Hybridoma passage in vitro may result in reduced ability of antimannan antibody to protect against disseminated candidiasis.
ABSTRACT: We previously reported the enhanced resistance of monoclonal antibodies B6.1 (an immunoglobulin M [IgM]) and C3.1 (an IgG3) against experimental candidiasis. Both MAbs recognize the same fungal epitope. We have since found that a highly passaged B6.1 hybridoma (hp-B6.1) resulted in antibody that has little protective potential. The potential clinical applicability of the antibody and our interest in understanding antibody protection against candidiasis led us to investigate an explanation for this phenomenon. Antibody genetic structure of hp-B6.1, the original hybridoma clone (ori-B6.1) stored frozen since 1995, a subclone of hp-B6.1 that produces protective antibody, the IgG3-producing hybridoma, and a nonprotective IgG1-producing hybridoma were compared. Variable region gene sequences of heavy (V(H)) and light chains showed genetic instability of V(H) chains with only the hp-B6.1; the V(H) sequences from ori-B6.1 and the subclone were, however, identical. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase levels were greatest in the B6.1 hybridomas, which may explain the instability. The constant region CH3 domain remained unchanged, implying normal N-glycation and complement-fixing potential, and antibody binding affinities appeared unchanged. Complement fixation assays surprisingly showed that ori-B6.1 antibody fixes C3 more rapidly than does hp-B6.1 antibody. The V(H) region primary structure may affect complement activation, which could explain our result. Indeed, antibody from the hp-B6.1 subclone fixed complement like antibody from ori-B6.1. These results show that the greatest protection occurs when antimannan antibodies possess the dual abilities of recognizing the appropriate carbohydrate epitope and rapidly fixing complement; loss of the latter property results in the loss of protective potential by the antibody.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Complement-fixing antibodies are important mediators of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, complement-fixing antibodies remain uncharacterized for Plasmodium vivax malaria. P. vivax merozoite surface protein 3? (PvMSP3?) is a target of acquired immunity and a potential vaccine candidate. METHODS:Plasma from children and adults with P. vivax malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, were collected during acute infection, 7 and 28 days after drug treatment. Complement-fixing antibodies and immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG), targeting 3 distinctive regions of PvMSP3?, were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:The seroprevalence of complement-fixing antibodies was highest against the PvMSP3? central region (77.6%). IgG1, IgG3, and IgM were significantly correlated with C1q fixation, and both purified IgG and IgM were capable of mediating C1q fixation to PvMSP3?. Complement-fixing antibody levels were similar between age groups, but IgM was predominant in children and IgG3 more prevalent in adults. Levels of functional antibodies increased after acute infection through 7 days after treatment but rapidly waned by day 28. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that PvMSP3? antibodies acquired during P. vivax infection can mediate complement fixation and shows the important influence of age in shaping these specific antibody responses. Further studies are warranted to understand the role of these functional antibodies in protective immunity against P. vivax malaria.
Project description:Antibodies targeting Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites play a key role in human immunity to malaria. However, antibody mechanisms that neutralize sporozoites are poorly understood. This has been a major constraint in developing highly efficacious vaccines, as we lack strong correlates of protective immunity.We quantified the ability of human antibodies from malaria-exposed populations to interact with human complement, examined the functional effects of complement activity against P. falciparum sporozoites in vitro, and identified targets of functional antibodies. In children and adults from malaria-endemic regions, we determined the acquisition of complement-fixing antibodies to sporozoites and their relationship with antibody isotypes and subclasses. We also investigated associations with protective immunity in a longitudinal cohort of children (n?=?206) residing in a malaria-endemic region.We found that antibodies to the major sporozoite surface antigen, circumsporozoite protein (CSP), were predominately IgG1, IgG3, and IgM, and could interact with complement through recruitment of C1q and activation of the classical pathway. The central repeat region of CSP, included in leading vaccines, was a key target of complement-fixing antibodies. We show that antibodies activate human complement on P. falciparum sporozoites, which consequently inhibited hepatocyte cell traversal that is essential for establishing liver-stage infection, and led to sporozoite death in vitro. The natural acquisition of complement-fixing antibodies in malaria-exposed populations was age-dependent, and was acquired more slowly to sporozoite antigens than to merozoite antigens. In a longitudinal cohort of children, high levels of complement-fixing antibodies were significantly associated with protection against clinical malaria.These novel findings point to complement activation by antibodies as an important mechanism of anti-sporozoite human immunity, thereby enabling new strategies for developing highly efficacious malaria vaccines. We also present evidence that complement-fixing antibodies may be a valuable correlate of protective immunity in humans.
