Linkers designed to intercalate the double helix greatly facilitate DNA alkylation by triplex-forming oligonucleotides carrying a cyclopropapyrroloindole reactive moiety.
ABSTRACT: Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) bind sequence-specifically in the major groove of double-stranded DNA. Cyclopropapyrroloindole (CPI), the electrophilic moiety that comprises the reactive subunit of the antibiotic CC-1065, gives hybridization-triggered alkylation at the N-3 position of adenines when bound in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA. In order to attain TFO-directed targeting of CPI, we designed and tested linkers to 'thread' DNA from the major groove-bound TFO to the minor groove binding site of CPI. Placement of an aromatic ring in the linker significantly enhanced the site-directed reaction, possibly due to a 'threading' mechanism where the aromatic ring is intercalated. All of the linkers containing aromatic rings provided efficient alkylation of the duplex target. The linker containing an acridine ring system, the strongest intercalator in the series, gave a small but clearly detectable amount of non-TFO-specific alkylation. An equivalent-length linker without an aromatic ring was very inefficient in DNA target alkylation.
Project description:We describe sequence-specific alkylation in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA by a hybridization-triggered reactive group conjugated to a triplex forming oligodeoxyribonucleotide (TFO) that binds in the major groove. The 24 nt TFOs (G/A motif) were designed to form triplexes with a homopurine tract within a 65 bp target duplex. They were conjugated to an N 5-methyl-cyclopropapyrroloindole (MCPI) residue, a structural analog of cyclopropapyrroloindole (CPI), the reactive subunit of the potent antibiotic CC-1065. These moieties react in the DNA minor groove, alkylating adenines at their N3 position. In order to optimize alkylation efficiency, linkers between the TFO and the MCPI were varied both in length and composition. Quantitative alkylation of target DNA was achieved when the dihydropyrroloindole (DPI) subunit of CC-1065 was incorporated between an octa(propylene phosphate) linker and MCPI. The required long linker traversed one strand of the target duplex from the major groove-bound TFO to deliver the reactive group to the minor groove. Alkylation was directed by relative positioning of the TFOs. Sites in the minor groove within 4-8 nt from the end of the TFO bearing the reactive group were selectively alkylated.
Project description:Six different conjugates of perylene with 2'-deoxyuridine and with 2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine were synthesized and applied for DNA-templated assembly in aqueous buffer solutions. They differ by the linkers ethynylene, phenylene, and phenylene-ethynylene between nucleoside and chromophore. The nucleosides were investigated as monomers in CHCl3 and dimethyl sulfoxide by optical spectroscopy. The properties of the four phenylene-linked conjugates are similar to that of perylene as reference because these linkers separate both aromatic parts. The ethynylene linker electronically couples the chromophore with the respective nucleoside and thus red shifts the absorbance. The DNA-templated assembly properties were elucidated by mixing the templates in aqueous buffer with the perylene-nucleoside conjugates from a dimethyl sulfoxide stock solution. Specific binding of the nucleosides was probed by comparing the results with dA20 and T20 as single-stranded DNA templates. Our studies reveal the structural parameters that are important for the DNA-templated assembly of perylenes. First, perylene-2'-deoxyuridine conjugates do not form DNA-templated helical assemblies, regardless of the choice of linker. Second, the ethynylene linker is crucial for successful DNA-templated chromophore assemblies of perylene-2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosine conjugates. Third, in contrast, the phenylene linker inhibits self-assembly along single-stranded DNA templates. In conclusion, the 2-amino-2'-deoxyadenosin in combination with the ethynylene linker provides the best structural feature for specific and helical DNA-templated assembly of perylenes. This result is important for the design of future DNA-based supramolecular architectures with chromophores, in particular DNA-based light-harvesting systems and DNA systems for emitting or sensing circularly polarized luminescence.
