomarkers of transmission.
Project description:Peptide vaccine strategies using Plasmodium-derived antigens have emerged as an attractive approach against malaria. However, relatively few studies have been conducted with malaria-exposed populations from non-African countries. Herein, the seroepidemiological profile against Plasmodium falciparum of naturally exposed individuals from a Brazilian malaria-endemic area against synthetic peptides derived from vaccine candidates circumsporozoite protein (CSP), liver stage antigen-1 (LSA-1), erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (EBA-175), and merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) was investigated. Moreover, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1* and HLA-DQB1* were evaluated to characterize genetic modulation of humoral responsiveness to these antigens. The study was performed using blood samples from 187 individuals living in rural malaria-endemic villages situated near Porto Velho, Rondônia State. Specific IgG and IgM antibodies and IgG subclasses were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HLA-DRB1* and HLA-DQB1* low-resolution typing was performed by PCR-SSP. All four synthetic peptides were broadly recognized by naturally acquired antibodies. Regarding the IgG subclass profile, only CSP induced IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies, which is an important fact given that the acquisition of protective immunity appears to be associated with the cytophilicity of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. HLA-DRB1*11 and HLA-DQB1*7 had the lowest odds of responding to EBA-175. Our results showed that CSP, LSA-1, EBA, and MSP-3 are immunogenic in natural conditions of exposure and that anti-EBA antibody responses appear to be modulated by HLA class II antigens.
Project description:IgG and IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein-2 (MSP-2) of Plasmodium falciparum have been associated with protection from clinical malaria in independent studies. We determined whether this protection was allele-specific by testing whether children who developed clinical malaria lacked IgG/IgG3 antibodies specific to the dominant msp2 parasite genotypes detected during clinical episodes. We analysed pre-existing IgG and IgG1/IgG3 antibodies to antigens representing the major dimorphic types of MSP-2 by ELISA. We used quantitative real-time PCR to determine the dominant msp2 alleles in parasites detected in clinical episodes. Over half (55%, 80/146) of infections contained both allelic types. Single or dominant IC1- and FC27-like alleles were detected in 46% and 42% of infections respectively, and both types were equally dominant in 12%. High levels of IgG/IgG3 antibodies to the FC27-like antigen were not significantly associated with a lower likelihood of clinical episodes caused by parasites bearing FC27-like compared to IC1-like alleles, and vice versa for IgG/IgG3 antibodies to the IC1-like antigen. These findings were supported by competition ELISAs which demonstrated the presence of IgG antibodies to allele-specific epitopes within both antigens. Thus, even for this well-studied antigen, the importance of an allele-specific component of naturally acquired protective immunity to malaria remains to be confirmed.
Project description:Different HIV-1 antigen specificities appear in sequence after HIV-1 transmission and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass responses to HIV antigens are distinct from each other. The initial predominant IgG subclass response to HIV-1 infection consists of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies with a noted decline in some IgG3 antibodies during acute HIV-1 infection. Thus, we postulate that multiple antigen-specific IgG3 responses may serve as surrogates for the relative time since HIV-1 acquisition.We determined the magnitude, peak, and half-life of HIV-1 antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies in 41 HIV-1-infected individuals followed longitudinally from acute infection during the first appearance of HIV-1-specific antibodies through approximately 6 months after infection.We used quantitative HIV-1-binding antibody multiplex assays and exponential decay models to estimate concentrations of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to eight different HIV-1 proteins including gp140 Env, gp120 Env, gp41 Env, p66 reverse transcriptase, p31 Integrase, Tat, Nef, and p55 Gag proteins during acute/recent HIV-1 infection.Among HIV-1-specific IgG3 responses, anti-gp41 IgG3 antibodies were the first to appear. We found that anti-gp41 Env IgG3 and anti-p66 reverse transcriptase IgG3 antibodies, in addition to anti-Gag IgG3 antibodies, each consistently and measurably declined after acute infection, in contrast to the persistent antigen-specific IgG1 responses.The detailed measurements of the decline in multiple HIV-specific IgG3 responses simultaneous with persistent IgG1 responses during acute and recent HIV-1 infection could serve as markers for detection of incident HIV infection.