Loss of a 29-kilodalton outer membrane protein in Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with imipenem resistance.
ABSTRACT: We analyzed the possible causes of imipenem (IPM) resistance in multidrug-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Comparison of the outer membrane protein (OMP) profiles of two genomically related strains (Ab288 [IPM sensitive] and Ab242 [IPM resistant]) indicated the conspicuous loss of a 29-kDa polypeptide in the Ab242 strain. No carbapenemase activity was detected in any of these strains. The treatment of Ab288 with sodium salicylate resulted in IPM resistance and the loss of the 29-kDa OMP. In addition, IPM-resistant clones of Ab288 which were selected by repetitive culturing in increasing concentrations of this antibiotic also showed the absence of this 29-kDa OMP.
Project description:Sixty-two clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins were collected between July 2003 and May 2005. Among these isolates, 23 (37.1%) were imipenem (IPM) susceptible, and 39 (62.9%) were IPM insusceptible, of which 89.7% (35/39) were resistant and 10.3% (4/39) were intermediate. Isolate genotypes were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 62 isolates, 48 belonged to epidemic pulsotype A (77.4%). This pulsotype included 37.5% and 58.4% of beta-lactam phenotypes b and a, respectively. Nine isolates (14.5%) belonged to pulsotype E, which included 22.3% and 77.7% of phenotypes b and a, respectively. The beta-lactamases with pIs of 5.4, 6.5, 8.2, and 8.2 corresponded to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) TEM-20, TEM-24, SHV-5, and SHV-12, respectively. Of 39 IPM-insusceptible E. aerogenes isolates, 26 (66.6%) were determined to be metallo-beta-lactamase producers, by using a phenotypic method. Of these isolates, 24 harbored a bla(IMP-1) gene encoding a protein with a pI of >9.5, and two carried the bla(VIM-2) gene encoding a protein with a pI of 5.3, corresponding to beta-lactamases IMP-1 and VIM-2, respectively. The remaining 13 (33.4%) isolates were negative for the bla(IMP-1) and bla(VIM-2) genes but showed an alteration of their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Ten of these isolates produced the two possible OMPs (32 and 42 kDa), with IPM MICs between 8 and 32 microg/ml, and three others produced only a 32-kDa OMP with IPM MICs >32 microg/ml. This work demonstrates that, in addition to resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, IPM resistance can occur in ESBL-producing E. aerogenes isolates by carbapenemase production or by the loss of porin in the outer membrane.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii has gradually become a global challenge. To identify the genes involved in carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii, the transcriptomic responses of the completely sequenced strain ATCC 17978 selected with 0.5 mg/L (IPM-2 m) and 2 mg/L (IPM-8 m) imipenem were investigated using RNA-sequencing to identify differences in the gene expression patterns. RESULTS: A total of 88 and 68 genes were differentially expressed in response to IPM-2 m and IPM-8 m selection, respectively. Among the expressed genes, 50 genes were highly expressed in IPM-2 m, 30 genes were highly expressed in IPM-8 m, and 38 genes were expressed common in both strains. Six groups of genes were simultaneously expressed in IPM-2 m and IPM-8 m mutants. The three gene groups involved in DNA recombination were up-regulated, including recombinase, transposase and DNA repair, and beta-lactamase OXA-95 and homologous recombination. The remaining gene groups involved in biofilm formation were down-regulated, including quorum sensing, secretion systems, and the csu operon. The antibiotic resistance determinants, including RND efflux transporters and multidrug resistance pumps, were over-expressed in response to IPM-2 m selection, followed by a decrease in response to IPM-8 m selection. Among the genes over-expressed in both strains, blaOXA-95, previously clustered with the blaOXA-51-like family, showed 14-fold (IPM-2 m) to 330-fold (IPM-8 m) over-expression. The expression of blaOXA-95 in IPM-2 m and IPM-8 m cells was positively correlated with the rate of imipenem hydrolysis, as demonstrated through Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry, suggesting that blaOXA-95 plays a critical role in conferring carbapenem resistance. In addition, A. baumannii shows an inverse relationship between carbapenem resistance and biofilm production. CONCLUSION: Gene recombination and blaOXA-95 play critical roles in carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii. Taken together, the results of the present study provide a foundation for future studies of the network systems associated with carbapenem resistance.
Project description:The cloning and sequencing of the Brucella abortus major 25-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) is reported. The 25-kDa (group 3) OMP has been proposed, on the basis of amino acid composition, to be the counterpart of OmpA (D. R. Verstraete, M. T. Creasy, N. T. Caveney, C. L. Baldwin, M. W. Blab, and A. J. Winter, Infect. Immun. 35:979-989, 1982). However, the amino acid sequence predicted from the cloned B. abortus gene did not reveal significant homology with either OmpA sequences from different members of the family Enterobacteriaceae or other known protein sequences.
