The peroxin pex3p initiates membrane assembly in peroxisome biogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Rat cDNA encoding a 372-amino-acid peroxin was isolated, primarily by functional complementation screening, using a peroxisome-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant, ZPG208, of complementation group 17. The deduced primary sequence showed approximately 25% amino acid identity with the yeast Pex3p, thereby we termed this cDNA rat PEX3 (RnPEX3). Human and Chinese hamster Pex3p showed 96 and 94% identity to rat Pex3p and had 373 amino acids. Pex3p was characterized as an integral membrane protein of peroxisomes, exposing its N- and C-terminal parts to the cytosol. A homozygous, inactivating missense mutation, G to A at position413, in a codon (GGA) for Gly(138) and resulting in a codon (GAA) for Glu was the genetic cause of peroxisome deficiency of complementation group 17 ZPG208. The peroxisome-restoring activity apparently required the full length of Pex3p, whereas its N-terminal part from residues 1 to 40 was sufficient to target a fusion protein to peroxisomes. We also demonstrated that Pex3p binds the farnesylated peroxisomal membrane protein Pex19p. Moreover, upon expression of PEX3 in ZPG208, peroxisomal membrane vesicles were assembled before the import of soluble proteins such as PTS2-tagged green fluorescent protein. Thus, Pex3p assembles membrane vesicles before the matrix proteins are translocated.
Project description:Pex3p is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein required early in peroxisome biogenesis, and Pex3p-deficient cells lack identifiable peroxisomes. Two temperature-sensitive pex3 mutant strains of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica were made to investigate the role of Pex3p in the early stages of peroxisome biogenesis. In glucose medium at 16 degrees C, these mutants underwent de novo peroxisome biogenesis and exhibited early matrix protein sequestration into peroxisome-like structures found at the endoplasmic reticulum-rich periphery of cells or sometimes associated with nuclei. The de novo peroxisome biogenesis seemed unsynchronized, with peroxisomes occurring at different stages of development both within cells and between cells. Cells with peripheral nascent peroxisomes and cells with structures morphologically distinct from peroxisomes, such as semi/circular tubular structures that immunostained with antibodies to peroxisomal matrix proteins and to the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein Kar2p, and that surrounded lipid droplets, were observed during up-regulation of peroxisome biogenesis in cells incubated in oleic acid medium at 16 degrees C. These structures were not detected in wild-type or Pex3p-deficient cells. Their role in peroxisome biogenesis remains unclear. Targeting of peroxisomal matrix proteins to these structures suggests that Pex3p directly or indirectly sequesters components of the peroxisome biogenesis machinery. Such a role is consistent with Pex3p overexpression producing cells with fewer, larger, and clustered peroxisomes.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, peroxisomal inheritance from mother cell to bud is conducted by the class V myosin motor, Myo2p. However, homologues of S. cerevisiae Myo2p peroxisomal receptor, Inp2p, are not readily identifiable outside the Saccharomycetaceae family. Here, we demonstrate an unexpected role for Pex3 proteins in peroxisome inheritance. Both Pex3p and Pex3Bp are peroxisomal integral membrane proteins that function as peroxisomal receptors for class V myosin through direct interaction with the myosin globular tail. In cells lacking Pex3Bp, peroxisomes are preferentially retained by the mother cell, whereas most peroxisomes gather and are transferred en masse to the bud in cells overexpressing Pex3Bp or Pex3p. Our results reveal an unprecedented role for members of the Pex3 protein family in peroxisome motility and inheritance in addition to their well-established role in peroxisome biogenesis at the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results point to a temporal link between peroxisome formation and inheritance and delineate a general mechanism of peroxisome inheritance in eukaryotic cells.
Project description:Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome (ZS) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy are autosomal recessive diseases caused by defects in peroxisome assembly, for which 13 genotypes have been identified. Expression of the human peroxin Pex3p cDNA encoding a 373-amino-acid peroxisomal membrane protein morphologically and biochemically restored peroxisome biogenesis, including peroxisomal membrane assembly, in fibroblasts from PBDG-02, a patient with complementation group G (CG-G) ZS. Patient PBDG-02 carried a homozygous, inactivating mutation-a 97-bp deletion of nucleotide residues at positions 942-1038-resulting in a 32-amino-acid truncation and in a frameshift inducing both a 3-amino-acid substitution and a termination codon. Genomic PCR analysis revealed mutation of T-->G at eight bases upstream of the splicing site at the boundary of intron 10 and exon 11 of PEX3 gene, giving rise to a deletion of all of exon 11. When assessed by expression in a pex3 mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the patient's fibroblasts, PBDG-02-derived PEX3 cDNA was found to be defective in peroxisome-restoring activity. These results provide evidence that PEX3 is a novel, pathogenic gene responsible for CG-G PBDs.
