ATP hydrolysis-dependent formation of a dynamic ternary nucleoprotein complex with MutS and MutL.
ABSTRACT: Functional interactions of Escherichia coli MutS and MutL in mismatch repair are dependent on ATP. In this study, we show that MutS and MutL associate with immobilised DNA in a manner dependent on ATP hydrolysis and with an ATP concentration near the solution K m of the ATPase of MutS. After removal of MutS, MutL and ATP, much of the protein in this ternary complex is not stably associated, with MutL leaving the complex more rapidly than MutS. The rapid dissociation reveals a dynamic interaction with concurrent rapid association and dissociation of proteins from the DNA. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance showed that the DNA interacting with dynamically bound protein was more resistant to nuclease digestion than the DNA in MutS-DNA complexes. Non-hydrolysable analogs of ATP inhibit the formation of this dynamic complex, but permit formation of a second type of ternary complex with MutS and MutL stably bound to the immobilised DNA.
Project description:The ternary complex comprising MutS, MutL, and DNA is a key intermediate in DNA mismatch repair. We used chemical cross-linking and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to study the interaction between MutS and MutL and to shed light onto the structure of this complex. Via chemical cross-linking, we could stabilize this dynamic complex and identify the structural features of key events in DNA mismatch repair. We could show that in the complex between MutS and MutL the mismatch-binding and connector domains of MutS are in proximity to the N-terminal ATPase domain of MutL. The DNA- and nucleotide-dependent complex formation could be monitored by FRET using single cysteine variants labeled in the connector domain of MutS and the transducer domain of MutL, respectively. In addition, we could trap MutS after an ATP-induced conformational change by an intramolecular cross-link between Cys-93 of the mismatch-binding domain and Cys-239 of the connector domain.
Project description:Escherichia coli MutS forms a mispair-dependent ternary complex with MutL that is essential for initiating mismatch repair (MMR) but is structurally uncharacterized, in part owing to its dynamic nature. Here, we used hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and other methods to identify a region in the connector domain (domain II) of MutS that binds MutL and is required for mispair-dependent ternary complex formation and MMR. A structurally conserved region in Msh2, the eukaryotic homolog, was required for formation of a mispair-dependent Msh2-Msh6-Mlh1-Pms1 ternary complex. These data indicate that the connector domain of MutS and Msh2 contains the interface for binding MutL and Mlh1-Pms1, respectively, and support a mechanism whereby mispair and ATP binding induces a conformational change that allows the MutS and Msh2 interfaces to interact with their partners.
Project description:To avoid mutations in the genome, DNA replication is generally followed by DNA mismatch repair (MMR). MMR starts when a MutS homolog recognizes a mismatch and undergoes an ATP-dependent transformation to an elusive sliding clamp state. How this transient state promotes MutL homolog recruitment and activation of repair is unclear. Here we present a crystal structure of the MutS/MutL complex using a site-specifically crosslinked complex and examine how large conformational changes lead to activation of MutL. The structure captures MutS in the sliding clamp conformation, where tilting of the MutS subunits across each other pushes DNA into a new channel, and reorientation of the connector domain creates an interface for MutL with both MutS subunits. Our work explains how the sliding clamp promotes loading of MutL onto DNA, to activate downstream effectors. We thus elucidate a crucial mechanism that ensures that MMR is initiated only after detection of a DNA mismatch.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) identifies and corrects errors made during replication. In all organisms except those expressing MutH, interactions between a DNA mismatch, MutS, MutL, and the replication processivity factor (β-clamp or PCNA) activate the latent MutL endonuclease to nick the error-containing daughter strand. This nick provides an entry point for downstream repair proteins. Despite the well-established significance of strand-specific nicking in MMR, the mechanism(s) by which MutS and MutL assemble on mismatch DNA to allow the subsequent activation of MutL's endonuclease activity by β-clamp/PCNA remains elusive. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, MutS homologs undergo conformational changes to a mobile clamp state that can move away from the mismatch. However, the function of this MutS mobile clamp is unknown. Furthermore, whether the interaction with MutL leads to a mobile MutS-MutL complex or a mismatch-localized complex is hotly debated. We used single molecule FRET to determine that Thermus aquaticus MutL traps MutS at a DNA mismatch after recognition but before its conversion to a sliding clamp. Rather than a clamp, a conformationally dynamic protein assembly typically containing more MutL than MutS is formed at the mismatch. This complex provides a local marker where interaction with β-clamp/PCNA could distinguish parent/daughter strand identity. Our finding that MutL fundamentally changes MutS actions following mismatch detection reframes current thinking on MMR signaling processes critical for genomic stability.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and very-short patch (VSP) repair are two pathways involved in the repair of T:G mismatches. To learn about competition and cooperation between these two repair pathways, we analyzed the physical and functional interaction between MutL and Vsr using biophysical and biochemical methods. Analytical ultracentrifugation reveals a nucleotide-dependent interaction between Vsr and the N-terminal domain of MutL. Using chemical crosslinking, we mapped the interaction site of MutL for Vsr to a region between the N-terminal domains similar to that described before for the interaction between MutL and the strand discrimination endonuclease MutH of the MMR system. Competition between MutH and Vsr for binding to MutL resulted in inhibition of the mismatch-provoked MutS- and MutL-dependent activation of MutH, which explains the mutagenic effect of Vsr overexpression. Cooperation between MMR and VSP repair was demonstrated by the stimulation of the Vsr endonuclease in a MutS-, MutL- and ATP-hydrolysis-dependent manner, in agreement with the enhancement of VSP repair by MutS and MutL in vivo. These data suggest a mobile MutS-MutL complex in MMR signalling, that leaves the DNA mismatch prior to, or at the time of, activation of downstream effector molecules such as Vsr or MutH.
