Inhibition of HIV Env binding to cellular receptors by monoclonal antibody 2G12 as probed by Fc-tagged gp120.
ABSTRACT: During natural HIV infection, an array of host receptors are thought to influence virus attachment and the kinetics of infection. In this study, to probe the interactions of HIV envelope (Env) with various receptors, we assessed the inhibitory properties of various anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in binding assays. To assist in detecting Env in attachment assays, we generated Fc fusions of full-length wild-type gp120 and several variable loop-deleted gp120s. Through investigation of the inhibition of Env binding to cell lines expressing CD4, CCR5, DC-SIGN, syndecans or combinations thereof, we found that the broadly neutralizing mAb, 2G12, directed to a unique carbohydrate epitope of gp120, inhibited Env-CCR5 binding, partially inhibited Env-DC-SIGN binding, but had no effect on Env-syndecan association. Furthermore, 2G12 inhibited Env attachment to primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells, that expressed CD4 and CCR5 primary HIV receptors, as well as DC-SIGN, and suggested that the dual activities of 2G12 could be valuable in vivo for inhibiting initial virus dissemination and propagation.
Project description:The calcium-dependent lectin, DC-SIGN, binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (and simian immunodeficiency virus) gp120 and mediates the binding and transfer of HIV from monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) to permissive T cells. However, it has been recently reported that DC-SIGN binding to HIV gp120 may be carbohydrate independent. Here, we formally demonstrate that gp120 binding to DC-SIGN and MDDCs is largely if not wholly carbohydrate dependent. Endo-beta-N-glucosaminidase H (EndoH) treatment of gp120-Fc under conditions that maintained wild-type CD4 binding-and the full complement of complex glycans-significantly decreased (>90%) binding to DC-SIGN expressing cell lines, as well as to MDDCs. Any residual binding of EndoH-treated gp120-Fc to DC-SIGN was completely competed off with mannan. Mutational analysis indicated that no single glycosylation site affected the ability of gp120-Fc to bind DC-SIGN. To further guide our efforts in mapping the DC-SIGN binding sites on gp120, we used two well-characterized HIV inhibitory agents (2G12 monoclonal antibody and cyanovirin) that bind to high-mannose sugars on gp120. We showed that 2G12 and DC-SIGN bound to nonoverlapping sites in gp120 because (i) 2G12 did not block soluble gp120 or virion binding to DC-SIGN, (ii) 2G12 bound to gp120-Fc that was prebound to cell surface DC-SIGN, and (iii) gp120-Fc mutants that lack glycosylation sites involved in 2G12's epitope were also fully capable of binding DC-SIGN. These data were substantiated by the inability of cyanovirin to block gp120-Fc binding to DC-SIGN. Cyanovirin has been shown to effectively compete for 2G12 binding to gp120. Indeed, high concentrations of cyanovirin dramatically enhanced gp120-Fc binding to cell surfaces in the presence or absence of DC-SIGN. We provide evidence that this enhancement may be due to cyanovirin's ability to bridge gp120 to mannosylated cell surface proteins. These results have implications for antiviral therapeutics and for ongoing efforts to finely map the glycan structures on gp120 responsible for DC-SIGN binding.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a vaccine immunogen that can signal via several cell surface receptors. To investigate whether receptor biology could influence immune responses to gp120, we studied its interaction with human, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) in vitro. Gp120 from the HIV-1 strain JR-FL induced IL-10 expression in MDDCs from 62% of donors, via a mannose C-type lectin receptor(s) (MCLR). Gp120 from the strain LAI was also an IL-10 inducer, but gp120 from the strain KNH1144 was not. The mannose-binding protein cyanovirin-N, the 2G12 mAb to a mannose-dependent gp120 epitope, and MCLR-specific mAbs inhibited IL-10 expression, as did enzymatic removal of gp120 mannose moieties, whereas inhibitors of signaling via CD4, CCR5, or CXCR4 were ineffective. Gp120-stimulated IL-10 production correlated with DC-SIGN expression on the cells, and involved the ERK signaling pathway. Gp120-treated MDDCs also responded poorly to maturation stimuli by up-regulating activation markers inefficiently and stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation only weakly. These adverse reactions to gp120 were MCLR-dependent but independent of IL-10 production. Since such mechanisms might suppress immune responses to Env-containing vaccines, demannosylation may be a way to improve the immunogenicity of gp120 or gp140 proteins.