Project description:Peroxisomes require peroxin (Pex) proteins for their biogenesis. The interaction between Pex3p, which resides on the peroxisomal membrane, and Pex19p, which resides in the cytosol, is crucial for peroxisome formation and the post-translational targeting of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). It is not known how Pex3p promotes the specific interaction with Pex19p for the purpose of PMP translocation. Here, we present the three-dimensional structure of the complex between a cytosolic domain of Pex3p and the binding-region peptide of Pex19p. The overall shape of Pex3p is a prolate spheroid with a novel fold, the 'twisted six-helix bundle.' The Pex19p-binding site is at an apex of the Pex3p spheroid. A 16-residue region of the Pex19p peptide forms an ?-helix and makes a contact with Pex3p; this helix is disordered in the unbound state. The Pex19p peptide contains a characteristic motif, consisting of the leucine triad (Leu18, Leu21, Leu22), and Phe29, which are critical for the Pex3p binding and peroxisome biogenesis.
Project description:We report the cloning and characterization of Pichia pastoris PEX19 by complementation of a peroxisome-deficient mutant strain. Import of peroxisomal targeting signal 1- and 2-containing peroxisomal matrix proteins is defective in pex19 mutants. PEX19 encodes a hydrophilic 299-amino acid protein with sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex19p and human and Chinese hamster PxF, all farnesylated proteins, as well as hypothetical proteins from Caenorhabditis elegans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The farnesylation consensus is conserved in PpPex19p but dispensable for function and appears unmodified under the conditions tested. Pex19p localizes predominantly to the cytosolic fraction. Biochemical and two-hybrid analyses confirmed that Pex19p interacts with Pex3p, as seen in S. cerevisiae, but unexpectedly also with Pex10p. Two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that the amino-terminal 42 amino acids of Pex19p interact with the carboxyl-terminal 335 amino acids of Pex3p. In addition, the extreme carboxyl terminus of Pex19p (67 amino acids) is required for interaction with the amino-terminal 380 amino acids of Pex10p. Biochemical and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of pex19Delta cells identified the membrane protein Pex3p in peroxisome remnants that were not previously observed in S. cerevisiae. These small vesicular and tubular (early) remnants are morphologically distinct from other Pppex mutant (late) remnants, suggesting that Pex19p functions at an early stage of peroxisome biogenesis.
Project description:Zellweger cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome is a severe congenital disorder associated with defective peroxisomal biogenesis. At least 23 PEX genes have been reported to be essential for peroxisome biogenesis in various species, indicating the complexity of peroxisomal assembly. Cells from patients with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders have previously been shown to segregate into >/=12 complementation groups. Two patients assigned to complementation group G who had not been linked previously to a specific gene defect were confirmed as displaying a cellular phenotype characterized by a lack of even residual peroxisomal membrane structures. Here we demonstrate that this complementation group is associated with mutations in the PEX3 gene, encoding an integral peroxisomal membrane protein. Homozygous PEX3 mutations, each leading to C-terminal truncation of PEX3, were identified in the two patients, who both suffered from a severe Zellweger syndrome phenotype. One of the mutations involved a single-nucleotide insertion in exon 7, whereas the other was a single-nucleotide substitution eight nucleotides from the normal splice site in the 3' acceptor site of intron 10. Expression of wild-type PEX3 in the mutant cell lines restored peroxisomal biogenesis, whereas transfection of mutated PEX3 cDNA did not. This confirmed that the causative gene had been identified. The observation of peroxisomal formation in the absence of morphologically recognizable peroxisomal membranes challenges the theory that peroxisomes arise exclusively by growth and division from preexisting peroxisomes and establishes PEX3 as a key factor in early human peroxisome synthesis.