Project description:The mutL and mutS genes of Vibrio cholerae have been identified using interspecific complementation of Escherichia coli mutL and mutS mutants with plasmids containing the gene bank of V. cholerae. The recombinant plasmid pJT470, containing a 4.7 kb fragment of V. cholerae DNA codes for a protein of molecular weight 92,000. The product of this gene reduces the spontaneous mutation frequency of the E. coli mutS mutant. The plasmid, designated pJT250, containing a 2.5 kb DNA fragment of V. cholerae and coding for a protein of molecular weight 62,000, complements the mutL gene function of E. coli mutL mutants. These gene products are involved in the repair of mismatches in DNA. The complete nucleotide sequence of mutL gene of V. cholerae has been determined.
Project description:Mismatch repair (MMR) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA repair system, which corrects mismatched bases arising during DNA replication. MutS recognizes and binds base pair mismatches, while the MutL protein interacts with MutS-mismatch complex and triggers MutH endonuclease activity at a distal-strand discrimination site on the DNA. The mechanism of communication between these two distal sites on the DNA is not known. We used functional fluorescent MMR proteins, MutS and MutL, in order to investigate the formation of the fluorescent MMR protein complexes on mismatches in real-time in growing Escherichia coli cells. We found that MutS and MutL proteins co-localize on unrepaired mismatches to form fluorescent foci. MutL foci were, on average, 2.7 times more intense than the MutS foci co-localized on individual mismatches. A steric block on the DNA provided by the MutHE56A mutant protein, which binds to but does not cut the DNA at the strand discrimination site, decreased MutL foci fluorescence 3-fold. This indicates that MutL accumulates from the mismatch site toward strand discrimination site along the DNA. Our results corroborate the hypothesis postulating that MutL accumulation assures the coordination of the MMR activities between the mismatch and the strand discrimination site.
Project description:DNA mismatch repair greatly increases genome fidelity by recognizing and removing replication errors. In order to understand how this fidelity is maintained, it is important to uncover the relative specificities of the different components of mismatch repair. There are two major mispair recognition complexes in eukaryotes that are homologues of bacterial MutS proteins, MutS? and MutS?, with MutS? recognizing base-base mismatches and small loop mispairs and MutS? recognizing larger loop mispairs. Upon recognition of a mispair, the MutS complexes then interact with homologues of the bacterial MutL protein. Loops formed on the primer strand during replication lead to insertion mutations, whereas loops on the template strand lead to deletions. We show here in yeast, using oligonucleotide transformation, that MutS? has a strong bias toward repair of insertion loops, while MutS? has an even stronger bias toward repair of deletion loops. Our results suggest that this bias in repair is due to the different interactions of the MutS complexes with the MutL complexes. Two mutants of MutL?, pms1-G882E and pms1-H888R, repair deletion mispairs but not insertion mispairs. Moreover, we find that a different MutL complex, MutL?, is extremely important, but not sufficient, for deletion repair in the presence of either MutL? mutation. MutS? is present in many eukaryotic organisms, but not in prokaryotes. We suggest that the biased repair of deletion mispairs may reflect a critical eukaryotic function of MutS? in mismatch repair.
Project description:A simple genetic system has been developed to test the effect of over-expression of wild-type or mutated human MutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) proteins on methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR) in Escherichia coli. The system relies on detection of Lac(+) revertants using MMR-proficient or MMR-deficient E. coli strains carrying a lac +1 frameshift mutation expressing hMLH1 proteins. We report that expression of wild-type hMLH1 protein causes an approx. 19-fold increase in mutation rates. The mutator phenotype was due to the ability of hMLH1 protein to interact with bacterial MutL and MutS proteins, thereby interfering with the formation of complexes between MMR proteins and mismatched DNA. Conversely, expression of proteins encoded by alleles deriving from hereditary-non-polyposis-colon-cancer (HNPCC) families decreases mutation rates, depending on the specific amino acid substitutions. These effects parallel the MutL-and MutS-binding and ATP-binding/hydrolysis activities of the mutated proteins.
Project description:The Escherichia coli MutL protein regulates the activity of several enzymes, including MutS, MutH, and UvrD, during methyl-directed mismatch repair of DNA. We have investigated the self-association properties of MutL and its binding to DNA using analytical sedimentation velocity and equilibrium. Self-association of MutL is quite sensitive to solution conditions. At 25 °C in Tris at pH 8.3, MutL assembles into a heterogeneous mixture of large multimers. In the presence of potassium phosphate at pH 7.4, MutL forms primarily stable dimers, with the higher-order assembly states suppressed. The weight-average sedimentation coefficient of the MutL dimer in this buffer ( ?s(20,w)) is equal to 5.20 ± 0.08 S, suggesting a highly asymmetric dimer (f/f(o) = 1.58 ± 0.02). Upon binding the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, AMPPNP/Mg(2+), the MutL dimer becomes more compact ( ?s(20,w) = 5.71 ± 0.08 S; f/f(o) = 1.45 ± 0.02), probably reflecting reorganization of the N-terminal ATPase domains. A MutL dimer binds to an 18 bp duplex with a 3'-(dT(20)) single-stranded flanking region, with apparent affinity in the micromolar range. AMPPNP binding to MutL increases its affinity for DNA by a factor of ?10. These results indicate that the presence of phosphate minimizes further MutL oligomerization beyond a dimer and that differences in solution conditions likely explain apparent discrepancies in previous studies of MutL assembly.