Consequences of receptor editing at the lambda locus: multireactivity and light chain secretion.
ABSTRACT: To investigate the manner in which B cells with lambda light (L) chains undergo receptor editing, we have studied hybridoma panels from 56R/kappa-deleted (kdel) mice. 56R/kdel mice only produce four L chains (lambda1, lambda2, lambda3, and lambdaX). They also have a simplified heavy (H) chain repertoire: All B cells start out with a 56R anti-DNA H chain. A few frankly autoreactive 56R lambda1 cells appear to escape into the periphery, but the majority of the peripheral B cell repertoire in 56R/kdel is made up of B cells expressing the 56R H chain with the lambdaX L chain. Surprisingly, 56R lambdaX B cells are multireactive, binding to a variety of self and nonself antigens, including dsDNA (albeit at reduced affinity compared with the other lambda L chains). Another significant population in the 56R/kdel mouse consists of allelically included B cells that express lambdaX along with another L chain. The multireactivity of both 56R lambdaX and 56R lambdaX/lambda1 receptors could contribute to autoimmunity if these B cells were to become activated. Also found among 56R/kdel hybridomas are clones that have inactivated the H chain and secrete only L chains. These clones may represent products of exhaustive rearrangement. Multireactivity, allelic inclusion, and L chain secretion are three consequences of editing at the lambda locus that may predispose toward the development of autoimmunity.
Project description:The chronic graft-versus-host (cGvH) reaction is a model of induced lupus caused by alloreactive CD4(+) T cells from a Bm-12 mouse in a C57BL/6 recipient. We used this cGvH reaction in C57BL/6 anti-DNA H chain transgenic mice, 56R/B6, to understand the structure, specificity, and origin of the induced autoantibodies (auto-Abs). We found anti-DNA Abs that reacted to several different antigens, such as phosphatidylserine, myelin basic protein, thyroglobulin, histone, insulin, cytochrome C, and beta-galactosidase. This polyreactivity was found for Abs from B cells that expressed the 56R H chain transgene with "editor" L chains that did not completely veto autoreactivity. We suggest that such incomplete editing results in polyreactivity and that incompletely edited polyreactive B cells influence the subsequent expression of pathogenic auto-Abs in disease. We also found B cells that coexpress kappa and lambda L chain. These B cells contributed to the autoimmune response and are possibly in the marginal zone of the spleen.
Project description:Light (L) chains that edit anti-DNA heavy (H) chains rescue B-cell development by suppressing DNA binding. However, exceptional editor L chains allow B cells to reach splenic compartments even though their B-cell receptors remain autoreactive. Such incompletely edited B cells express multireactive antibodies that accumulate in the Golgi and are released as insoluble, amyloid-like immune complexes. Here, we examine examples of incomplete editing from the analysis of variable to joining (VJ) gene junction of the variable (V?x) editor L chain. When paired with the anti-DNA heavy chain, VH56R, the V?x variants yield antibodies with differing specificities, including glycosaminoglycan reactivity. Our results implicate these specificities in the evasion of receptor editing through intracellular sequestration of IgM and the release of insoluble IgM complexes. Our findings can be extrapolated to human L chains and have implications for understanding a latent component of the Ig repertoire that could exert pathogenic and protective functions.
