Characterization of a separate small domain derived from the 5' end of 23S rRNA of an alpha-proteobacterium.
ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the presence of a separate processed domain derived from the 5' end of 23S rRNA in ribosomes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris, a member of the alpha-++proteobacteria. Previous sequencing studies predicted intervening sequences (IVS) at homologous positions within the 23S rRNA genes of several alpha-proteobacteria, including R.palustris, and we find a processed 23S rRNA 5' domain in unfractionated RNA from several species. 5.8S rRNA from eukaryotic cytoplasmic large subunit ribosomes and the bacterial processed 23S rRNA 5' domain share homology, possess similar structures and are both derived by processing of large precursors. However, the internal transcribed spacer regions or IVSs separating them from the main large subunit rRNAs are evolutionarily unrelated. Consistent with the difference in sequence, we find that the site and mechanism of IVS processing also differs. Rhodopseudomonas palustris IVS-containing RNA precursors are cleaved in vitro by Escherichia coli RNase III or a similar activity present in R.palustris extracts at a processing site distinct from that found in eukaryotic systems and this results in only partial processing of the IVS. Surprisingly, in a reaction unlike characterized cases of eubacterial IVS processing, an RNA segment larger than the corresponding DNA insertion is removed which contains conserved sequences. These sequences, by analogy, serve to link the 23S rRNA 5' rRNA domains or 5.8S rRNAs to the main portion of other prokaryotic 23S rRNAs or to eukaryotic 28S rRNAs, respectively.
Project description:Widespread occurrence of a separate small RNA derived from the 5'-end of 23S rRNA and of an intervening sequence (IVS) which separates this domain from the main segment of 23S rRNA in the alpha-proteobacteria implies that processing reactions which act to excise the IVS are also maintained in this group. We previously characterized the first example of processing of this IVS in Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which is classified with the Bradyrhizobia In this case, IVS excision occurs by a multistep process and RNase III appears to act at an early step. Here, we characterize in vivo and in vitro IVS processing in two other related, but phenotypically distinct, Bradyrhizobia We also examine in vivo and in vitro processing of rRNA precursors from a more distantly related alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides which produces a separate 5' 23S rRNA domain but has different sequences in the 5' 23S rRNA IVS. The details of the in vivo processing of all of the Bradyrhizobial rRNAs closely resemble the R. palustris example and in vitro studies suggest that all of the Bradyrhizobia utilize RNase III in the first step of IVS cleavage. Remarkably, in vivo and in vitro studies with R.sphaeroides indicate that initial IVS cleavage uses a different mechanism. While the mechanism of IVS cleavage differs among these alpha-proteobacteria, in all of these cases the limits of the internal segments processed in vivo are almost identical and occur far beyond the initial cleavage sites within the IVSs. We propose that these bacteria possess common secondary maturation pathways which enable them to generate similarly processed 23S rRNA 5'- and 3'-ends.
Project description:We provide experimental evidence for RNase III-dependent processing in helix 9 of the 23S rRNA as a general feature of many species in the alpha subclass of Proteobacteria (alpha-Proteobacteria). We investigated 12 Rhodobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Bartonella strains. The processed region is characterized by the presence of intervening sequences (IVSs). The 23S rDNA sequences between positions 109 and 205 (Escherichia coli numbering) were determined, and potential secondary structures are proposed. Comparison of the IVSs indicates very different evolutionary rates in some phylogenetic branches, lateral genetic transfer, and evolution by insertion and/or deletion. We show that the IVS processing in Rhodobacter capsulatus in vivo is RNase III-dependent and that RNase III cleaves additional sites in vitro. While all IVS-containing transcripts tested are processed in vitro by RNase III from R. capsulatus, E. coli RNase III recognizes only some of them as substrates and in these substrates frequently cleaves at different scissile bonds. These results demonstrate the different substrate specificities of the two enzymes. Although RNase III plays an important role in the rRNA, mRNA, and bacteriophage RNA maturation, its substrate specificity is still not well understood. Comparison of the IVSs of helix 9 does not hint at sequence motives involved in recognition but reveals that the "antideterminant" model, which represents the most recent attempt to explain the E. coli RNase III specificity in vitro, cannot be applied to substrates derived from alpha-Proteobacteria.
