A cytochrome b5 is required for full activity of flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 involved in the formation of blue flower colors.
ABSTRACT: The substitution pattern of anthocyanin pigments is a main determinant of flower color. Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (Cyt P450) that catalyzes the 3', 5'-hydroxylation of dihydroflavonols, the precursors of purple anthocyanins. Species such as rose and carnation lack F3'5'H activity and are, therefore, unable to generate purple or blue flowers. Petunia, on the other hand, contains two loci, termed hf1 and hf2, that encode a Cyt P450 with F3'5'H activity. Here we report the identification of an additional petunia gene that is required for 3',5' substitution of anthocyanins and purple flower colors. It encodes a cytochrome b5 and is expressed exclusively in the flower. Inactivation of the gene by targeted transposon mutagenesis reduced F3'5'H enzyme activity and the accumulation of 5'-substituted anthocyanins, resulting in an altered flower color. However, no phenotypic effect on the activity of other Cyt P450s, involved in the synthesis of hormones or general phenylpropanoids, was observed. These data provide in vivo evidence for the regulation of the activity of specific Cyt P450s by a cytochrome b5.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. RESULTS: B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. CONCLUSIONS: B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of the structural and functional properties of F3'5'H genes as well as investigations on the role of flower color in relation to adaptation of G. soja to natural habitats.
Project description:Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.
Project description:Mammalian cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a membrane-bound protein capable of donating an electron to cytochrome P450 (P450) in the P450 catalytic cycle. The interaction between cyt b5 and P450 has been reported to be affected by the substrates of P450; however, the mechanism of substrate modulation on the cyt b5-P450 complex formation is still unknown. In this study, the complexes between full-length rabbit cyt b5 and full-length substrate-free/substrate-bound cytochrome P450 2B4 (CYP2B4) are investigated using NMR techniques. Our findings reveal that the population of complexes is ionic strength dependent, implying the importance of electrostatic interactions in the complex formation process. The observation that the cyt b5-substrate-bound CYP2B4 complex shows a weaker dependence on ionic strength than the cyt b5-substrate-free CYP2B4 complex suggests the presence of a larger fraction of steoreospecific complexes when CYP2B4 is substrate-bound. These results suggest that a CYP2B4 substrate likely promotes specific interactions between cyt b5 and CYP2B4. Residues D65, V66, T70, D71 and A72 are found to be involved in specific interactions between the two proteins due to their weak response to ionic strength change. These findings provide insights into the mechanism underlying substrate modulation on the cyt b5-P450 complexation process.
Project description:With an aim to understand the cytochrome P450 enzyme system in the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, here we report molecular characterization of its P450 redox proteins including the primary P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and two alternate P450 redox proteins cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) and cytochrome b5 reductase (cyt b5r) in terms of transcriptional regulation and heterologous expression. The transcript abundance followed the order POR > cyt b5r > cyt b5. Interestingly, the three genes showed an overall higher expression in the defined carbon-limited cultures with low nitrogen (LN) or high nitrogen (HN) versus the carbon-rich malt extract (ME) cultures. cDNA cloning and analysis revealed the following deduced protein characteristics: cyt b5 (238 amino acids, 25.38 kDa) and cyt b5r (321 amino acids, 35.52 kDa). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned cyt b5 belongs to a novel class of fungal cyt b5-like proteins. The two proteins cyt b5 and cyt b5r were heterologously expressed in E. coli and purified using affinity-based purification in an active form. The POR was heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was also purified in active form as evidenced by its cytochrome c reduction activity. This is the first report on cloning, heterologous expression, and purification of the alternate redox proteins cyt b5 and cyt b5r in E. coli and on yeast expression of POR from this model white rot fungus.