Project description:Controversy exists regarding isotype-related differences in the antibacterial and protective properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) class and various IgG subclasses. To clarify this issue, a murine hybridoma secreting IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for the O polysaccharide of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serogroup O6 LPS was class switched, by sib selection, to produce an IgG3 MAb with identical specificity and variable region heavy and light chain nucleotide sequences. This IgG3-secreting cell line was further switched to the production of O-specific, variable region-identical IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG2a MAbs. Functional comparisons of these LPS-specific IgM and IgG MAb isotypes revealed similar LPS binding, opsonic, and protective activities. Relatively minor isotype-related differences in levels of efficiency of MAb-mediated, complement-dependent opsonophagocytic killing (IgM > IgG2a > IgG3 > IgG2b > > IgG1) were not associated with corresponding differences in in vivo functions. These findings, in conjunction with previously published data, support a cautious approach to generic conclusions regarding the immunotherapeutic superiority of LPS-specific antibodies belonging to either the IgM or IgG class or to a particular IgG subclass.
Project description:Binding of the complement component C1q to the CH2 domain of antigen-bound immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) activates the classical complement pathway and depends on its close proximity to Fc fragments of neighboring antibodies. IgG subclasses contain a highly conserved asparagine 297 (N)-linked biantennary glycan within their CH2 domains, the core structure of which can be extended with terminal galactose and sialic acid residues. To investigate whether Fc-glycosylation regulates effector functions of human IgG subclasses, we cloned the antigen-binding region of the CD20-specific monoclonal antibody rituximab into IgG isotype expression vectors. We found that Fc-galactosylation enhances the efficacy of CD20-targeting complement-fixing antibodies for C1q binding and complement-mediated tumor cell lysis. Increased efficacies were restricted to IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses indicating that Fc-galactosylation alone is not sufficient for IgG2 and IgG4 to acquire complement-fixing properties. Addition of terminal galactose to the N-glycan specifically improved binding of C1q without changing antigen- and Fc?RIIIa-binding affinities of IgG isotypes. These data indicate that Fc galactosylation can be harnessed to enhance the complement-activating properties of IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies.
Project description:Mouse IgG3 is highly protective against several life-threatening bacteria. This isotype is the only one among mouse IgGs that forms non-covalent oligomers, has increased functional affinity to polyvalent antigens, and efficiently agglutinates erythrocytes. IgG3 also triggers the complement cascade. The high efficacy of protection after passive immunization with IgG3 is correlated with the unique properties of this isotype. Although the features of IgG3 are well documented, their molecular basis remains elusive. Based on functional analyses of IgG1/IgG3 hybrid molecules with swapped constant domains, we identified IgG3-derived CH2 domain as a major determinant of antibody oligomerization and increased functional affinity to a multivalent antigen. The CH2 domain was also crucial for efficient hemagglutination triggered by IgG3 and was indispensable for complement cascade activation. This domain is glycosylated and atypically charged. A mutational analysis based on molecular models of CH2 domain charge distribution indicated that the functional affinity was influenced by the specific charge location. N-glycans were essential for CH2-dependent enhancement of hemagglutination and complement activation. Oligomerization was independent of CH2 charge and glycosylation. We also verified that known C1q-binding motifs are functional in mouse IgG3 but not in IgG1 framework. We generated for the first time a gain-of-function antibody with properties transferred from IgG3 into IgG1 by replacing the CH2 domain. Finding that the CH2 domain of IgG3 governs unique properties of this isotype is likely to open an avenue toward the generation of IgG3-inspired antibodies that will be protective against existing or emerging lethal pathogens.
