Human herpesvirus 8 glycoprotein B (gB), gH, and gL can mediate cell fusion.
ABSTRACT: Herpesvirus entry into cells and herpesvirus-induced cell fusion are related processes in that virus penetration proceeds by fusion of the viral envelope and cell membrane. To characterize the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) glycoproteins that can mediate cell fusion, a luciferase reporter gene activation assay was used. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the HHV-8 glycoproteins of interest along with a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the T7 promoter were cocultivated with human cells transfected with T7 RNA polymerase. Because HHV-8 glycoprotein B (gB) expressed in CHO cells localizes to the perinuclear region, a truncated form of gB (designated gB(MUT)) that lacks putative endocytosis signals was constructed by deletion of the distal 58 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail. HHV-8 gB(MUT) was expressed efficiently on the surface of CHO cells. HHV-8 gB, gH, and gL could mediate the fusion of CHO cells with two different human cell types, embryonic kidney cells and B lymphocytes. Substituting gB(MUT) for gB significantly enhanced the fusion of CHO cells with human embryonic kidney cells but not B lymphocytes. Thus, two human cell types known to be susceptible to HHV-8 entry were also suitable targets for cell fusion induced by HHV-8 gB, gH, and gL. For human embryonic kidney cells and B cells at least, optimal fusion was noted with the expression of all three HHV-8 glycoproteins.
Project description:ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) glycoproteins gB and gH/gL are both necessary and sufficient for cell-cell fusion. However, it is not clear what roles these glycoproteins play in virus entry, whether acting directly in membrane fusion or in binding receptors. With other herpesviruses, it appears that gB is the fusion protein and is triggered by gH/gL, which, in some cases, binds receptors. However, for HCMV, there is published evidence that gB binds cellular ligands necessary to promote virus entry into or signaling of cells. Most mechanistic information on herpesvirus fusion proteins involves cell-cell fusion assays, which do not allow a determination of whether gB or gH/gL in the virion envelope must be oriented toward cellular membranes that contain receptors. Here, we showed that HCMV virions lacking gB were unable to enter normal cells but entered cells that expressed gB. Analyses of gB mutants lacking the cytoplasmic domain or with substitutions in putative "fusion loops" provided evidence that gB fusion activity was required for this "entry in trans." In gB-mediated entry in trans, gB is oriented toward the virion envelope that apparently lacks receptors, arguing against an essential role for gB in binding receptors or signaling molecules. In contrast, particles lacking gH/gL did not enter cells expressing gH/gL, apparently because gH/gL must be oriented toward cellular membranes (which have receptors). Coupled with our previous interference studies, in which gH/gL expressed in cells blocked HCMV entry, our findings here support the hypothesis that HCMV gH/gL binds cellular receptors before triggering gB, which acts as the fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) produces major disease in neonates and immunosuppressed transplant patients. As with other herpesviruses, HCMV requires two membrane glycoproteins, gB and gH/gL, to enter host cells. However, it has not been clear how gB and gH/gL function in two steps of the HCMV entry pathway, i.e., (i) binding of cellular receptors and (ii) fusion of the virion envelope with cellular membranes. There are studies that suggest that HCMV gB is required for receptor binding and other studies suggesting that gH/gL is the receptor binding protein and gB is the fusion protein. Here, we show that HCMV virions lacking gB can enter cells that express gB in cellular membranes. In contrast, virus particles lacking gH/gL could not enter cells expressing gH/gL. Our study supports the hypothesis that gB is the fusion protein and gH/gL acts upstream of gB to bind receptors and then activate gB for fusion.
Project description:Membrane fusion during herpesvirus entry into host cells is a complex process where multiple glycoproteins interact to relay the triggering signal from a receptor-binding protein to the conserved fusogen gB through the conserved heterodimer gH/gL. Crystal structures of individual glycoproteins are available, yet high-order 'supercomplexes' have been elusive. Recent structures of complexes between gH/gL from human cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus and the receptor-binding proteins that form at early stages of herpesviral entry highlighted mechanisms that control tropism and revealed dynamic intermediate complexes containing gH/gL that may directly participate in membrane deformation and juxtaposition. Determining how the triggering signal reaches the fusogen gB represents the next frontier in structural biology of herpesvirus entry.