Project description:Developing construction methods of materials tailored for given applications with absolute control over building block placement poses an immense challenge. DNA-coated colloids offer the possibility of realising programmable self-assembly, which, in principle, can assemble almost any structure in equilibrium, but remains challenging experimentally. Here, we propose an innovative system of linker-mediated mobile DNA-coated colloids (mDNACCs), in which mDNACCs are bridged by the free DNA linkers in solution, whose two single-stranded DNA tails can bind with specific single-stranded DNA receptors of complementary sequence coated on colloids. We formulate a mean-field theory efficiently calculating the effective interaction between mDNACCs, where the entropy of DNA linkers plays a nontrivial role. Particularly, when the binding between free DNA linkers in solution and the corresponding receptors on mDNACCs is strong, the linker-mediated colloidal interaction is determined by the linker entropy depending on the linker concentration.
Project description:Disulfide bonds could be valuable linkers for a variety of therapeutic applications requiring tunable cleavage between two parts of a molecule (e.g., antibody-drug conjugates). The in vitro linker immolation of ?-mercaptoethyl-carbamate disulfides and DNA alkylation properties of associated payloads were investigated to understand the determinant of cell killing potency of anti-CD22 linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD-dimer) conjugates. Efficient immolation and release of a PBD-dimer with strong DNA alkylation properties were observed following disulfide cleavage of methyl- and cyclobutyl-substituted disulfide linkers. However, the analogous cyclopropyl-containing linker did not immolate, and the associated thiol-containing product was a poor DNA alkylator. As predicted from these in vitro assessments, the related anti-CD22 ADCs showed different target-dependent cell killing activities in WSU-DLCL2 and BJAB cell lines. These results demonstrate how the in vitro immolation models can be used to help design efficacious ADCs.
Project description:Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind specifically to polypurine sequences in double-stranded DNA. A single interruption of this polypurine tract can greatly destabilize triplex formation. The stability of triplexes can be significantly enhanced by covalently linking the TFO to its DNA target with reactive functional groups conjugated to the TFO. Covalently cross-linked TFOs are effective inhibitors of transcription of the target DNA sequence. We have designed a TFO with a platinum-modified base that can interact with and cross-link to a cytosine interruption in the polypurine tract of a target DNA duplex. The TFO contains an N(4)-(aminoalkyl)cytosine derivatized with cis-diamminediaquaplatinum(II) or trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). When bound to its target, the tethered platinum of the TFO can reach across the major groove and form an adduct with the guanine N7 of the interrupting C.G base pair. The optimal tether length is five methylene groups, and cross-linking is most efficient when the tether is modified with trans-diamminediaquaplatinum(II). Cross-linking requires that the TFO is bound to its designated DNA target. Addition of cyanide to the cross-linked TFO product reversed the cross-link, behavior that is consistent with the presence of a platinum-guanine adduct. The kinetics of the cross-linking reaction were studied and the half-life of the cross-linking reaction was approximately 3 h. Our results demonstrate that platinum-conjugated TFOs can be designed to cross-link with DNA targets that contain a single pyrimidine interruption. Modifications of this type may prove useful for expanding the DNA sequences that can be targeted by TFOs and increasing the stability of the resulting triplexes.
Project description:We report four new luminescent tetracationic bis-triarylborane DNA and RNA sensors that show high binding affinities, in several cases even in the nanomolar range. Three of the compounds contain substituted, highly emissive and structurally flexible bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl-4-ethynyl)arene linkers (3: arene=5,5'-2,2'-bithiophene; 4: arene=1,4-benzene; 5: arene=9,10-anthracene) between the two boryl moieties and serve as efficient dual Raman and fluorescence chromophores. The shorter analogue 6 employs 9,10-anthracene as the linker and demonstrates the importance of an adequate linker length with a certain level of flexibility by exhibiting generally lower binding affinities than 3-5. Pronounced aggregation-deaggregation processes are observed in fluorimetric titration experiments with DNA for compounds 3 and 5. Molecular modelling of complexes of 5 with AT-DNA, suggest the minor groove as the dominant binding site for monomeric 5, but demonstrate that dimers of 5 can also be accommodated. Strong SERS responses for 3-5 versus a very weak response for 6, particularly the strong signals from anthracene itself observed for 5 but not for 6, demonstrate the importance of triple bonds for strong Raman activity in molecules of this compound class. The energy of the characteristic stretching vibration of the C≡C bonds is significantly dependent on the aromatic moiety between the triple bonds. The insertion of aromatic moieties between two C≡C bonds thus offers an alternative design for dual Raman and fluorescence chromophores, applicable in multiplex biological Raman imaging.