Project description:Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoites fix complement to inhibit blood-stage replication in naturally-acquired and vaccine-induced immunity; however, specific targets of these functional antibodies and their importance in protective immunity are unknown. Among malaria-exposed individuals, we show that complement-fixing antibodies to merozoites are more strongly correlated with protective immunity than antibodies that inhibit growth quantified using the current reference assay for merozoite vaccine evaluation. We identify merozoite targets of complement-fixing antibodies and identify antigen-specific complement-fixing antibodies that are strongly associated with protection from malaria in a longitudinal study of children. Using statistical modelling, combining three different antigens targeted by complement-fixing antibodies could increase the potential protective effect to over 95%, and we identify antigens that were common in the most protective combinations. Our findings support antibody-complement interactions against merozoite antigens as important anti-malaria immune mechanisms, and identify specific merozoite antigens for further evaluation as vaccine candidates.
Project description:Podocytes are known to express various complement factors including complement factor H (CFH) and to promote the removal of both subendothelial and subepithelial immune complex (IC) deposits. Using podocyte-selective injury model NEP25 mice and an IgG3-producing hybridoma clone 2B11.3 established by MRL/lpr mice, the present study investigated the role of podocyte complement regulation in only subendothelial IC deposition. In immunotoxin (LMB2) induced fatal podocyte injury (NEP25/LMB2) at day 12, glomerular CFH and C3a receptor (C3aR) expression was decreased as compared with NEP25/vehicle mice. In contrast, in sublytic podocyte injury 5 days after LMB2, glomerular CFH and C3aR expression was increased as compared with NEP25/vehicle mice. Intra-abdominal injection of 2B11.3 hybridoma to NEP25 mice (NEP25/hybridoma) caused IC deposition limited to the subendothelial area associated with unaltered CFH expression. NEP25/hybridoma mice with sublytic podocyte injury (NEP25/hybridoma/LMB2) resulted in increased glomerular CFH expression (1.7-fold) accompanied by decreased subendothelial IC deposition, as compared with NEP25/hybridoma. Immunostaining revealed that CFH was dominantly expressed in podocytes of NEP25/hybridoma/LMB2. In addition, puromycin-induced sublytic podocyte injury promoted CFH expression in immortalized mouse podocytes in vitro. These results suggest that in response to sublytic levels of injury, podocyte induced CFH expression locally and clearance of subendothelial IC deposits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Leading malaria vaccine, RTS,S, is based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of sporozoites. RTS,S confers partial protection against malaria in children, but efficacy wanes relatively quickly after primary immunization. Vaccine efficacy has some association with anti-CSP IgG; however, it is unclear how these antibodies function, and how functional antibodies are induced and maintained over time. Recent studies identified antibody-complement interactions as a potentially important immune mechanism against sporozoites. Here, we investigated whether RTS,S vaccine-induced antibodies could function by interacting with complement. METHODS:Serum samples were selected from children in a phase IIb trial of RTS,S/AS02A conducted at two study sites of high and low malaria transmission intensity in Manhiça, Mozambique. Samples following primary immunization and 5-year post-immunization follow-up time points were included. Vaccine-induced antibodies were characterized by isotype, subclass, and epitope specificity, and tested for the ability to fix and activate complement. We additionally developed statistical methods to model the decay and determinants of functional antibodies after vaccination. RESULTS:RTS,S vaccination induced anti-CSP antibodies that were mostly IgG1, with some IgG3, IgG2, and IgM. Complement-fixing antibodies were effectively induced by vaccination, and targeted the central repeat and C-terminal regions of CSP. Higher levels of complement-fixing antibodies were associated with IgG that equally recognized both the central repeat and C-terminal regions of CSP. Older age and higher malaria exposure were significantly associated with a poorer induction of functional antibodies. There was a marked decay in functional complement-fixing antibodies within months after vaccination, as well as decays in IgG subclasses and IgM. Statistical modeling suggested the decay in complement-fixing antibodies was mostly attributed to the waning of anti-CSP IgG1, and to a lesser extent IgG3. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate for the first time that RTS,S can induce complement-fixing antibodies in young malaria-exposed children. The short-lived nature of functional responses mirrors the declining vaccine efficacy of RTS,S over time. The negative influence of age and malaria exposure on functional antibodies has implications for understanding vaccine efficacy in different settings. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms and longevity of vaccine-induced immunity that will help inform the future development of highly efficacious and long-lasting malaria vaccines.