Project description:The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) protein contains numerous N-linked carbohydrates that shield conserved peptide epitopes and promote trans infection by dendritic cells via binding to cell surface lectins. The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the gp120 subunit of Env, revealing a conserved and highly exposed epitope on the glycan shield. To find an effective antigen for eliciting 2G12-like antibodies, we searched for endogenous yeast proteins that could bind to 2G12 in a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation knockouts and discovered one protein that bound weakly in a Delta pmr1 strain deficient in hyperglycosylation. 2G12 binding to this protein, identified as Pst1, was enhanced by adding the Delta mnn1 deletion to the Delta pmr1 background, ensuring the exposure of terminal alpha1,2-linked mannose residues on the D1 and D3 arms of high-mannose glycans. However, optimum 2G12 antigenicity was found when Pst1, a heavily N-glycosylated protein, was expressed with homogenous Man(8)GlcNAc(2) structures in Delta och1 Delta mnn1 Delta mnn4 yeast. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of this form of Pst1 showed high affinity for 2G12, which translated into Pst1 efficiently inhibiting gp120 interactions with 2G12 and DC-SIGN and blocking 2G12-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 pseudoviruses. The high affinity of the yeast glycoprotein Pst1 for 2G12 highlights its potential as a novel antigen to induce 2G12-like antibodies.
Project description:It is widely accepted that the heavily glycosylated glycoprotein gp120 on the surface of HIV-1 shields peptide epitopes from recognition by the immune system and may promote infection in vivo by interaction with dendritic cells and transport to tissue rich in CD4(+) T cells such as lymph nodes. A conserved cluster of oligomannose glycans on gp120 has been identified as the epitope recognized by the broadly HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12. Oligomannose glycans are also the ligands for DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin found on the surface of dendritic cells. Multivalency is fundamental for carbohydrate-protein interactions, and mimicking of the high glycan density on the virus surface has become essential for designing carbohydrate-based HIV vaccines and antiviral agents. We report an efficient synthesis of oligomannose dendrons, which display multivalent oligomannoses in high density, and characterize their interaction with 2G12 and DC-SIGN by a glycan microarray binding assay. The solution and the surface binding analysis of 2G12 to a prototype oligomannose dendron clearly demonstrated the efficacy of dendrimeric display. We further showed that these glycodendrons inhibit the binding of gp120 to 2G12 and recombinant dimeric DC-SIGN with IC(50) in the nanomolar range. A second-generation Man(9) dendron was identified as a potential immunogen for HIV vaccine development and as a potential antiviral agent.
Project description:We have analyzed the unique epitope for the broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2G12 on the gp120 surface glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Sequence analysis, focusing on the conservation of relevant residues across multiple HIV-1 isolates, refined the epitope that was defined previously by substitutional mutagenesis (A. Trkola, M. Purtscher, T. Muster, C. Ballaun, A. Buchacher, N. Sullivan, K. Srinivasan, J. Sodroski, J. P. Moore, and H. Katinger, J. Virol. 70:1100-1108, 1996). In a biochemical study, we digested recombinant gp120 with various glycosidase enzymes of known specificities and showed that the 2G12 epitope is lost when gp120 is treated with mannosidases. Computational analyses were used to position the epitope in the context of the virion-associated envelope glycoprotein complex, to determine the variability of the surrounding surface, and to calculate the surface accessibility of possible glycan- and polypeptide-epitope components. Together, these analyses suggest that the 2G12 epitope is centered on the high-mannose and/or hybrid glycans of residues 295, 332, and 392, with peripheral glycans from 386 and 448 on either flank. The epitope is mannose dependent and composed primarily of carbohydrate, with probably no direct involvement of the gp120 polypeptide surface. It resides on a face orthogonal to the CD4 binding face, on a surface proximal to, but distinct from, that implicated in coreceptor binding. Its conservation amidst an otherwise highly variable gp120 surface suggests a functional role for the 2G12 binding site, perhaps related to the mannose-dependent attachment of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN or related lectins that facilitate virus entry into susceptible target cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: At early stages of infection CCR5 is the predominant HIV-1 coreceptor, but in approximately 50% of those infected CXCR4-using viruses emerge with disease progression. This coreceptor switch is correlated with an accelerated progression. However, those that maintain virus exclusively restricted to CCR5 (R5) also develop AIDS. We have previously reported that R5 variants in these "non-switch virus" patients evolve during disease progression towards a more replicative phenotype exhibiting altered CCR5 coreceptor interactions. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells that HIV-1 may bind and utilize for enhanced infection of T cells in trans. To further explore the evolution of the R5 phenotype we analyzed sequential R5 isolates obtained before and after AIDS onset, i.e. at the chronic stage and during end-stage disease, with regard to efficiency of DC-SIGN use in trans-infections. RESULTS: Results from binding and trans-infection assays showed that R5 viruses emerging during end-stage AIDS disease displayed reduced ability to use DC-SIGN. To better understand viral determinants underlying altered DC-SIGN usage by R5 viruses, we cloned and sequenced the HIV-1 env gene. We found that end-stage R5 viruses lacked potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in the gp120 V2 and V4 regions, which were present in the majority of the chronic stage R5 variants. One of these sites, amino acid position 160 (aa160) in the V2 region, also correlated with efficient use of DC-SIGN for binding and trans-infections. In fitness assays, where head-to-head competitions between chronic stage and AIDS R5 viruses were setup in parallel direct and DC-SIGN-mediated infections, results were further supported. Competitions