Project description:Culture filtrate proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induce protective immunity in various animal models of tuberculosis. Two molecular mass regions (6 to 10 kDa and 24 to 36 kDa) of short-term culture filtrate are preferentially recognized by Th1 cells in animal models as well as by patients with minimal disease. In the present study, the 24- to 36-kDa region has been studied, and the T-cell reactivity has been mapped in detail. Monoclonal antibodies were generated, and one monoclonal antibody, HYB 71-2, with reactivity against a 29-kDa antigen located in the highly reactive region below the antigen 85 complex was selected. The 29-kDa antigen (CFP29) was purified from M. tuberculosis short-term culture filtrate by thiophilic adsorption chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. In its native form, CFP29 forms a polymer with a high molecular mass. CFP29 was mapped in two-dimensional electrophoresis gels as three distinct spots just below the antigen 85 complex component MPT59. CFP29 is present in both culture filtrate and the membrane fraction from M. tuberculosis, suggesting that this antigen is released from the envelope to culture filtrate during growth. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence allowed cloning and sequencing of the cfp29 gene. The nucleotide sequence showed 62% identity to the bacteriocin Linocin from Brevibacterium linens. Purified recombinant histidine-tagged CFP29 and native CFP29 had similar T-cell stimulatory properties, and they both elicited the release of high levels of gamma interferon from mouse memory effector cells isolated during the recall of protective immunity to tuberculosis. Interspecies analysis by immunoblotting and PCR demonstrated that CFP29 is widely distributed in mycobacterial species.
Project description:To further characterize the 29-kDa surface antigen of Entamoeba histolytica, we analyzed the complete nucleotide sequence and compared the immunoreactivity of this antigen in pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Five cDNA clones (one 1.0-kb full-length clone, designated p13, and four partial-length clones) encoding the antigen were analyzed for allelic variation. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences revealed several single-nucleotide substitutions in all five cDNAs, two of which resulted in amino acid differences. Localization of the antigen to the amebic surface in a previous report (B. E. Torian, B. M. Flores, V. L. Stroeher, F. S. Hagen, and W. E. Stamm, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6358-6362, 1990) was corroborated by transmission electron microscopy showing colloidal gold particles on the surface of the trophozoites. Computer analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence predicted that the protein encoded by p13 was a hydrophilic peripheral membrane protein, and these data were confirmed by a Triton X-114 membrane extraction showing the presence of the 29-kDa antigen primarily in the aqueous phase of the detergent partition. Monoclonal antibodies to a fusion peptide differentiated between pathogenic and nonpathogenic clinical strains of E. histolytica in immunoblots. Although no immunoreactive epitopes were detected on nonpathogenic strains, Northern (RNA) analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization with a 700-bp cDNA probe demonstrated that mRNA and the gene encoding the 29-kDa surface antigen were present in both pathogenic and nonpathogenic clinical isolates.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral bacterium, is a common cause of human gastrointestinal disease. Although investigators commonly use C. jejuni glycine-hydrochloride extracts in assays to determine the products that promote the binding of the organism to eukaryotic cells, the proteins contained within these extracts remain ill defined. Characterization of these proteins will provide a better understanding of C. jejuni gene regulation and organization. An antiserum was raised against a C. jejuni 29-kDa gel-purified protein detected in glycine-hydrochloride extracts. This antiserum was used to screen an expression library of C. jejuni. A reactive clone that contained an open reading frame of 256 amino acids was identified. The cloned gene was transcribed and translated, and the product was exported to the periplasmic space in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue. The translated C. jejuni product, designated P29, exhibited significant similarity to the histidine and lysine-arginine-ornithine periplasmic binding proteins (HisJ and LAO, respectively) of Salmonella typhimurium. The C. jejuni gene encoding the P29 protein complemented an S. typhimurium HisJ mutant but not a LAO mutant when provided in trans. These data suggest that the C. jejuni gene encoding the P29 protein is a homolog of the S. typhimurium hisJ gene.