Project description:Members of the PfEMP1 protein family are expressed on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs), where they contribute to the pathogenesis of malaria and are important targets of acquired immunity. Although the PfEMP1-specific antibody response is dominated by the opsonizing and complement-fixing subclasses IgG1 and IgG3, activation of the classical complement pathway by antibody-opsonized IEs does not appear to be a major immune effector mechanism. To study the molecular background for this, we used ELISA and flow cytometry to assess activation of the classical component pathway by recombinant and native PfEMP1 antigen opsonized by polyclonal and monoclonal PfEMP1-specific human IgG. Polyclonal IgG specific for VAR2CSA-type PfEMP1 purified from a pool of human immune plasma efficiently activated the classical complement pathway when bound to recombinant PfEMP1 in ELISA. In contrast, no activation of complement could be detected by flow cytometry when the same IgG preparation was used to opsonize IEs expressing the corresponding native PfEMP1 antigen. After engineering of a VAR2CSA-specific monoclonal antibody to facilitate its on-target hexamerization, complement activation was detectable in an ELISA optimized for uniform orientation of the immobilized antigen. In contrast, the antibody remained unable to activate complement when bound to native VAR2CSA on IEs. Our data suggest that the display of PfEMP1 proteins on IEs is optimized to prevent activation of the classical complement pathway, and thus represents a hitherto unappreciated parasite strategy to evade acquired immunity to malaria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antibodies to the blood stages of malaria parasites enhance parasite clearance and antimalarial efficacy. The antibody subclass and functions that contribute to parasite clearance during antimalarial treatment and their relationship to malaria transmission intensity have not been characterized. METHODS:Levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and C1q fixation in response to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (erythrocyte-binding antigen [EBA] 175RIII-V, merozoite surface protein 2 [MSP-2], and MSP-142) and opsonic phagocytosis of merozoites were measured in a multinational trial assessing the efficacy of artesunate therapy across 11 Southeast Asian sites. Regression analyses assessed the effects of antibody seropositivity on the parasite clearance half-life (PC½), having a PC½ of ≥5 hours, and having parasitemia 3 days after treatment. RESULTS:IgG3, followed by IgG1, was the predominant IgG subclass detected (seroprevalence range, 5%-35% for IgG1 and 27%-41% for IgG3), varied across study sites, and was lowest in study sites with the lowest transmission intensity and slowest mean PC½. IgG3, C1q fixation, and opsonic-phagocytosis seropositivity were associated with a faster PC½ (range of the mean reduction in PC½, 0.47-1.16 hours; P range, .001-.03) and a reduced odds of having a PC½ of ≥5 hours and having parasitemia 3 days after treatment. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of IgG3, complement-fixing antibodies, and merozoite phagocytosis vary according to transmission intensity, are associated with faster parasite clearance, and may be sensitive surrogates of an augmented clearance capacity of infected erythrocytes. Determining the functional immune mechanisms associated with parasite clearance will improve characterization of artemisinin resistance.