Project description:Efficient protocols based on Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition were developed for the synthesis of conjugates of pyrrole-imidazole polyamide minor groove binders (MGB) with fluorophores and with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). Diverse bifunctional linkers were synthesized and used for the insertion of terminal azides or alkynes into TFOs and MGBs. The formation of stable triple helices by TFO-MGB conjugates was evaluated by gel-shift experiments. The presence of MGB in these conjugates did not affect the binding parameters (affinity and triplex stability) of the parent TFOs.
Project description:A class of oligonucleotides which binds to naturally-occurring duplex DNA sites at physiologic pH to form triple helical structures was used as transcription attenuators in an in vitro transcription assay. Oligonucleotides were designed to form triple helices with a purine-rich, double-stranded target by binding in the major groove in an orientation anti-parallel to the most purine-rich strand of the target. A 45 base-pair purine-rich region located within the gag gene of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus (FMLV) was used as the duplex target. The target DNA was inserted by molecular cloning downstream of either the bacterial T7- or T3 promoter. The sequence-specific interaction of the triple helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) with the FMLV target was confirmed by DNAse I footprint analysis. The affinity of the TFO, as measured by the equilibrium dissociation constant of the TFO for the duplex, was determined by band shift analysis. When a TFO was allowed to form a triple helix with the target duplex in well-defined buffer conditions before the transcription reaction, truncated transcripts of a predicted size were observed. Attenuation of transcription was observed only when buffer conditions favorable to triple helix formation were used. In addition, oligonucleotides containing a high percentage of guanosine residues were able to inhibit mRNA production of the bacterial T7 polymerase by a mechanism independent of transcription attenuation. The ability of an oligonucleotide-directed triple helical structure to slow down, or even completely stop, RNA chain elongation may expand the utility of triple helix technology in the area of gene regulation.
Project description:Targeting double-stranded DNA with small molecules remains an active area of basic research. Herein is described a cyclic DNA bisintercalator that is based on two naphthalene diimide (NDI) intercalating units tethered by one linking element specific for binding in the minor groove and the other linking element specific for binding in the major groove. DNase I footprinting revealed a strong preference for binding the sequence 5'-GGTACC-3'. NMR structural studies of the complex with d(CGGTACCG)(2) verified a pseudocatenane structure in which the NDI units reside four base pairs apart, with one linker segment located in the minor groove and the other in the major groove consistent with the linker designs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first structurally well-characterized pseudocatenane complex between a sequence specific cyclic bisintercalator and intact DNA.
Project description:Synthesis of a novel class of compounds and their biophysical studies with TAR-RNA are presented. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved by conjugating neomycin, an aminoglycoside, with benzimidazoles modeled from a B-DNA minor groove binder, Hoechst 33258. The neomycin-benzimidazole conjugates have varying linkers that connect the benzimidazole and neomycin units. The linkers of varying length (5-23 atoms) in these conjugates contain one to three triazole units. The UV thermal denaturation experiments showed that the conjugates resulted in greater stabilization of the TAR-RNA than either neomycin or benzimidazole used in the synthesis of conjugates. These results were corroborated by the FID displacement and tat-TAR inhibition assays. The binding of ligands to the TAR-RNA is affected by the length and composition of the linker. Our results show that increasing the number of triazole groups and the linker length in these compounds have diminishing effect on the binding to TAR-RNA. Compounds that have shorter linker length and fewer triazole units in the linker displayed increased affinity towards the TAR RNA.