Project description:When grown under iron limitation, Neisseria meningitidis expresses several additional outer membrane proteins (OMPs), which were studied to assess their vaccine potential. Two monoclonal antibodies were obtained against a 98-kDa OMP of strain 2996 (B:2b:P1.2). Cross-reactivity studies revealed that the two antibodies reacted with 44 and 42 of 74 meningococcal strains, respectively. The antibodies did not block the binding of transferrin or lactoferrin to intact cells. The structural gene for the protein, tentatively designated iroA, was isolated and sequenced. Computer analysis revealed homology to the ferric siderophore receptors in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and to gonococcal transferrin-binding protein 1 (TbpA). The high degree of cross-reactivity and the results of Southern blot analyses, which showed that the iroA gene is also present in strains that did not react with the monoclonal antibodies, suggest that the 98-kDa OMP is well conserved among meningococci and that it is a suitable vaccine candidate. However, the antibodies were not bactericidal in an in vitro assay with human complement.
Project description:The cloning of the gene(s) encoding a 36-kilodalton (kDa) cell envelope protein of Brucella abortus has been previously described (T. A. Ficht, S. W. Bearden, B. A. Sowa, and L. G. Adams, Infect, Immun. 56:2036-2046, 1988). In an attempt to define the nature of the previously described duplication at this locus we have sequenced 3,500 base pairs of genomic DNA encompassing this region. The duplication represented two similar open reading frames which shared more than 85% homology at the nucleotide level but differed primarily because of the absence of 108 nucleotides from one of the two gene copies. These two genes were read from opposite strands and potentially encoded proteins which are 96% homologous. The predicted gene products were identical over the first 100 amino acids, including 22-amino-acid-long signal sequences. The amino acid composition of the predicted proteins was similar to that obtained for the Brucella porin isolated by Verstreate et al. (D. R. Verstreate, M. T. Creasy, N. T. Caveney, C. L. Baldwin, M. W. Blab, and A. J. Winter, Infect. Immun. 35:979-989, 1982) and presumably represented two copies of the porin gene, tentatively identified as omp 2a (silent) and omp 2b (expressed). The homology between the two genes extended to and included Shine-Dalgarno sequences 7 base pairs upstream from the ATG start codons. Homology at the 3' ends extended only as far as the termination codon, but both genes had putative rho-independent transcription termination sites. Localization of the promoters proved more difficult, since the canonical procaryotic sequences could not be identified in the region upstream of either gene. Promoter activity was demonstrated by ligation to a promoterless lacZ gene in pMC1871. However, only one active promoter could be identified by using this system. A 36-kDa protein was synthesized in E. coli with the promoter in the native orientation and was identical in size to the protein produced in laboratory-grown B. abortus. When the promoter-containing fragment was inverted, a 33-kDa protein was expressed. These results were consistent with the predicted sizes based on the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames in omp 2b and omp 2a. Whether this locus contains one active and one silent or cryptic porin gene, or two active Brucella porin genes expressed under different environmental conditions, is discussed.
Project description:The gene encoding an outer membrane protein A (OmpA)-like, heat-modifiable Omp of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 43718 (strain Y4, serotype b) was cloned by a PCR cloning procedure. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a protein of 346 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 36.9 kDa. The protein expressed by the cloned gene reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the previously described 29-kDa Omp (Omp29) of strain Y4. This monoclonal antibody reacted specifically with Omp29 of A. actinomycetemcomitans (serotype b), but not with any Omp of Escherichia coli, including OmpA. This protein exhibited characteristic heat modifiability on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, showing an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa when unheated and a mass of 34 kDa when heated. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein expressed in E. coli perfectly matched those deduced from the purified Omp29 of strain Y4. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene coding for Omp29 from serotype b matched completely (except for valine at position 321) that of a recently reported omp34 gene described for A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype c (NCTC 9710). Because of the conserved nature of the gene within these serotypes, we designated the gene described herein from serotype b as omp34.
Project description:Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a tick-transmitted rickettsial agent, is responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). In this study, we genetically mapped 10 isolates obtained from HME patients. Sequence analysis of the 28-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) multigene locus spanning 6 of the 22 tandemly arranged genes identified three distinct genetic groups with shared homology among isolates within each group. Isolates in Groups I and III contained six genes each, while Group II isolates had a gene deletion. There were two regions on the locus where novel gene deletion or insertion mutations occurred, resulting in the net loss of one gene in Group II isolates. Numerous nucleotide differences among genes in isolates of each group also were detected. The shared homology among isolates in each group for the 28-kDa OMP locus suggests the derivation of clonal lineages. Transcription and translation analysis of the locus revealed differences in the expressed genes of different group isolates. Analysis of the 120-kDa OMP gene and variable-length PCR target gene showed size variations resulting from loss or gain of long, direct repeats within the protein coding sequences. To our knowledge this is the first study that looked at several regions of the genome simultaneously, and we provide the first evidence of heterogeneity resulting from gene deletion and insertion mutations in the E. chaffeensis genome. Diversity in different genomic regions could be the result of a selection process or of independently evolved genes.