Project description:To determine the molecular and functional properties of human rheumatoid factors (RF), we established stable hybridomas and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell lines from the synovial fluid or peripheral blood of three patients with rheumatoid arthritis and one patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. 17 cell lines were obtained that produced high-titer immunoglobulin M (IgM) RF that reacted exclusively with rabbit but not human IgG or IgG of other mammalian species. Certain anti-rabbit IgG RF also had specificity for other mammalian antigens (Ag), including cytoskeletal proteins and intracellular proteins found in HeLa cells, as well as for Ag present in an extract prepared from the cell wall of group A streptococci. 13 of the 17 RF contained lambda-type light (L) chains, of which 12 were classified serologically as members of the lambda-L chain variable region (V lambda) subgroup, designated V lambda III. The heavy chain V region (VH) and V lambda sequences of nine of these IgM lambda RF were determined at the cDNA level. Five VH genes in three VH families were used by these antibodies (Ab), including VH1 (dp21/1-4b and dp10 [51p1]/hv1051), VH3 (dp38/3-15 and dp77/13-21), and VH4 (dp70/4-4b). The deduced V gene-encoded amino acid sequences of the lambda chains of these IgM lambda RF confirmed their serological classification as lambda III, and they were further classified as members of the relatively uncommon V lambda III subgroup, designated V lambda IIIb. Based on cDNA analyses, nine were the product of three different V lambda III b germline genes. Two such genes, designated hsiggll150 and hsiggll295, were cloned and sequenced from genomic DNA. Unique combinations of these VH and V lambda III b genes could be related to distinctive patterns of reactivity among the IgM lambda RF. Although the VH and V lambda regions of these Abs were expressed primarily as germline-encoded sequences, four of nine multireactive Abs had extensive V region mutation, indicative of an Ag-driven process. The finding that lambda IIIb L chains are preferentially found among anti-rabbit IgG RF, and that some of these Ab have specificity for other protein, cellular, and bacterial Ag, provides new insight into the pathogenesis of RA and related diseases.
Project description:Studies in autoantibody transgenic mice have demonstrated receptor editing rearrangements at Ab H and L chain loci. However, the physiologic role of H chain editing (V(H) replacement and rearrangement on the second allele) has been called into question. It is unclear if additional rounds of H chain rearrangement are driven by BCR specificity. In this study, we analyze the manner in which B cells undergo additional H chain rearrangements in an anti-DNA H chain knock-in mouse, B6.56R. We find that rearrangements in 56R(+) B cells tend to involve the D gene locus on both alleles and the most J(H)-proximal V(H) gene segments on the endogenous allele. As a result, some B cells exhibit V(D)J rearrangements on both H chain alleles, yet allelic exclusion is tightly maintained in mature 56R B cells. As B cells mature, a higher proportion expresses the nontransgenic H chain allele. Rearrangements on both H chain alleles exhibit junctional diversity consistent with TdT-mediated N-addition, and TdT RNA is expressed exclusively at the pro-B cell stage in B6.56R. Collectively, these findings favor a single, early window of H chain rearrangement in B6.56R that precedes the expression of a functional BCR. B cells that happen to successfully rearrange another H chain may be favored in the periphery.
Project description:Src-like adaptor protein (SLAP) adapts c-Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to activated components of the BCR signaling complex regulating BCR levels and signaling in developing B cells. Based on this function, we asked whether SLAP deficiency could decrease the threshold for tolerance and eliminate development of autoreactive B cells in two models of autoantibody production. First, we sensitized mice with a dsDNA mimetope that causes an anti-dsDNA response. Despite equivalent production of anti-peptide antibodies compared to BALB/c controls, SLAP(-/-) mice did not produce anti-dsDNA. Second, we used the 56R tolerance model. SLAP(-/-) 56R mice had decreased levels of dsDNA-reactive antibodies compared to 56R mice due to skewed light chain usage. Thus, SLAP is a critical regulator of B-cell development and function and its deficiency leads to decreased autoreactive B cells that are otherwise maintained by inefficient receptor editing or failed negative selection.
Project description:CD40L is excessively produced in both human and murine lupus and plays a role in lupus pathogenesis. To address how excess CD40L induces autoantibody production, we crossed CD40L-transgenic mice with the anti-DNA H-chain transgenic mouse lines 3H9 and 56R, well-characterized models for studying B-cell tolerance to nuclear antigens. Excess CD40L did not induce autoantibody production in 3H9 mice in which anergy maintains self-tolerance, nor did it perturb central tolerance, including deletion and receptor editing, of anti-DNA B cells in 56R mice. In contrast, CD40L/56R mice restored a large number of marginal zone (MZ) B cells reactive to Sm/ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and produced autoantibody, whereas these B cells were deleted by apoptosis in MZ of 56R mice. Thus, excess CD40L efficiently blocked tolerance of Sm/RNP-reactive MZ B cells, leading to production of anti-Sm/RNP antibody implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus. These results suggest that self-reactive B cells such as anti-Sm/RNP B cells, which somehow escape tolerance in the bone marrow and migrate to MZ, are tolerized by apoptotic deletion in MZ and that a break in this tolerance may play a role in the pathogenesis of lupus.
