Purification and characterization of an arene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase endowed with broad substrate specificity toward polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiols.
ABSTRACT: Initial reactions involved in the bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a ring-dihydroxylation catalyzed by a dioxygenase and a subsequent oxidation of the dihydrodiol products by a dehydrogenase. In this study, the dihydrodiol dehydrogenase from the PAH-degrading Sphingomonas strain CHY-1 has been characterized. The bphB gene encoding PAH dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (PDDH) was cloned and overexpressed as a His-tagged protein. The recombinant protein was purified as a homotetramer with an apparent Mr of 110,000. PDDH oxidized the cis-dihydrodiols derived from biphenyl and eight polycyclic hydrocarbons, including chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene, to corresponding catechols. Remarkably, the enzyme oxidized pyrene 4,5-dihydrodiol, whereas pyrene is not metabolized by strain CHY-1. The PAH catechols produced by PDDH rapidly auto-oxidized in air but were regenerated upon reaction of the o-quinones formed with NADH. Kinetic analyses performed under anoxic conditions revealed that the enzyme efficiently utilized two- to four-ring dihydrodiols, with Km values in the range of 1.4 to 7.1 microM, and exhibited a much higher Michaelis constant for NAD+ (Km of 160 microM). At pH 7.0, the specificity constant ranged from (1.3 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) with benz[a]anthracene 1,2-dihydrodiol to (20.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) with naphthalene 1,2-dihydrodiol. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was 13-fold higher at pH 9.5. PDDH was subjected to inhibition by NADH and by 3,4-dihydroxyphenanthrene, and the inhibition patterns suggested that the mechanism of the reaction was ordered Bi Bi. The regulation of PDDH activity appears as a means to prevent the accumulation of PAH catechols in bacterial cells.
Project description:The syntheses of 10,11-dihydrobenz[a]anthracene 8,9-oxide, benz[a]anthracene 8,9-oxide and 9-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene are described, together with those of a number of related compounds. The epoxides react both chemically and enzymically with water to yield the corresponding dihydrodiols and with reduced glutathione to form glutathione conjugates, and they react chemically with N-acetylcysteine to yield the corresponding mercapturic acids. 8,9-Dihydro-8,9-dihydroxybenz[a]anthracene, formed enzymically from benz[a]anthracene 8,9-oxide, was identical with a dihydrodiol formed when benz[a]anthracene was metabolized by rat liver homogenates. Similarly 10,11-dihydrobenz[a]anthracene 8,9-oxide yielded a dihydrodiol identical with the product formed when 10,11-dihydrobenz[a]anthracene was metabolized.
Project description:Metabolism of 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans was studied. C. elegans metabolized 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene primarily at the methyl group, this being followed by further metabolism at the 8,9- and 10,11-positions to form trans-8,9-dihydro-8,9-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene and trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene. There was no detectable trans-dihydrodiol formed at the methyl-substituted double bond (3,4-positions) or at the 'K' region (5,6-positions). The metabolites were isolated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by the application of u.v.-visible-absorption-, 1H-n.m.r.- and mass-spectral techniques. The 4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene trans-8,9- and -10,11-dihydrodiols were optically active. Comparison of the c.d. spectra of the trans-dihydrodiols formed from 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene by C. elegans with those of the corresponding benz[a]anthracene trans-dihydrodiols formed by rat liver microsomal fraction indicated that the major enantiomers of the 4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans- 10,11-dihydrodiol formed by C. elegans have S,S absolute stereochemistries, which are opposite to those of the predominantly 8R,9R- and 10R,11R-dihydrodiols formed by the microsomal fraction. Incubation of C. elegans with 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene under 18O2 and subsequent mass-spectral analysis of the metabolites indicated that hydroxylation of the methyl group and the formation of trans-dihydrodiols are catalysed by cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase and epoxide hydrolase enzyme systems. The results indicate that the fungal mono-oxygenase-epoxide hydrolase enzyme systems are highly stereo- and regio-selective in the metabolism of 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene.
