Crystal structure of TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase (WecD) from Escherichia coli, an enzyme required for enterobacterial common antigen synthesis.
ABSTRACT: Enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) is a polysaccharide found on the outer membrane of virtually all gram-negative enteric bacteria and consists of three sugars, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, N-acetyl-d-mannosaminuronic acid, and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, organized into trisaccharide repeating units having the sequence -->3)-alpha-d-Fuc4NAc-(1-->4)-beta-d-ManNAcA-(1-->4)-alpha-d-GlcNAc-(1-->. While the precise function of ECA is unknown, it has been linked to the resistance of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 to organic acids and the resistance of Salmonella enterica to bile salts. The final step in the synthesis of 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent acetylation of the 4-amino group, is carried out by TDP-fucosamine acetyltransferase (WecD). We have determined the crystal structure of WecD in apo form at a 1.95-Angstrom resolution and bound to acetyl-CoA at a 1.66-Angstrom resolution. WecD is a dimeric enzyme, with each monomer adopting the GNAT N-acetyltransferase fold, common to a number of enzymes involved in acetylation of histones, aminoglycoside antibiotics, serotonin, and sugars. The crystal structure of WecD, however, represents the first structure of a GNAT family member that acts on nucleotide sugars. Based on this cocrystal structure, we have used flexible docking to generate a WecD-bound model of the acetyl-CoA-TDP-fucosamine tetrahedral intermediate, representing the structure during acetyl transfer. Our structural data show that WecD does not possess a residue that directly functions as a catalytic base, although Tyr208 is well positioned to function as a general acid by protonating the thiolate anion of coenzyme A.
Project description:The carbohydrate component of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) of Escherichia coli K-12 occurs primarily as a water-soluble cyclic polysaccharide located in the periplasm (ECA(CYC)) and as a phosphoglyceride-linked linear polysaccharide located on the cell surface (ECA(PG)). The polysaccharides of both forms are comprised of the amino sugars N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid (ManNAcA), and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose (Fuc4NAc). These amino sugars are linked to one another to form trisaccharide repeat units with the structure -->3-alpha-D-Fuc4NAc-(1-->4)-beta-D-ManNAcA-(1-->4)-alpha-D-GlcNAc-(1-->. The hydroxyl group in the 6 position of the GlcNAc residues of both ECA(CYC) and ECA(PG) are nonstoichiometrically esterified with acetyl groups. Random transposon insertion mutagenesis of E. coli K-12 resulted in the generation of a mutant defective in the incorporation of O-acetyl groups into both ECA(CYC) and ECA(PG). This defect was found to be due to an insertion of the transposon into the yiaH locus, a putative gene of unknown function located at 80.26 min on the E. coli chromosomal map. Bioinformatic analyses of the predicted yiaH gene product indicate that it is an integral inner membrane protein that is a member of an acyltransferase family of enzymes found in a wide variety of organisms. The results of biochemical and genetic experiments presented here strongly support the conclusion that yiaH encodes the O-acetyltransferase responsible for the incorporation of O-acetyl groups into both ECA(CYC) and ECA(PG). Accordingly, we propose that this gene be designated wecH.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infection is the common cause of gastroduodenal diseases linked to a higher risk of the development of gastric cancer. Persistent infection requires functional flagella that are heavily glycosylated with 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (pseudaminic acid). Pseudaminic acid biosynthesis protein H (PseH) catalyzes the third step in its biosynthetic pathway, producing UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-?-L-altropyranose. It belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. The crystal structure of the PseH complex with cofactor acetyl-CoA has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution. This is the first crystal structure of the GNAT superfamily member with specificity to UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-?-L-AltNAc. PseH is a homodimer in the crystal, each subunit of which has a central twisted ?-sheet flanked by five ?-helices and is structurally homologous to those of other GNAT superfamily enzymes. Interestingly, PseH is more similar to the GNAT enzymes that utilize amino acid sulfamoyl adenosine or protein as a substrate than a different GNAT-superfamily bacterial nucleotide-sugar N-acetyltransferase of the known structure, WecD. Analysis of the complex of PseH with acetyl-CoA revealed the location of the cofactor-binding site between the splayed strands ?4 and ?5. The structure of PseH, together with the conservation of the active-site general acid among GNAT superfamily transferases, are consistent with a common catalytic mechanism for this enzyme that involves direct acetyl transfer from AcCoA without an acetylated enzyme intermediate. Based on structural homology with microcin C7 acetyltransferase MccE and WecD, the Michaelis complex can be modeled. The model suggests that the nucleotide- and 4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-?-L-AltNAc-binding pockets form extensive interactions with the substrate and are thus the most significant determinants of substrate specificity. A hydrophobic pocket accommodating the 6'-methyl group of the altrose dictates preference to the methyl over the hydroxyl group and thus to contributes to substrate specificity of PseH.