Project description:Two distinct pathways have recently been proposed for the import of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs): a Pex19p- and Pex3p-dependent class I pathway and a Pex19p- and Pex3p-independent class II pathway. We show here that Pex19p plays an essential role as the chaperone for full-length Pex3p in the cytosol. Pex19p forms a soluble complex with newly synthesized Pex3p in the cytosol and directly translocates it to peroxisomes. Knockdown of Pex19p inhibits peroxisomal targeting of newly synthesized full-length Pex3p and results in failure of the peroxisomal localization of Pex3p. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pex16p functions as the Pex3p-docking site and serves as the peroxisomal membrane receptor that is specific to the Pex3p-Pex19p complexes. Based on these novel findings, we suggest a model for the import of PMPs that provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the biogenesis of peroxisomes and its regulation involving Pex3p, Pex19p, and Pex16p.
Project description:Peroxisomes are degraded by a selective type of autophagy known as pexophagy. Several different types of pexophagy have been reported in mammalian cells. However, the mechanisms underlying how peroxisomes are recognized by autophagy-related machinery remain elusive. PEX3 is a peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP) that functions in the import of PMPs into the peroxisomal membrane and has been shown to interact with pexophagic receptor proteins during pexophagy in yeast. Thus, PEX3 is important not only for peroxisome biogenesis, but also for peroxisome degradation. However, whether PEX3 is involved in the degradation of peroxisomes in mammalian cells is unclear. Here, we report that high levels of PEX3 expression induce pexophagy. In PEX3-loaded cells, peroxisomes are ubiquitinated, clustered, and degraded in lysosomes. Peroxisome targeting of PEX3 is essential for the initial step of this degradation pathway. The degradation of peroxisomes is inhibited by treatment with autophagy inhibitors or siRNA against NBR1, which encodes an autophagic receptor protein. These results indicate that ubiquitin- and NBR1-mediated pexophagy is induced by increased expression of PEX3 in mammalian cells. In addition, another autophagic receptor protein, SQSTM1/p62, is required only for the clustering of peroxisomes. Expression of a PEX3 mutant with substitution of all lysine and cysteine residues by arginine and alanine, respectively, also induces peroxisome ubiquitination and degradation, hence suggesting that ubiquitination of PEX3 is dispensable for pexophagy and an endogenous, unidentified peroxisomal protein is ubiquitinated on the peroxisomal membrane.
Project description:We show that a comprehensive set of 16 peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) encompassing all types of membrane topologies first target to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These PMPs insert into the ER membrane via the protein import complexes Sec61p and Get3p (for tail-anchored proteins). This trafficking pathway is representative for multiplying wild-type cells in which the peroxisome population needs to be maintained, as well as for mutant cells lacking peroxisomes in which new peroxisomes form after complementation with the wild-type version of the mutant gene. PMPs leave the ER in a Pex3p-Pex19p-dependent manner to end up in metabolically active peroxisomes. These results further extend the new concept that peroxisomes derive their basic framework (membrane and membrane proteins) from the ER and imply a new functional role for Pex3p and Pex19p.
Project description:In humans, defects in peroxisome biogenesis are the cause of lethal diseases typified by Zellweger syndrome. Here, we show that inactivating mutations in human PEX3 cause Zellweger syndrome, abrogate peroxisome membrane synthesis, and result in reduced abundance of peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) and/or mislocalization of PMPs to the mitochondria. Previous studies have suggested that PEX3 may traffic through the ER en route to the peroxisome, that the COPI inhibitor, brefeldin A, leads to accumulation of PEX3 in the ER, and that PEX3 overexpression alters the morphology of the ER. However, we were unable to detect PEX3 in the ER at early times after expression. Furthermore, we find that inhibition of COPI function by brefeldin A has no effect on trafficking of PEX3 to peroxisomes and does not inhibit PEX3-mediated peroxisome biogenesis. We also find that inhibition of COPII-dependent membrane traffic by a dominant negative SAR1 mutant fails to block PEX3 transport to peroxisomes and PEX3-mediated peroxisome synthesis. Based on these results, we propose that PEX3 targeting to peroxisomes and PEX3-mediated peroxisome membrane synthesis may occur independently of COPI- and COPII-dependent membrane traffic.