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthritis (SpA), an interrelated group of rheumatic diseases, has been suggested to be triggered by bacterial infections prior to the development of an autoimmune response that causes inflammation of the spinal and peripheral joints. Because human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), recently renamed HSPD1, and bacterial HSP60 are highly homologous, immunological cross-reactivity has been proposed as a mechanism of disease initiation. However, previous investigations of the humoral immune response to HSP60 in SpA patients have lacked determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and patient follow-up. In this study, we have focused on these parameters in a cohort of axial SpA patients with a well-established set of clinical characteristics, including MRI changes and human leukocyte antigen B27. METHODS: IgG subclass antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) against recombinant HSP60 of three reactive arthritis-related bacteria; human HSP60; and the microorganisms Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were determined by ELISA. Serum samples collected from 2004 to 2006 and in 2010 and 2011 from 39 axial SpA patients were analyzed and compared with samples from 39 healthy controls. The Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test were used to compare the antibody levels in different and paired groups, respectively. P < 0.01 was considered significant. The Spearman nonparametric correlation was used to determine correlation between antibody levels and between antibody levels and the disease parameters. RESULTS: Elevated levels of IgG1 and IgG3 to human HSP60 and IgG1 to HSP60 of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis were observed in SpA patients compared with healthy controls at both time points. The antibody levels were almost constant over time for IgG1, whereas high levels of IgG3 to human HSP60 tended to decrease over time. The antibody response to human HSP60 was predominantly of the IgG3 subclass, and patients with high levels of IgG3 to this antigen had low levels of IgG1, indicating an inverse association. Different IgG subclasses were produced against bacterial and human HSP60 in the same serum sample, IgG1 and IgG3, respectively, indicating that there was no cross-reaction. CONCLUSIONS: A significant association was observed between axial SpA and the presence of IgG1/IgG3 antibodies to human HSP60 and of IgG1 to S. enterica Enteritidis and C. trachomatis. Generation of antibodies to human HSP60 was independent of the presence of antibodies to bacterial HSP60. No association was observed between clinical and MRI changes with antibodies over time. Altogether, such antibodies do not reflect the disease activity in these patients. This study has been approved by the Regional Research Ethics Committee of Central Jutland, Denmark. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: 20050046 and 20100083
Project description:A chimeric gene, MSP-Fu(24), was constructed by genetically coupling immunodominant, conserved regions of the two leading malaria vaccine candidates, Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (C-terminal 19-kDa region [PfMSP-1(19)]) and merozoite surface protein 3 (11-kDa conserved region [PfMSP-3(11)]). The recombinant MSP-Fu(24) protein was produced in Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity by a two-step purification process with a yield of approximately 30 mg/liter. Analyses of conformational properties of MSP-Fu(24) using PfMSP-1(19)-specific monoclonal antibody showed that the conformational epitopes of PfMSP-1(19) that may be critical for the generation of the antiparasitic immune response remained intact in the fusion protein. Recombinant MSP-Fu(24) was highly immunogenic in mice and in rabbits when formulated with two different human-compatible adjuvants and induced an immune response against both PfMSP-1(19) and PfMSP-3(11). Purified anti-MSP-Fu(24) antibodies showed invasion inhibition of P. falciparum 3D7 and FCR parasites, and this effect was found to be dependent on antibodies specific for the PfMSP-1(19) component. The protective potential of MSP-Fu(24) was demonstrated by in vitro parasite growth inhibition using an antibody-dependent cell inhibition (ADCI) assay with anti-MSP-Fu(24) antibodies. Overall, the antiparasitic activity was mediated by a combination of growth-inhibitory antibodies generated by both the PfMSP-1(19) and PfMSP-3(11) components of the MSP-Fu(24) protein. The antiparasitic activities elicited by anti-MSP-Fu(24) antibodies were comparable to those elicited by antibodies generated with immunization with a physical mixture of two component antigens, PfMSP-1(19) and PfMSP-3(11). The fusion protein induces a protective immune response with human-compatible adjuvants and may form a part of a multicomponent malaria vaccine.