Project description:Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) enters into cells via membrane fusion of the viral envelope with plasma or endosomal membranes mediated by viral glycoproteins. HSV-1 virions attach to cell surfaces by binding of viral glycoproteins gC, gD and gB to specific cellular receptors. Here we show that the human ocular and highly neurovirulent HSV-1 strain McKrae enters substantially more efficiently into cells via the gB-specific human paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor-α (hPILR-α). Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences between HSV-1(F) and McKrae strains indicates that amino acid changes within gB, gC, gH and gL may cause increased entry via the hPILR- α receptor.HSV-1 (McKrae) entered substantially more efficiently than viral strain F in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing hPIRL-α but not within CHO-human nectin-1, -(CHO-hNectin-1), CHO-human HVEM (CHO-hHVEM) or Vero cells. The McKrae genes encoding viral glycoproteins gB, gC, gD, gH, gL, gK and the membrane protein UL20 were sequenced and their predicted amino acid (aa) sequences were compared with virulent strains F, H129, and the attenuated laboratory strain KOS. Most aa differences between McKrae and F were located at their gB amino termini known to bind with the PILRα receptor. These aa changes included a C10R change, also seen in the neurovirulent strain ANG, as well as redistribution and increase of proline residues. Comparison of gC aa sequences revealed multiple aa changes including an L132P change within the 129-247 aa region known to bind to heparan sulfate (HS) receptors. Two aa changes were located within the H1 domain of gH that binds gL. Multiple aa changes were located within the McKrae gL sequence, which were preserved in the H129 isolate, but differed for the F strain. Viral glycoproteins gD and gK and the membrane protein UL20 were conserved between McKrae and F strains.The results indicate that the observed entry phenotype of the McKrae strain is most likely due to a combination of increased binding to heparan sulfate receptors and enhanced virus entry via gB-mediated fusion of the viral envelope with plasma membranes.
Project description:Whereas most viruses require only a single protein to bind to and fuse with cells, herpesviruses use multiple glycoproteins to mediate virus entry, and thus communication among these proteins is required. For most alphaherpesviruses, the minimal set of viral proteins required for fusion with the host cell includes glycoproteins gD, gB, and a gH/gL heterodimer. In the current model of entry, gD binds to a cellular receptor and transmits a signal to gH/gL. This signal then triggers gB, the conserved fusion protein, to insert into the target membrane and refold to merge the viral and cellular membranes. We previously demonstrated that gB homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and saimiriine herpesvirus 1 (SaHV-1), were interchangeable. In contrast, neither gD nor gH/gL functioned with heterotypic entry glycoproteins, indicating that gD and gH/gL exhibit an essential type-specific functional interaction. To map this homotypic interaction site on gH/gL, we generated HSV-1/SaHV-1 gH and gL chimeras. The functional interaction with HSV-1 gD mapped to the N-terminal domains I and II of the HSV-1 gH ectodomain. The core of HSV-1 gL that interacts with gH also was required for functional homotypic interaction. The N-terminal gH/gL domains I and II are the least conserved and may have evolved to support species-specific glycoprotein interactions.The first step of the herpesvirus life cycle is entry into a host cell. A coordinated interaction among multiple viral glycoproteins is required to mediate fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. The details of how these glycoproteins interact to trigger fusion are unclear. By swapping the entry glycoproteins of two alphaherpesviruses (HSV-1 and SaHV-1), we previously demonstrated a functional homotypic interaction between gD and gH/gL. To define the gH and gL requirements for homotypic interaction, we evaluated the function of a panel of HSV-1/SaHV-1 gH and gL chimeras. We demonstrate that domains I and II of HSV-1 gH are sufficient to promote a functional, albeit reduced, interaction with HSV-1 gD. These findings contribute to our model of how the entry glycoproteins cooperate to mediate herpesvirus entry into the cell.