revealed that R5 viruses obtained before AIDS onset, containing the V2 PNGS at aa160, were selected for in the trans-infection. Whereas, in agreement with our previous studies, the opposite was seen in direct target cell infections where end-stage viruses out-competed the chronic stage viruses. CONCLUSION: Results of our study suggest R5 virus variants with diverse fitness for direct and DC-SIGN-mediated trans-infections evolve within infected individuals at end-stage disease. In addition, our results point to the importance of a glycosylation site within the gp120 V2 region for efficient DC-SIGN use of HIV-1 R5 viruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, which mediates viral attachment to target cells, consists for approximately 50% of sugar, but the role of the individual sugar chains in various aspects of gp120 folding and function is poorly understood. Here we studied the role of the carbohydrate at position 386. We identified a virus variant that had lost the 386 glycan in an evolution study of a mutant virus lacking the disulfide bond at the base of the V4 domain. RESULTS: The 386 carbohydrate was not essential for folding of wt gp120. However, its removal improved folding of a gp120 variant lacking the 385-418 disulfide bond, suggesting that it plays an auxiliary role in protein folding in the presence of this disulfide bond. The 386 carbohydrate was not critical for gp120 binding to dendritic cells (DC) and DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission to T cells. In accordance with previous reports, we found that N386 was involved in binding of the mannose-dependent neutralizing antibody 2G12. Interestingly, in the presence of specific substitutions elsewhere in gp120, removal of N386 did not result in abrogation of 2G12 binding, implying that the contribution of N386 is context dependent. Neutralization by soluble CD4 and the neutralizing CD4 binding site (CD4BS) antibody b12 was significantly enhanced in the absence of the 386 sugar, indicating that this glycan protects the CD4BS against antibodies. CONCLUSION: The carbohydrate at position 386 is not essential for protein folding and function, but is involved in the protection of the CD4BS from antibodies. Removal of this sugar in the context of trimeric Env immunogens may therefore improve the elicitation of neutralizing CD4BS antibodies.
Project description:Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The HIV-1 gp120 envelope (Env) glycoprotein mediates attachment of virus to human target cells that display requisite receptors, CD4 and co-receptor, generally CCR5. Despite high-affinity interactions with host receptors and proof-of-principle by the drug maraviroc that interference with CCR5 provides therapeutic benefit, no licensed drug currently targets gp120. AREAS COVERED:An overview of the role of gp120 in HIV-1 entry and of sites of potential gp120 vulnerability to therapeutic inhibition is presented. Viral defenses that protect these sites and turn gp120 into a moving labyrinth are discussed together with strategies for circumventing these defenses to allow therapeutic targeting of gp120 sites of vulnerability. EXPERT OPINION:The gp120 envelope glycoprotein interacts with host proteins through multiple interfaces and has conserved structural features at these interaction sites. In spite of this, targeting gp120 for therapeutic purposes is challenging. Env mechanisms that have evolved to evade the humoral immune response also shield it from potential therapeutics. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in understanding HIV-1 gp120 structure and its interactions with host receptors, and in developing therapeutic leads that potently neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Synergies between advances in understanding, needs for therapeutics against novel viral targets and characteristics of breadth and potency for a number of gp120-targetting lead molecules bodes well for gp120 as a HIV-1 therapeutic target.
Project description:We showed previously that during the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of HIV-1, and in particular, the gp120 subunit, evolved toward an increased resistance to neutralizing antibodies at a population level. Here, we considered whether the antigenic evolution of the HIV-1 Env is associated with modifications of its functional properties, focusing on cell entry efficacy and interactions with the receptor and coreceptors. We tested the infectivity of a panel of Env-pseudotyped viruses derived from patients infected by subtype B viruses at three periods of the epidemic (1987 to 1991, 1996 to 2000, and 2006 to 2010). Pseudotyped viruses harboring Env from patients infected during the most recent period were approximately 10-fold more infectious in cell culture than those from patients infected at the beginning of the epidemic. This was associated with faster viral entry kinetics: contemporary viruses entered target cells approximately twice as fast as historical viruses. Contemporary viruses were also twice as resistant as historical viruses to the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide. Resistance to enfuvirtide correlated with a resistance to CCR5 antagonists, suggesting that contemporary viruses expanded their CCR5 usage efficiency. Viruses were equally captured by DC-SIGN, but after binding to DC-SIGN, contemporary viruses infected target cells more efficiently than historical viruses. Thus, we report evidence that the infectious properties of the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 increased during the course of the epidemic. It is plausible that these changes affected viral fitness during the transmission process and might have contributed to an increasing virulence of HIV-1.IMPORTANCE Following primary infection by HIV-1, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) exert selective pressure on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), driving the evolution of the viral population. Previous studies suggested that, as a consequence, Env has evolved at the HIV species level since the start of the epidemic so as to display greater resistance to NAbs. Here, we investigated whether the antigenic evolution of the HIV-1 Env is associated with modifications of its functional properties, focusing on cell entry efficacy and interactions with the receptor and coreceptors. Our data provide evidence that the infectious properties of the HIV-1 Env increased during the course of the epidemic. These changes may have contributed to increasing virulence of HIV-1 and an optimization of transmission between individuals.