Project description:The Rieske nonheme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) NidAB and NidA3B3 from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 have been implicated in the initial oxidation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), forming cis-dihydrodiols. To clarify how these two RHOs are functionally different with respect to the degradation of HMW PAHs, we investigated their substrate specificities to 13 representative aromatic substrates (toluene, m-xylene, phthalate, biphenyl, naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene) by enzyme reconstitution studies of Escherichia coli. Both Nid systems were identified to be compatible with type V electron transport chain (ETC) components, consisting of a [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and a glutathione reductase (GR)-type reductase. Metabolite profiles indicated that the Nid systems oxidize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, producing various isomeric dihydrodiol and phenolic compounds. NidAB and NidA3B3 showed the highest conversion rates for pyrene and fluoranthene, respectively, with high product regiospecificity, whereas other aromatic substrates were converted at relatively low regiospecificity. Structural characteristics of the active sites of the Nid systems were investigated and compared to those of other RHOs. The NidAB and NidA3B3 systems showed the largest substrate-binding pockets in the active sites, which satisfies spatial requirements for accepting HMW PAHs. Spatially conserved aromatic amino acids, Phe-Phe-Phe, in the substrate-binding pockets of the Nid systems appeared to play an important role in keeping aromatic substrates within the reactive distance from the iron atom, which allows each oxygen to attack the neighboring carbons.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Metabolic activation of intermediate PAH trans-dihydrodiols by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to the formation of electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. We investigated whether O-methylation by human recombinant soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) is a feasible detoxication step for a panel of structurally diverse PAH-catechols produced during the redox-cycling process. Classes of PAH non-K-region o-quinones (bay region, methylated bay region, and fjord region o-quinones) produced by AKRs were employed in the studies. PAH o-quinones were reduced to the corresponding catechols by dithiothreitol under anaerobic conditions and then further O-methylated by human S-COMT in the presence of S-[³H]adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl group donor. The formation of the O-methylated catechols was detected by HPLC-UV coupled with in-line radiometric detection, and unlabeled products were also characterized by LC-MS/MS. Human S-COMT was able to catalyze O-methylation of all of the PAH-catechols and generated two isomeric metabolites in different proportions. LC-MS/MS showed that each isomer was a mono-O-methylated metabolite. ¹H NMR was used to assign the predominant positional isomer of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol as the O-8-monomethylated catechol. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) varied among different classes of PAH-catechols by 500-fold. The ability of S-COMT to produce two isomeric products from PAH-catechols was rationalized using the crystal structure of the enzyme. We provide evidence that O-8-monomethylated benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol is formed in three different human lung cell lines. It is concluded that human S-COMT may play a critical role in the detoxication of PAH o-quinones generated by AKRs.
Project description:The bacteria responsible for the degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene or benz[a]anthracene in a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil were investigated by DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP). Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes were generated from the (13) C-enriched ('heavy') DNA recovered from each SIP experiment, and quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene were developed to measure the abundances of many of the SIP-identified sequences. Clone libraries from the SIP experiments with naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene primarily contained sequences related to bacteria previously associated with the degradation of those compounds. However, Pigmentiphaga-related sequences were newly associated with naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation, and sequences from a group of uncultivated ?-Proteobacteria known as Pyrene Group 2 were newly associated with fluoranthene and benz[a]anthracene degradation. Pyrene Group 2-related sequences were the only sequences recovered from the clone library generated from SIP with pyrene, and they were 82% of the sequences recovered from the clone library generated from SIP with benz[a]anthracene. In time-course experiments with each substrate in unlabelled form, the abundance of each of the measured groups increased in response to the corresponding substrate. These results provide a comprehensive description of the microbial ecology of a PAH-contaminated soil as it relates to the biodegradation of PAHs from two to four rings, and they underscore that bacteria in Pyrene Group 2 are well-suited for the degradation of four-ring PAHs.
Project description:Cunninghamella elegans and a mutant strain (B8/36) of Beijerinckia both oxidized dibenzofuran to 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrodibenzofuran. The bacterial metabolite was extremely unstable and, in the presence of acid, was rapidly converted into a mixture of 2- and 3-hydroxydibenzofuran. In contrast, the 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrodibenzofuran formed by C. elegans was stable and only yielded 2- and 3-hydroxydibenzofuran when heated under acidic conditions. The results suggest that Beijerinckia B8/36 and C. elegans form the respective cis- and trans-isomers of 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrodibenzofuran. C. elegans also oxidized dibenzofuran to 2- and 3-hydroxydibenzofuran under conditions that would not lead to the dehydration of the trans-dihydrodiol. These observations implicate the initial formation of dibenzofuran- 2,3-epoxide in the fungal oxidation of dibenzofuran. Beijerinckia B8/36 also produced a second unstable dihydrodiol that was tentatively identified as cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrodibenzofuran. This compound gave 2-hydroxydibenzofuran as the major dehydration product and the cis relative stereochemistry was suggested by the isolation and characterization of an isopropylidine derivative. A preparation of cis-naphthalene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and cell extracts of the parent strain of Beijerinckia oxidized both bacterial dihydrodiols to catechols. Cell extracts prepared from C. elegans catalysed an analogous oxidation of trans-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrodibenzofuran to 2,3-dihydroxydibenzofuran. The latter product was also isolated and identified from culture filtrates. The results suggest that bacteria and fungi utilize different mechanisms to initiate the oxidation of dibenzofuran.
