Sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase regulates endoplasmic reticulum-to-golgi trafficking of ceramide.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) phosphohydrolase 1 (SPP-1), which is located mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates sphingolipid metabolism and apoptosis (H. Le Stunff et al., J. Cell Biol. 158:1039-1049, 2002). We show here that the treatment of SPP-1-overexpressing cells with S1P, but not with dihydro-S1P, increased all ceramide species, particularly the long-chain ceramides. This was not due to inhibition of ceramide metabolism to sphingomyelin or monohexosylceramides but rather to the inhibition of ER-to-Golgi trafficking, determined with the fluorescent ceramide analog N-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-d-erythro-sphingosine (DMB-Cer). Fumonisin B1, an inhibitor of ceramide synthase, prevented S1P-induced elevation of all ceramide species and corrected the defect in ER transport of DMB-Cer, readily allowing its detection in the Golgi. In contrast, ceramide accumulation had no effect on either the trafficking or the metabolism of 6-([N-(7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl)-sphingosine, which rapidly labels the Golgi even at 4 degrees C. Protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi, determined with vesicular stomatitis virus ts045 G protein fused to green fluorescent protein, was also inhibited in SPP-1-overexpressing cells in the presence of S1P but not in the presence of dihydro-S1P. Our results suggest that SPP-1 regulates ceramide levels in the ER and thus influences the anterograde membrane transport of both ceramide and proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.
Project description:Ceramidases hydrolyze ceramides into sphingosine and fatty acids, with sphingosine being further metabolized into sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); thus, ceramidases control the levels of these bioactive sphingolipids in cells and tissues. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase) is highly expressed in colorectal tissues, and a recent report showed that nCDase activity is involved in Wnt/?-catenin signaling. In addition, the inhibition of nCDase decreases the development and progression of colorectal tumor growth. Here, to determine the action of nCDase in colorectal cancer cells, we focused on the subcellular localization and metabolic functions of this enzyme in HCT116 cells. nCDase was found to be located in both the plasma membrane and in the Golgi apparatus, but it had minimal effects on basal levels of ceramide, sphingosine, or S1P. Cells overexpressing nCDase were protected from the cell death and Golgi fragmentation induced by C6-ceramide, and they showed reduced levels of C6-ceramide and higher levels of S1P and sphingosine. Furthermore, compartment-specific metabolic functions of the enzyme were probed using C6-ceramide and Golgi-targeted bacterial SMase (bSMase) and bacterial ceramidase (bCDase). The results showed that Golgi-specific bCDase also demonstrated resistance against the cell death stimulated by C6-ceramide, and it catalyzed the metabolism of ceramides and produced sphingosine in the Golgi. Targeting bSMase to the Golgi resulted in increased levels of ceramide that were attenuated by the expression of nCDase, also supporting its ability to metabolize Golgi-generated ceramide. These results are critical in understanding the functions of nCDase actions in colorectal cancer cells as well as the compartmentalized pathways of sphingolipid metabolism.
Project description:The sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have recently been implicated in autophagy. In this study, we report that depletion of sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase-1 (SPP1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident enzyme that specifically dephosphorylates S1P, induced autophagy. Although the mammalian target of rapamycin and class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Beclin-1 pathways were not involved and this autophagy was p53 independent, C/EBP homologous protein, BiP, and phospho-eucaryotic translation initiation factor-2?, and cleavage of procaspases 2 and 4, downstream targets of ER stress, were increased after SPP1 depletion. Autophagy was suppressed by depletion of protein kinase regulated by RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease-1?, or activating transcription factor 6, three sensors of the unfolded protein response (UPR) to ER stress. Autophagy triggered by downregulation of SPP1 did not lead to apoptosis but rather stimulated, in a PERK dependent manner, the survival signal Akt, whose inhibition then sensitized cells to apoptosis. Although depletion of SPP1 increased intracellular levels of S1P and its secretion, activation of cell surface S1P receptors did not induce autophagy. Nevertheless, increases in intracellular pools of S1P, but not dihydro-S1P, induced autophagy and ER stress. Thus, SPP1, by regulating intracellular S1P homeostasis, can control the UPR and ER stress-induced autophagy.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rapidly progressive malignancy arising preferentially in immunocompromised patients. With conventional chemotherapy, PEL continues to portend high mortality, dictating the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) represents a key gatekeeper for sphingolipid metabolism, responsible for conversion of ceramides to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). We have previously demonstrated that targeting SphK2 using a novel selective inhibitor, ABC294640, leads to intracellular accumulation of ceramides and induces apoptosis for KSHV-infected PEL cells, while suppressing tumor progression in vivo. In the current study, we sought to determine whether specific ceramide/dh-ceramide species and related ceramide synthases (CerS) impact viability for KSHV-infected PEL cells during targeting of SphK2. We found that several specific ceramide and dihydro(dh)-ceramide species and their associated CerS reduce PEL survival and tumor expansion in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that dhC16-Cer induces PEL apoptosis in part through activation of KSHV lytic gene expression. These data further implicate bioactive sphingolipids in regulation of PEL survival, and provide justification for future studies evaluating clinically relevant ceramide analogs or mimetics for their potential as therapeutic agents for PEL.