Project description:Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.
Project description:Pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies expressed in systemic lupus erythematosis bind DNA mainly through electrostatic interactions between the positively charged Arg residues of the antibody complementarity determining region (CDR) and the negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA. The importance of Arg in CDR3 for DNA binding has been shown in mice with transgenes coding for anti-DNA V(H) regions; there is also a close correlation between arginines in CDR3 of antibodies and DNA binding. Codons for Arg can readily be formed by V(D)J rearrangement; thereby, antibodies that bind DNA are part of the preimmune repertoire. Anti-DNAs in healthy mice are regulated by receptor editing, a mechanism that replaces κ light (L) chains compatible with DNA binding with κ L chains that harbor aspartic residues. This negatively charged amino acid is thought to neutralize Arg sites in the V(H). Editing by replacement is allowed at the κ locus, because the rearranged VJ is nested between unrearranged Vs and Js. However, neither λ nor heavy (H) chain loci are organized so as to allow such second rearrangements. In this study, we analyze regulation of anti-DNA H chains in mice that lack the κ locus, κ-/κ- mice. These mice show that the endogenous preimmune repertoire does indeed include a high frequency of antibodies with Arg in their CDR3s (putative anti-DNAs) and they are associated mainly with the editor L chain λx. The editing mechanisms in the case of λ-expressing B cells include L chain allelic inclusion and V(H) replacement.
Project description:IFNs lambda1, lambda2, and lambda3, or type III IFNs, are recently identified cytokines distantly related to type I IFNs. Despite an early evolutionary divergence, the 2 types of IFNs display similar antiviral activities, and both are produced primarily in dendritic cells. Although virus induction of the type I IFN-beta gene had served as a paradigm of gene regulation, relatively little is known about the regulation of IFN-lambda gene expression. Studies of virus induction of IFN-lambda1 identified an essential role of IFN regulatory factors (IRF) 3 and 7, which bind to a regulatory DNA sequence near the start site of transcription. Here, we report that the proximal promoter region of the IFN-lambda1 regulatory region is not sufficient for maximal gene induction in response to bacterial LPS, and we identify an essential cluster of homotypic NF-kappaB binding sites. Remarkably, these sites, which bind efficiently to NF-kappaB and function independently of the IRF3/7 binding sites, originate as transposable elements of the Alu and LTR families. We also show that depletion of the NF-kappaB RelA protein significantly reduces the level of the IFN-lambda1 gene expression. We conclude that IFN-lambda1 gene expression requires NF-kappaB, and we propose a model for IFN-lambda1 gene regulation, in which IRF and NF-kappaB activate gene expression independently via spatially separated promoter elements. These observations provide insights into the independent evolution of the IFN-lambda1 and IFN-beta promoters and directly implicate transposable elements in the regulation of the IFN-lambda1 gene by NF-kappaB.
Project description:The recombining sequence (RS) of mouse and its human equivalent, the immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa deleting element (IGKDE), are sequences found at the 3' end of the Ig kappa locus (Igk) that rearrange to inactivate Igk in developing B cells. RS recombination correlates with Ig lambda (Iglambda) light (L) chain expression and likely plays a role in receptor editing by eliminating Igk genes encoding autoantibodies. A mouse strain was generated in which the recombination signal of RS was removed, blocking RS-mediated Igk inactivation. In RS mutant mice, receptor editing and self-tolerance were impaired, in some cases leading to autoantibody formation. Surprisingly, mutant mice also made fewer B cells expressing lambda chain, whereas lambda versus kappa isotype exclusion was only modestly affected. These results provide insight into the mechanism of L chain isotype exclusion and indicate that RS has a physiological role in promoting the formation of lambda L chain-expressing B cells.