Project description:The development of new phenotypes is key to the commercial development of the main floricultural species and cultivars. Important new phenotypes include features such as multiple-flowers, color variations, increased flower size, new petal shapes, variegation and distinctive petal margin colourations. Although their commercial use is not yet common, the transgenic technologies provide a potentially rapid means of generating interesting new phenotypes. In this report, we construct 5 vectors which we expected to change the color of the flower anthocyanins, from purple to blue, regulating vacuolar pH. When these constructs were transformed into purple torenia, we unexpectedly recovered some genotypes having slightly margined petals. These transgenic lines expressed a chimeric repressor of the petunia PhPH4 gene under the control of Cauliflower mosaic virus 35 S RNA promoter. PhPH4 is an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. The transgenic lines lacked pigmentation in the petal margin cells both on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Expressions of Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and Flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) genes were reduced in the margins of these transgenic lines, suggesting an inhibitory effect of PhPH4 repressor on anthocyanin synthesis.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) provides electrons to all human microsomal cytochrome P450s (cyt P450s). The length and sequence of the "140s" FMN binding loop of CYPOR has been shown to be a key determinant of its redox potential and activity with cyt P450s. Shortening the "140s loop" by deleting glycine-141(ΔGly141) and by engineering a second mutant that mimics flavo-cytochrome P450 BM3 (ΔGly141/Glu142Asn) resulted in mutants that formed an unstable anionic semiquinone. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of the inability of these mutants to support activity with cyt P450, we expressed, purified, and determined their ability to reduce ferric P450. Our results showed that the ΔGly141 mutant with a very mobile loop only reduced ~7% of cyt P450 with a rate similar to that of the wild type. On the other hand, the more stable loop in the ΔGly141/Glu142Asn mutant allowed for ~55% of the cyt P450 to be reduced ~60% faster than the wild type. Our results reveal that the poor activity of the ΔGly141 mutant is primarily accounted for by its markedly diminished ability to reduce ferric cyt P450. In contrast, the poor activity of the ΔGly141/Glu142Asn mutant is presumably a consequence of the altered structure and mobility of the "140s loop".
Project description:Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a membrane-anchored electron-carrier protein containing a heme in its soluble domain. It enhances the enzymatic turnover of selected members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of catabolic enzymes, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. Remarkably, its alpha-helical membrane-anchoring domain is indispensable for the cyt b5/cyt P450 interaction. Here, we present the first solid-state NMR studies on holo-cyt b5 in a membrane environment, namely, macroscopically oriented DMPC:DHPC bicelles. We have presented approaches to selectively investigate different domains of the protein using spectral editing NMR techniques that utilize the unique motional properties of each domain. Two-dimensional 1H-15N HIMSELF spectra showed PISA-wheel patterns reporting on the structure and dynamics of the membrane anchor of the protein.
Project description:Voltammetry of cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) enzymes in ultrathin films with polyions was related for the first time to electronic and secondary structure. Heterogeneous electron transfer (hET) rate constants for reduction of the cyt P450s depended on heme iron spin state, with low spin cyt P450cam giving a value 40-fold larger than high spin human cyt P450 1A2, with mixed spin human P450 cyt 2E1 at an intermediate value. Asymmetric reduction-oxidation peak separations with increasing scan rates were explained by simulations featuring faster oxidation than reduction. Results are consistent with a square scheme in which oxidized and reduced forms of cyt P450s each participate in rapid conformational equilibria. Rate constants for oxidation of ferric cyt P450s in films by t-butyl hydroperoxide to active ferryloxy cyt P450s from rotating disk voltammetry suggested a weaker dependence on spin state, but in the reverse order of the observed hET reduction rates. Oxidation and reduction rates of cyt P450s in the films are also likely to depend on protein secondary structure around the heme iron.
Project description:Cytochrome (cyt) P450s comprise the enzyme superfamily responsible for human oxidative metabolism of a majority of drugs and xenobiotics. Electronic delivery of electrons to cyt P450s could be used to drive the natural catalytic cycle for fundamental investigations, stereo- and regioselective synthesis, and biosensors. We describe herein 30 nm nanometer-thick films on electrodes featuring excess human cyt P450s and cyt P450 reductase (CPR) microsomes that efficiently mimic the natural catalytic pathway for the first time. Redox potentials, electron-transfer rates, CO-binding, and substrate conversion rates confirmed that electrons are delivered from the electrode to CPR, which transfers them to cyt P450. The film system enabled electrochemical probing of the interaction between cyt P450 and CPR for the first time. Agreement of film voltammetry data with theoretical simulations supports a pathway featuring a key equilibrium redox reaction in the natural catalytic pathway between reduced CPR and cyt P450 occurring within a CPR-cyt P450 complex uniquely poised for substrate conversion.
Project description:The natural catalytic cycle of cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes in human liver microsome (HLM) films was activated electrochemically via the electron transfer sequence electrode?cyt P450 reductase (CPR)?cyt P450. Cyclic voltammograms for HLM films had midpoint potentials of -0.50 V vs. SCE at pH 7.4 characteristic of CPR, not cyt P450s. HLM and CPR microsomes without cyt P450s did not electrocatalytically reduce H2O2, and did not shift midpoint potential when CO was added, also indicating that the peaks do not correspond to iron heme cyt P450 enzymes. Electrochemical activation of the natural cyt P450 cycle for substrate conversion via CPR in HLM films was confirmed by catalytic electrolysis in an electrochemical microfluidic array designed to generate and detect reactive metabolites by measuring their reactivity with DNA.