Project description:Members of the Herpesviridae, including the medically important alphaherpesvirus varicella-zoster virus (VZV), induce fusion of the virion envelope with cell membranes during entry, and between cells to form polykaryocytes in infected tissues. The conserved glycoproteins, gB, gH and gL, are the core functional proteins of the herpesvirus fusion complex. gB serves as the primary fusogen via its fusion loops, but functions for the remaining gB domains remain unexplained. As a pathway for biological discovery of domain function, our approach used structure-based analysis of the viral fusogen together with a neutralizing antibody. We report here a 2.8?Å cryogenic-electron microscopy structure of native gB recovered from VZV-infected cells, in complex with a human monoclonal antibody, 93k. This high-resolution structure guided targeted mutagenesis at the gB-93k interface, providing compelling evidence that a domain spatially distant from the gB fusion loops is critical for herpesvirus fusion, revealing a potential new target for antiviral therapies.
Project description:Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) glycoprotein B (gB) is a glycoprotein consisting of 830 amino acids and is essential for the growth of the virus. Previously, we reported that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) called 87-y-13 specifically reacts with HHV-6A gB, and we identified its epitope residue at asparagine (Asn) 347 on gB. In this study, we examined whether the epitope recognized by the neutralizing MAb is essential for HHV-6A infection. We constructed HHV-6A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomes harboring substitutions at Asn347, namely, HHV-6A BACgB(N347K) and HHV-6A BACgB(N347A). These mutant viruses could be reconstituted and propagated in the same manner as the wild type and their revertants, and MAb 87-y-13 could not inhibit infection by either mutant. In a cell-cell fusion assay, Asn at position 347 on gB was found to be nonessential for cell-cell fusion. In addition, in building an HHV-6A gB homology model, we found that the epitope of the neutralizing MAb is located on domain II of gB and is accessible to solvents. These results indicate that Asn at position 347, the linear epitope of the neutralizing MAb, does not affect HHV-6A infectivity.IMPORTANCE Glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the most conserved glycoproteins among all herpesviruses and is a key factor for virus entry. Therefore, antibodies targeted to gB may neutralize virus entry. Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) encodes gB, which is translated to a protein of about 830 amino acids (aa). Using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for HHV-6A gB, which has a neutralizing linear epitope, we analyzed the role of its epitope residue, N347, in HHV-6A infectivity. Interestingly, this gB linear epitope residue, N347, was not essential for HHV-6A growth. By constructing a homology model of HHV-6A gB, we found that N347 was located in the region corresponding to domain II. Therefore, with regard to its neutralizing activity against HHV-6A infection, the epitope on gB might be exposed to solvents, suggesting that it might be a target of the immune system.
Project description:Membrane fusion induced by herpes simplex virus (HSV) requires the action of four viral membrane glycoproteins (gB, gD, gH, and gL) and the binding of gD to one of its receptors, such as the herpesvirus entry mediator or nectin-1. The related animal herpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV), encodes a homologous set of glycoproteins and its gD can also use nectin-1 as an entry receptor. We show here that PRV gD, when coexpressed with HSV gB, gH, and gL, cannot substitute for HSV gD in inducing fusion with target cells expressing nectin-1. Chimeric gD molecules composed of HSV and PRV sequences can substitute, provided the first 285 aa are from HSV gD. Because the first 261 aa were sufficient for receptor binding, this suggested that amino acids 262-285 contain a region required for cell fusion but not for receptor binding. Deletions from amino acids 250-299 failed to identify a specific subregion critical for cell fusion, except possibly for amino acids 250-255, which also influenced receptor binding. Instead, presence of a flexible stalk between the membrane and receptor-binding domain appears to be required, perhaps to enable conformational changes in gD on receptor binding and subsequent interactions of undefined regions of gD with the other glycoproteins required for membrane fusion.