Project description:Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 is able to metabolize a wide range of low- and high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A 20-kDa protein was upregulated in PAH-metabolizing M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cells compared to control cultures. The differentially expressed protein was identified as a beta subunit of the terminal dioxygenase using mass spectrometry. PCR with degenerate primers designed based on de novo sequenced peptides and a series of plaque hybridizations were done to screen the M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 genomic library. The genes, designated nidA3B3, encoding the alpha and beta subunits of terminal dioxygenase, were subsequently cloned and sequenced. The deduced enzyme revealed close similarities to the corresponding PAH ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases from Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus spp. but had the highest similarity, 61.9%, to the alpha subunit from Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. The alpha subunit also showed 52% sequence homology with the previously reported NidA from M. vanbaalenii PYR-1. The genes nidA3B3 were subcloned into the expression vector pET-17b, and the enzyme activity in Escherichia coli cells was reconstituted through coexpression with the ferredoxin (PhdC) and ferredoxin reductase (PhdD) genes of the phenanthrene dioxygenase from Nocardioides sp. strain KP7. The recombinant PAH dioxygenase appeared to favor the HMW PAH substrates fluoranthene, pyrene, and phenanthrene. Several other PAHs, including naphthalene, anthracene, and benz[a]anthracene, were also converted to their corresponding cis-dihydrodiols. The recombinant E. coli, however, did not show any dioxygenation activity for phthalate and biphenyl. The upregulation of nidA3B3 in M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 induced by PAHs was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis.
Project description:Dimeric and monomeric proteins containing dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities were purified from pig lens. The dimeric enzyme of Mr 65,000 specifically oxidized the trans-dihydrodiols of naphthalene and benzene with NADP+ as a strict cofactor, and reduced alpha-diketones, aromatic aldehydes and glyceraldehyde with NADPH as a cofactor. The monomeric enzyme of Mr 35,000, although identical with aldose reductase, oxidized the trans-dihydrodiol of naphthalene at a pH optimum of 7.6. These results suggest that the two enzymes are involved in the pathogenesis of naphthalene cataract.
Project description:Accurate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH oxidation products (PAH-OPs) in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles relies on the known chemical composition of the particles. Four PAHs, phenanthrene (PHE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), pyrene (PYR), and benz(a)anthracene (BaA), were studied individually to identify and quantify PAH-OPs produced and incorporated into SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of ?-pinene in the presence of PAH vapor. SOA particles were characterized using real-time in situ instrumentation, and collected on quartz fiber filters for offline analysis of PAHs and PAH-OPs. PAH-OPs were measured in all PAH experiments at equal or greater concentrations than the individual PAHs they were produced from. The total mass of PAH and PAH-OPs, relative to the total SOA mass, varied for different experiments on individual parent PAHs: PHE and 6 quantified PHE-OPs (3.0%), DBT and dibenzothiophene sulfone (4.9%), PYR and 3 quantified PYR-OPs (3.1%), and BaA and benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (0.26%). Further exposure of PAH-SOA to ozone generally increased the concentration ratio of PAH-OPs to PAH, suggesting longer atmospheric lifetimes for PAH-OPs, relative to PAHs. These data indicate that PAH-OPs are formed during SOA particle formation and growth.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Human aldo-keto reductases catalyze the metabolic activation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione a representative PAH o-quinone is reduced back to the corresponding catechol to generate a futile redox-cycle. We investigated whether sulfonation of PAH catechols by human sulfotransferases (SULT) could intercept the catechol in human lung cells. RT-PCR identified SULT1A1, -1A3, and -1E1 as the isozymes expressed in four human lung cell lines. The corresponding recombinant SULTs were examined for their substrate specificity. Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dione was reduced to benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol by dithiothreitol under anaerobic conditions and then further sulfonated by the SULTs in the presence of 3'-[(35)S]phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as the sulfonate group donor. The human SULTs catalyzed the sulfonation of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol and generated two isomeric benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol O-monosulfate products that were identified by reversed phase HPLC and by LC-MS/MS. The various SULT isoforms produced the two isomers in different proportions. Two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR assigned the two regioisomers of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol monosulfate as 8-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene-7-O-sulfate (M1) and 7-hydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene-8-O-sulfate (M2), respectively. The kinetic profiles of three SULTs were different. SULT1A1 gave the highest catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) and yielded a single isomeric product corresponding to M1. By contrast, SULT1E1 showed distinct substrate inhibition and formed both M1 and M2. Based on expression levels, catalytic efficiency, and the fact that the lung cells only produce M1, it is concluded that the major isoform that can intercept benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol is SULT1A1.