Project description:PURPOSE:Sphingolipids (SPL) play roles in cell signaling, inflammation, and apoptosis. Changes in SPL composition have been reported in individuals with MGD, but associations between clinical signs of MGD and compositional changes in meibum SPLs have not been examined. METHODS:Forty-three individuals underwent a tear film assessment. Groups were split into those with good or poor quality meibum. Meibum was collected then analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy to quantify SPL classes. Relative composition of SPL and major classes, Ceramide (Cer), Hexosyl-Ceramide (Hex-Cer), Sphingomyelin (SM), Sphingosine (Sph) and Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was calculated via mole percent. RESULTS:22 and 21 individuals were characterized with good and poor quality meibum, respectively. Individuals with poor quality were older (60?±?8 vs 51?±?16 years) and more likely to be male (90% vs 64%). Relative composition analysis revealed that individuals with poor meibum quality had SPL composed of less Cer (33.36% vs 49.49%, p?<?0.01), Hex-Cer (4.88% vs 9.15%, p?<?0.01), and S1P (0.16% vs 0.31%, p?=?0.05), and more SM (58.67% vs 38.18%, p?<?0.01) and Sph (2.92% vs 2.87%, p?=?0.97) compared to individuals with good quality meibum. Assessment of the ratio of Cer (pro-apoptotic) to S1P (pro-survival) showed that individuals with poor meibum quality had a relative increase in Cer (495.23 vs 282.69, p?=?0.07). CONCLUSION:Meibum quality, a clinically graded marker of MGD, is associated with compositional changes in meibum sphingolipids. Further investigation of the structural and bioactive roles of sphingolipids in MGD may provide future targets for therapy.
Project description:Ceramide (Cer) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus was measured under conditions that block vesicle-mediated protein transfer. This was done either in intact cells by reducing the incubation temperature to 15 degreesC, or in streptolysin O-permeabilized cells by manipulating the intracellular environment. In both cases, Cer transfer was not inhibited, as demonstrated by the biosynthesis of ceramide monohexosides and sphingomyelin (SM) de novo from metabolically (with [14C]serine) labelled Cer. This assay is based on the knowledge that Cer is synthesized, starting from serine and palmitoyl-CoA, at the ER, whereas glycosphingolipids and SM are synthesized in the (early) Golgi apparatus. Formation of [14C]glycosphingolipids and [14C]SM was observed under conditions that block vesicle-mediated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transport. These results indicate that [14C]Cer is transferred from ER to Golgi by a non-vesicular mechanism.
Project description:Electronegative low-density lipoprotein (LDL(-)) is a minor LDL subfraction that is present in blood with inflammatory and apoptotic effects. We aimed to evaluate the role of sphingolipids ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sph), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in the LDL(-)-induced effect on monocytes. Total LDL was subfractioned into native LDL and LDL(-) by anion-exchange chromatography and their sphingolipid content evaluated by mass spectrometry. LDL subfractions were incubated with monocytes in the presence or absence of enzyme inhibitors: chlorpromazine (CPZ), d-erythro-2-(N-myristoyl amino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol (MAPP), and N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), which inhibit Cer, Sph, and S1P generation, respectively. After incubation, we evaluated cytokine release by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and apoptosis by flow cytometry. LDL(-) had an increased content in Cer and Sph compared to LDL(+). LDL(-)-induced cytokine release from cultured monocytes was inhibited by CPZ and MAPP, whereas DMS had no effect. LDL(-) promoted monocyte apoptosis, which was inhibited by CPZ, but increased with the addition of DMS. LDL enriched with Sph increased cytokine release in monocytes, and when enriched with Cer, reproduced both the apoptotic and inflammatory effects of LDL(-). These observations indicate that Cer content contributes to the inflammatory and apoptotic effects of LDL(-) on monocytes, whereas Sph plays a more important role in LDL(-)-induced inflammation, and S1P counteracts apoptosis.
Project description:Although most glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are thought to be located in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, recent evidence indicates that GSLs and their precursor, ceramide, are also associated with intracellular organelles and, particularly, mitochondria. GSL biosynthesis starts with the formation of ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is transported by controversial mechanisms to the Golgi apparatus, where stepwise addition of monosaccharides on to ceramides takes place. We now report the presence of GSL-biosynthetic enzymes in a subcompartment of the ER previously characterized and termed 'mitochondria-associated membrane' (MAM). MAM is a membrane bridge between the ER and mitochondria that is involved in the biosynthesis and trafficking of phospholipids between the two organelles. Using exogenous acceptors coated on silica gel, we demonstrate the presence of ceramide glucosyltransferase (Cer-Glc-T), glucosylceramide galactosyltransferase and sialyltransferase (SAT) activities in the MAM. Estimation of the marker-enzyme activities showed that glycosyltransferase activities could not be ascribed to cross-contamination of MAM by Golgi membranes. Cer-Glc-T was found to have a marked preference for ceramide bearing phytosphingosine as sphingoid base. SAT activities in MAM led to the synthesis of G(M3) ganglioside and small amounts of G(D3). G(M1) was also synthesized along with G(M3) upon incubation of the fraction with exogenous unlabelled G(M3), underlying the presence of other sphingolipid-specific glycosyltransferases in MAM. On the basis of our results, we propose MAM as a privileged compartment in providing GSLs for mitochondria.