Project description:Ribosome assembly begins with conversion of a polycistronic precursor into 18S, 5.8S, and 25S rRNAs. In the ascomycete fungus Candida albicans, rRNA transcription starts 604 nt upstream of the 18S rRNA junction (site A1). One major internal processing site in the 5' external transcribed spacer (A0) occurs 108 nt from site A1. The A0-A1 fragment persists as a stable species during log phase growth and can be used to assess proliferation rates. Separation of the small and large subunit pre-rRNAs occurs at sites A2 and A3 in internal transcribed spacer-1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-rRNA. However, the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA is represented by only a 5.8S (S) form, and a 7S rRNA precursor of the 5.8S rRNA extends into internal transcribed spacer 1 to site A2, which differs from S. cerevisiae. External transcribed spacer 1 and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 show remarkable structural similarity with S. cerevisiae despite low sequence identity. Maturation of C. albicans rRNA resembles other eukaryotes in that processing can occur cotranscriptionally or post-transcriptionally. During rapid proliferation, U3 snoRNA-dependent processing occurs before large and small subunit rRNA separation, consistent with cotranscriptional processing. As cells pass the diauxic transition, the 18S pre-rRNA accumulates into stationary phase as a 23S species, possessing an intact 5' external transcribed spacer extending to site A3. Nutrient addition to starved cells results in the disappearance of the 23S rRNA, indicating a potential role in normal physiology. Therefore, C. albicans reveals new mechanisms that regulate post- versus cotranscriptional rRNA processing.
Project description:Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) biogenesis are multistep processes requiring the activity of several nuclear and cytoplasmic exonucleases. The exact processing steps for mammalian 5.8S rRNA remains obscure. Here, using loss-of-function approaches in mouse embryonic stem cells and deep sequencing of rRNA intermediates, we investigate at nucleotide resolution the requirements of exonucleases known to be involved in 5.8S maturation, and explore the role of the Perlman syndrome-associated 3’-5’ exonuclease Dis3l2 in rRNA processing. We expand the repertoire of Dis3l2 targets to three 5.8S, 5S, and 28S rRNAs. We uncover a novel cytoplasmic intermediate that we name ‘7SB’ rRNA that is generated through sequential processing by distinct exosome complexes. 7SB rRNA can be oligouridylated by TUT4/7 and subsequently processed by Dis3l2 and Eri1. Moreover, exosome depletion triggers Dis3l2-mediated decay (DMD) as a surveillance pathway for rRNAs. Our data identify previously unknown 5.8S rRNA processing steps and provide nucleotide level insight into the exonuclease requirements for mammalian rRNA processing. Overall design: The 3'-end of indicated ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) were characterized by MiSeq upon genetic perturbation of Dis3l2, Exosc3, Exosc10, or Eri1 in mouse ESCs. Occasionally, to enrich for Dis3l2 targets, FLAG-tagged mutant Dis3l2 protein was ectopically expressed in Dis3l2 knockout ESCs and Dis3l2-bound rRNAs were co-immunoprecipitated using anti-FLAG antibody, cloned and sequenced. rRNA-specific sequences and adapters were used to extract desired reads from raw data.
Project description:Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis is a multistep process requiring several nuclear and cytoplasmic exonucleases. The exact processing steps for mammalian 5.8S rRNA remain obscure. Here, using loss-of-function approaches in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and deep sequencing of rRNA intermediates, we investigate the requirements of exonucleases known to be involved in 5.8S maturation at nucleotide resolution and explore the role of the Perlman syndrome-associated 3'-5' exonuclease Dis3l2 in rRNA processing. We uncover a novel cytoplasmic intermediate that we name '7SB' rRNA that is generated through sequential processing by distinct exosome complexes. 7SB rRNA can be oligoadenylated by an unknown enzyme and/or oligouridylated by TUT4/7 and subsequently processed by Dis3l2 and Eri1. Moreover, exosome depletion triggers Dis3l2-mediated decay (DMD) as a surveillance pathway for rRNAs. Our data identify previously unknown 5.8S rRNA processing steps and provide nucleotide-level insight into the exonuclease requirements for mammalian rRNA processing.
Project description:We have introduced the intervening sequence (IVS) from 23S rRNA of the rrnD operon of Salmonella typhimurium into the equivalent position of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA. Salmonella typhimurium 23S rRNA is fragmented due to the RNase III-dependent removal of the approximately 100 nt stem-loop structure that comprises the IVS. In this study, we have found that insertion of the S. typhimurium IVS into E. coli 23S rRNA causes fragmentation of the RNA but does not affect ribosome function. Cells expressing the fragmented 23S rRNA exhibited wild-type growth rates. Fragmented RNA was found in the actively translating polysome pool and did not alter the sedimentation profile of ribosomal subunits, 70S ribosomes or polysomes. Finally, hybrid 23S rRNA carrying the A2058G mutation conferred high level erythromycin resistance indistinguishable from that of intact 23S rRNA carrying this mutation. These observations indicate that the presence of this IVS and its removal are phenotypically silent. As observed in an RNase III-deficient strain, processing of the IVS was not required for the production of functional ribosomes.