Project description:Enzymes belonging to the GNAT superfamily are widely distributed in nature where they play key roles in the transfer of acyl groups from acyl-CoAs to primary amine acceptors. The amine acceptors run the gamut from histones to aminoglycoside antibiotics to small molecules such as serotonin. Whereas those family members that function on histones have been extensively studied, the GNAT enzymes that employ nucleotide-linked sugars as their substrates have not been well characterized. Indeed, though the structures of two of these "amino sugar" GNAT enzymes have been determined within the past 10 years, details concerning their active site architectures have been limited because of a lack of bound nucleotide-linked sugar substrates. Here we describe a combined structural and biochemical analysis of FdhC from Acinetobacter nosocomialis O2. On the basis of bioinformatics, it was postulated that FdhC catalyzes the transfer of a 3-hydroxybutanoyl group from 3-hydroxylbutanoyl-CoA to dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose, to yield an unusual sugar that is ultimately incorporated into the surface polysaccharides of the bacterium. We present data confirming this activity. In addition, the structures of two ternary complexes of FdhC, in the presence of CoA and either 3-hydroxybutanoylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose or 3-hydroxybutanoylamino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose, were solved by X-ray crystallographic analyses to high resolution. Kinetic parameters were determined, and activity assays demonstrated that FdhC can also utilize acetyl-CoA, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, or hexanoyl-CoA as acyl donors, albeit at reduced rates. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments were conducted to probe the catalytic mechanism of FdhC. Taken together, the data presented herein provide significantly new molecular insight into those GNAT superfamily members that function on nucleotide-linked amino sugars.
Project description:N-acetyl-d-quinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-glucose, QuiNAc) occurs in the polysaccharide structures of many Gram-negative bacteria. In the biosynthesis of QuiNAc-containing polysaccharides, UDP-QuiNAc is the hypothetical donor of the QuiNAc residue. Biosynthesis of UDP-QuiNAc has been proposed to occur by 4,6-dehydration of UDP-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-xylo-4-hexulose followed by reduction of this 4-keto intermediate to UDP-QuiNAc. Several specific dehydratases are known to catalyze the first proposed step. A specific reductase for the last step has not been demonstrated in vitro, but previous mutant analysis suggested that Rhizobium etli gene wreQ might encode this reductase. Therefore, this gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the resulting His6-tagged WreQ protein was purified. It was tested for 4-reductase activity by adding it and NAD(P)H to reaction mixtures in which 4,6-dehydratase WbpM had acted on the precursor substrate UDP-GlcNAc. Thin layer chromatography of the nucleotide sugars in the mixture at various stages of the reaction showed that WbpM converted UDP-GlcNAc completely to what was shown to be its 4-keto-6-deoxy derivative by NMR and that addition of WreQ and NADH led to formation of a third compound. Combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of acid hydrolysates of the final reaction mixture showed that a quinovosamine moiety had been synthesized after WreQ addition. The two-step reaction progress also was monitored in real time by NMR. The final UDP-sugar product after WreQ addition was purified and determined to be UDP-d-QuiNAc by one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments. These results confirmed that WreQ has UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-d-xylo-4-hexulose 4-reductase activity, completing a pathway for UDP-d-QuiNAc synthesis in vitro.