Project description:Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids that can modulate insulin sensitivity, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis in a tissue-specific manner. However, their comparative profiles in bovine retroperitoneal (RPAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) are currently unknown. We aimed to characterize the sphingolipid profiles using a targeted lipidomics approach and to assess whether potentially related sphingolipid pathways are different between SCAT and RPAT. Holstein bulls (<i>n</i> = 6) were slaughtered, and SCAT and RPAT samples were collected for sphingolipid profiling. A total of 70 sphingolipid species were detected and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, including ceramide (Cer), dihydroceramide (DHCer), sphingomyelin (SM), dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM), ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), galactosylceramide (GalCer), glucosylceramide (GluCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), sphinganine (DHSph), and sphingosine (Sph). Our results showed that sphingolipids of the de novo synthesis pathway, such as DHSph, DHCer, and Cer, were more concentrated in RPAT than in SCAT. Sphingolipids of the salvage pathway and the sphingomyelinase pathway, such as Sph, S1P, C1P, glycosphingolipid, and SM, were more concentrated in SCAT. Our results indicate that RPAT had a greater extent of ceramide accumulation, thereby increasing the concentration of further sphingolipid intermediates in the de novo synthesis pathway. This distinctive sphingolipid distribution pattern in RPAT and SCAT can potentially explain the tissue-specific activity in insulin sensitivity, proinflammation, and oxidative stress in RPAT and SCAT.
Project description:The sphingolipid S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) is known to be involved in a number of pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, autoimmune diseases and fibrosis. It acts extracellularly through a set of five G-protein-coupled receptors, but its intracellular actions are also well documented. Employing in vitro selection techniques, we identified an L-aptamer (Spiegelmer®) to S1P designated NOX-S93. The binding affinity of NOX-S93 to S1P had a Kd value of 4.3 nM. The Spiegelmer® shows equal binding to dihydro-S1P, but no cross-reactivity to the related lipids sphingosine, lysophosphatidic acid, ceramide, ceramide-1-phosphate or sphingosine phosphocholine. In stably transfected CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cell lines expressing the S1P receptors S1PR1 or S1PR3, NOX-S93 inhibits S1P-mediated ?-arrestin recruitment and intracellular calcium release respectively, with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. The pro-angiogenic activity of S1P, and of the growth factors VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor-A), FGF-2 (fibroblast growth factor-2) and IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), was effectively blocked by NOX-S93 in a cellular angiogenesis assay employing primary human endothelial cells. These data provide further evidence for the relevance of extracellular S1P as a central mediator of angiogenesis, suggesting pharmacological S1P neutralization as a promising treatment alternative to current anti-angiogenesis approaches.
Project description:We used a HPLC-MS/MS methodology for determination of a basic metabolomic profile (18:1,18:0 sphingoid backbone, C(14)-C(26) N-acyl part) of "normal" sphingolipid levels in human serum and plasma. Blood was collected from healthy males and nonpregnant females under fasting and nonfasting conditions with and without anticoagulants. Sphingolipids analyzed included sphingoid bases, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine, their 1-phosphates (S1P and dhS1P), molecular species (C(n)-) of ceramide (Cer), sphingomyelin (SM), hexosylceramide (HexCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and Cer 1-phosphate (Cer1P). SM, LacCer, HexCer, Cer, and Cer1P constituted 87.7, 5.8, 3.4, 2.8, and 0.15% of total sphingolipids, respectively. The abundant circulating SM was C(16)-SM (64.0 µM), and it increased with fasting (100 µM). The abundant LacCer was C(16)-LacCer (10.0 µM) and the abundant HexCer was C(24)-HexCer (2.5 µM). The abundant Cer, C(24)-Cer (4.0 µM), was not influenced by fasting; however, levels of C(16)-C(20) Cers were decreased in response to fasting. S1P levels were higher in serum than plasma (0.68 µM vs. 0.32 µM). We also determined levels of sphingoid bases and SM species in isolated lipoprotein classes. HDL(3) was the major carrier of S1P, dhS1P, and Sph, and LDL was the major carrier of Cer and dhSph. Per particle, VLDL contained the highest levels of SM, Cer, and S1P. HPLC-MS/MS should provide a tool for clinical testing of circulating bioactive sphingolipids in human blood.