Project description:In most bacteria, ribosomal RNA is transcribed as a single polycistronic precursor that is first processed by RNase III. This double-stranded specific RNase cleaves two large stems flanking the 23S and 16S rRNA mature sequences, liberating three 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA precursors, which are further processed by other ribonucleases. Here, we investigate the rRNA maturation pathway of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. This bacterium has an unusual arrangement of its rRNA genes, the 16S rRNA gene being separated from a 23S-5S rRNA cluster. We show that RNase III also initiates processing in this organism, by cleaving two typical stem structures encompassing 16S and 23S rRNAs and an atypical stem-loop located upstream of the 5S rRNA. Deletion of RNase III leads to the accumulation of a large 23S-5S precursor that is found in polysomes, suggesting that it can function in translation. Finally, we characterize a cis-encoded antisense RNA overlapping the leader of the 23S-5S rRNA precursor. We present evidence that this antisense RNA interacts with this precursor, forming an intermolecular complex that is cleaved by RNase III. This pairing induces additional specific cleavages of the rRNA precursor coupled with a rapid degradation of the antisense RNA.
Project description:Ribosome synthesis entails the formation of mature rRNAs from long precursor molecules, following a complex pre-rRNA processing pathway. Why the generation of mature rRNA ends is so complicated is unclear. Nor is it understood how pre-rRNA processing is coordinated at distant sites on pre-rRNA molecules. Here we characterized, in budding yeast and human cells, the evolutionarily conserved protein Las1. We found that, in both species, Las1 is required to process ITS2, which separates the 5.8S and 25S/28S rRNAs. In yeast, Las1 is required for pre-rRNA processing at both ends of ITS2. It is required for Rrp6-dependent formation of the 5.8S rRNA 3' end and for Rat1-dependent formation of the 25S rRNA 5' end. We further show that the Rat1-Rai1 5'-3' exoribonuclease (exoRNase) complex functionally connects processing at both ends of the 5.8S rRNA. We suggest that pre-rRNA processing is coordinated at both ends of 5.8S rRNA and both ends of ITS2, which are brought together by pre-rRNA folding, by an RNA processing complex. Consistently, we note the conspicuous presence of ~7- or 8-nucleotide extensions on both ends of 5.8S rRNA precursors and at the 5' end of pre-25S RNAs suggestive of a protected spacer fragment of similar length.
Project description:The 5'-exonuclease Rat1 degrades pre-rRNA spacer fragments and processes the 5'-ends of the 5.8S and 25S rRNAs. UV crosslinking revealed multiple Rat1-binding sites across the pre-rRNA, consistent with its known functions. The major 5.8S 5'-end is generated by Rat1 digestion of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) spacer from cleavage site A(3). Processing from A(3) requires the 'A(3)-cluster' proteins, including Cic1, Erb1, Nop7, Nop12 and Nop15, which show interdependent pre-rRNA binding. Surprisingly, A(3)-cluster factors were not crosslinked close to site A(3), but bound sites around the 5.8S 3'- and 25S 5'-regions, which are base paired in mature ribosomes, and in the ITS2 spacer that separates these rRNAs. In contrast, Nop4, a protein required for endonucleolytic cleavage in ITS1, binds the pre-rRNA near the 5'-end of 5.8S. ITS2 was reported to undergo structural remodelling. In vivo chemical probing indicates that A(3)-cluster binding is required for this reorganization, potentially regulating the timing of processing. We predict that Nop4 and the A(3) cluster establish long-range interactions between the 5.8S and 25S rRNAs, which are subsequently maintained by ribosomal protein binding.
Project description:To elucidate the organization of the transcription units encoding the 16S, 23S and 5S rRNAs in the archaebacterium Thermoplasma acidophilum, the nucleotide sequences flanking the three rRNA genes were determined, and the 5' and 3' termini of the rRNA transcripts were mapped by primer extension and nuclease S1 protection. The results show that each of the rRNAs is transcribed separately, consistent with the lack of physical proximity among them in the T. acidophilum genome. The transcription initiation sites are preceded at an interval of approximately 25 base pairs by conserved A + T-rich sequences of the form CTTATATA, which strongly resemble the archaebacterial promoter consensus, TTTAT/AATA. In all three cases, transcription termination occurs within T-rich tracts just downstream from inverted repeats which can be folded into relatively stable stem-loop structures. While no partially processed intermediates of the 16S or 5S rRNA transcripts were detected, the 23S rRNA transcript appears to be processed by a RNase III-like activity prior to final maturation. This is the only organism known in the prokaryotic world in which the 16S, 23S and 5S rRNAs are all expressed from separate transcription units.