Project description:The polysaccharide chains of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) are comprised of the trisaccharide repeat unit Fuc4NAc-ManNAcA-GlcNAc, where Fuc4NAc is 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, ManNAcA is N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, and GlcNAc is N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Individual trisaccharide repeat units are assembled as undecaprenyl-linked intermediates in a sequence of reactions that culminate in the transfer of Fuc4NAc from TDP-Fuc4NAc to ManNAcA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid II) to yield Fuc4NAc-ManNAcA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid III), the donor of trisaccharide repeat units for ECA polysaccharide chain elongation. Most of the genes known to be involved in ECA assembly are located in the wec gene cluster located at ca. 85.4 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The available data suggest that the structural gene for the TDP-Fuc4NAc:lipid II Fuc4NAc transferase also resides in the wec gene cluster; however, the location of this gene has not been unequivocally defined. Previous characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the wec gene cluster in the region between o416 and wecG revealed that it contained three open reading frames: o74, o204, and o450. In contrast, the results of experiments described in the current investigation revealed that it contains only two open reading frames, o359 and o450. Mutants of E. coli possessing null mutations in o359 were unable to synthesize ECA, and they accumulated lipid II. In addition, the in vitro incorporation of [(3)H]FucNAc from TDP-[(3)H]Fuc4NAc into lipid II was not observed in reaction mixtures using cell extracts obtained from these mutants as a source of enzyme. The ECA-negative phenotype of these mutants was complemented by plasmid constructs containing the wild-type o359 allele, and Fuc4NAc transferase activity was demonstrated by using cell extracts obtained from the complemented mutants. Furthermore, partially purified o359 gene product, expressed as recombinant C-terminal His-tagged protein, was able to catalyze the in vitro transfer of [(3)H]Fuc4NAc from TDP-[(3)H]Fuc4NAc to lipid II. Our data support the conclusion that o359 of the wec gene cluster of E. coli is the structural gene for the TDP-Fuc4NAc:lipid II Fuc4NAc transferase involved in the synthesis ECA trisaccharide repeat units.
Project description:O-antigen variation due to the presence of different types of sugars and sugar linkages is important for the survival of bacteria threatened by host immune systems. The O antigens of Shigella dysenteriae type 7 and Escherichia coli O7 contain 4-(N-acetylglycyl)amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-Qui4NGlyAc) and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-Qui4NAc), respectively, which are sugars not often found in studied polysaccharides. In this study, we characterized the biosynthetic pathways for dTDP-d-Qui4N and dTDP-d-Qui4NAc (the nucleotide-activated precursors of d-Qui4NGlyAc and d-Qui4NAc in O antigens). Predicted genes involved in the synthesis of the two sugars were cloned, and the gene products were overexpressed and purified as His-tagged fusion proteins. In vitro enzymatic reactions were carried out using the purified proteins, and the reaction products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It is shown that in S. dysenteriae type 7 and E. coli O7, dTDP-d-Qui4N is synthesized from alpha-d-glucose-1-phosphate in three reaction steps catalyzed by glucose-1-phosphate thymidyltransferase (RmlA), dTDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB), and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose aminotransferase (VioA). An additional acetyltransferase (VioB) catalyzes the conversion of dTDP-d-Qui4N into dTDP-d-Qui4NAc in E. coli O7. Kinetic parameters and some other properties of VioA and VioB are described and differences between VioA proteins from S. dysenteriae type 7 (VioA(D7)) and E. coli O7 (VioA(O7)) discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that functions of VioA and VioB have been biochemically characterized. This study provides valuable enzyme sources for the production of dTDP-d-Qui4N and dTDP-d-Qui4NAc, which are potentially useful in the pharmaceutical industry for drug development.
Project description:6-Deoxy-L-hexoses have been shown to be synthesized from dTDP-D-glucose or GDP-D-mannose so that the gluco/galacto-configuration is converted into the manno/talo-configuration, and manno/talo is switched to gluco/galacto. Our laboratory has been investigating the biosynthesis of 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-hexoses in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and in a recent paper we described the biosynthesis of the talo (pneumosamine) and galacto (fucosamine) derivatives from UDP-D-N-acetylglucosamine a 2-acetamido sugar [Kneidinger, O'Riordan, Li, Brisson, Lee and Lam (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 3615-3627]. In the present study, we undertake the task to test the hypothesis that UDP-D-N-acetylglucosamine is the common precursor for the production of 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-hexoses in the gluco-, galacto-, manno- and talo-configurations. We present data to reveal the steps for the biosynthesis of the gluco (quinovosamine)- and manno (rhamnosamine)-configured compounds. The corresponding enzymes WbvB, WbvR and WbvD from Vibrio cholerae serotype O37 have been overexpressed and purified to near homogeneity. The enzymic reactions have been analysed by capillary electrophoresis and NMR spectroscopy. Our data have revealed a general feature of reaction cascades due to the three enzymes. First, UDP-D-N-acetylglucosamine is catalysed by the multi-functional enzyme WbvB, whereby dehydration occurs at C-4, C-6 and epimerization at C-5, C-3 to produce UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose. Secondly, this intermediate is converted by the C-4 reductase, WbvR, in a stereospecific reaction to yield UDP-2-acetamido-L-rhamnose. Thirdly, UDP-2-acetamido-L-rhamnose is epimerized at C-2 to UDP-2-acetamido-L-quinovose by WbvD. Interestingly, WbvD is also an orthologue of WbjD, but not vice versa. Incubation of purified WbvD with UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-L-talose and analysing the reaction products by capillary electrophoresis revealed the same product peak as when WbjD was used. This sugar nucleotide is a specific substrate for WbjD and is a C-4 epimer of UDP-2-acetamido-L-rhamnose.
Project description:3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose or Quip3NAc is an unusual dideoxy sugar found in the O-antigens of various Gram-negative bacteria and in the S-layer glycoprotein glycans of some Gram-positive bacteria. It is produced in these organisms as a dTDP-linked sugar, with five enzymes ultimately required for its biosynthesis. The focus of this investigation is on the enzyme QdtC, a CoA-dependent N-acetyltransferase that catalyzes the last step in the Quip3NAc biosynthetic pathway. For this analysis, three crystal structures were determined: the wild-type enzyme in the presence of acetyl-CoA and two ternary complexes of the enzyme with CoA and either dTDP-D-Quip3N or dTDP-3-amino-3,6-didexoy-alpha-D-galactose (dTDP-D-Fucp3N). Each subunit of the trimeric enzyme is dominated by a left-handed beta-helix motif with 11 turns. The three active sites are located at the subunit-subunit interfaces, and the two dTDP-sugar ligands employed in this study bind to the protein in nearly identical manners. Those residues responsible for anchoring the hexose moieties of the dTDP-sugars to the protein include Glu 141, Asn 159, and Asp 160 from one subunit and His 134 from another subunit. To probe the roles of various amino acid residues in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme, 10 site-directed mutant proteins were constructed and their kinetic parameters measured. On the basis of these data, a catalytic mechanism is proposed for QdtC in which the acetylation of the sugar amino group does not require a catalytic base provided by the protein. Rather, the sulfur of CoA functions as the ultimate proton acceptor.
Project description:The pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bordetella pertussis contain in their outer membranes the rare sugar 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid. Five enzymes are required for the biosynthesis of this sugar starting from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. One of these, referred to as WlbB, is an N-acetyltransferase that converts UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAc3NA) to UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcNAc3NAcA). Here we report the three-dimensional structure of WlbB from Bordetella petrii. For this analysis, two ternary structures were determined to 1.43 A resolution: one in which the protein was complexed with acetyl-CoA and UDP and the second in which the protein contained bound CoA and UDP-GlcNAc3NA. WlbB adopts a trimeric quaternary structure and belongs to the LbetaH superfamily of N-acyltransferases. Each subunit contains 27 beta-strands, 23 of which form the canonical left-handed beta-helix. There are only two hydrogen bonds that occur between the protein and the GlcNAc3NA moiety, one between O(delta1) of Asn 84 and the sugar C-3' amino group and the second between the backbone amide group of Arg 94 and the sugar C-5' carboxylate. The sugar C-3' amino group is ideally positioned in the active site to attack the si face of acetyl-CoA. Given that there are no protein side chains that can function as general bases within the GlcNAc3NA binding pocket, a reaction mechanism is proposed for WlbB whereby the sulfur of CoA ultimately functions as the proton acceptor required for catalysis.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that the O-antigens of some pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella abortus, Francisella tularensis, and Campylobacter jejuni contain quite unusual N-formylated sugars (3-formamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose or 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose). Typically, four enzymes are required for the formation of such sugars: a thymidylyltransferase, a 4,6-dehydratase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or PLP-dependent aminotransferase, and an N-formyltransferase. To date, there have been no published reports of N-formylated sugars associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A recent investigation from our laboratories, however, has demonstrated that one gene product from M. tuberculosis, Rv3404c, functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase. Given that M. tuberculosis produces l-rhamnose, both a thymidylyltransferase (Rv0334) and a 4,6-dehydratase (Rv3464) required for its formation have been identified. Thus, there is one remaining enzyme needed for the production of an N-formylated sugar in M. tuberculosis, namely a PLP-dependent aminotransferase. Here we demonstrate that the M. tuberculosis rv3402c gene encodes such an enzyme. Our data prove that M. tuberculosis contains all of the enzymatic activities required for the formation of dTDP-4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose. Indeed, the rv3402c gene product likely contributes to virulence or persistence during infection, though its temporal expression and location remain to be determined.