Project description:Several envelope glycoproteins are involved in herpesvirus entry into cells, direct cell-to-cell spread, and induction of cell fusion. The membrane fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB) and the presumably gB-activating heterodimer gH/gL are essential for these processes and conserved throughout the Herpesviridae However, after extended cell culture passage of gL-negative mutants of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV), phenotypic revertants could be isolated which had acquired spontaneous mutations affecting the gL-interacting N-terminal part of the gH ectodomain (gDH and gHB4.1) (B. G. Klupp and T. C. Mettenleiter, J Virol 73:3014-3022, 1999; C. Schröter, M. Vallbracht, J. Altenschmidt, S. Kargoll, W. Fuchs, B. G. Klupp, and T. C. Mettenleiter, J Virol 90:2264-2272, 2016). To investigate the functional relevance of this part of gH in more detail, we introduced an in-frame deletion of 66 codons at the 5' end of the plasmid-cloned gH gene (gH32/98). The N-terminal signal peptide was retained, and the deletion did not affect expression or processing of gH but abrogated its function in in vitro fusion assays. Insertion of the engineered gH gene into the PrV genome resulted in a defective mutant (pPrV-gH32/98K), which was incapable of entry and spread. Interestingly, in vitro activity of mutated gH32/98 was restored when it was coexpressed with hyperfusogenic gBB4.1, obtained from a passaged gL deletion mutant of PrV. Moreover, the entry and spread defects of pPrV-gH32/98K were compensated by the mutations in gBB4.1 in cis, as well as in trans, independent of gL. Thus, PrV gL and the gL-interacting domain of gH are not strictly required for function.IMPORTANCE Membrane fusion is crucial for infectious entry and spread of enveloped viruses. While many enveloped viruses require only one or two proteins for receptor binding and membrane fusion, herpesvirus infection depends on several envelope glycoproteins. Besides subfamily-specific receptor binding proteins, the core fusion machinery consists of the conserved fusion protein gB and the gH/gL complex. The role of the latter is unclear, but it is hypothesized to interact with gB for fusion activation. Using isogenic virus recombinants, we demonstrate here that gL and the gL-binding domain of PrV gH are not strictly required for membrane fusion during virus entry and spread when concomitantly mutations in gB are present which increase its fusogenicity. Thus, our results strongly support the notion of a functional gB-gH interaction during the fusion process.
Project description:In the current perception of the herpesvirus replication cycle, two fusion processes are thought to occur during entry and nuclear egress. For penetration, glycoproteins gB and gH/gL have been shown to be essential, whereas a possible role of these glycoproteins in nuclear egress remains unclear. Viral envelope glycoproteins have been detected by immunolabeling in the nuclear membrane as well as in primary enveloped particles in several herpesviruses, indicating that they might be involved in the fusion process. Moreover, a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant simultaneously lacking gB and gH was described to be deficient in nuclear egress (A. Farnsworth, T. W. Wisner, M. Webb, R. Roller, G. Cohen, R. Eisenberg, and D. C. Johnson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:10187-10192, 2007). To analyze the situation in the related alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV), mutants carrying single and double deletions of glycoproteins gB, gD, gH, and gL were constructed and characterized. We show here that the simultaneous deletion of gB and gD, gB and gH, gD and gH, or gH and gL has no detectable effect on PrV egress, implying that none of these glycoproteins either singly or in the tested combinations is required for nuclear egress. In addition, immunolabeling studies using different mono- or polyclonal sera raised against various PrV glycoproteins did not reveal the presence of viral glycoproteins in the inner nuclear membrane or in primary virions. Thus, our data strongly suggest that different fusion mechanisms are active during virus entry and egress.
Project description:To investigate the requirements of herpesvirus entry and fusion, the four homologous glycoproteins necessary for herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion were cloned from herpes B virus (BV) (or macacine herpesvirus 1, previously known as cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) and cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2), both related simian simplexviruses belonging to the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Western blots and cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH/gL were expressed in whole-cell lysates and on the cell surface. Cell-cell fusion assays indicated that nectin-1, an HSV-1 gD receptor, mediated fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from both BV and CeHV-2. However, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), another HSV-1 gD receptor, did not facilitate BV- and CeHV-2-induced cell-cell fusion. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILR?), an HSV-1 gB fusion receptor, did not mediate fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from either simian virus. Productive infection with BV was possible only with nectin-1-expressing cells, indicating that nectin-1 mediated entry while HVEM and PILR? did not function as entry receptors. These results indicate that these alphaherpesviruses have differing preferences for entry receptors. The usage of the HSV-1 gD receptor nectin-1 may explain interspecies transfer of the viruses, and altered receptor usage may result in altered virulence, tropism, or pathogenesis in the new host. A heterotypic cell fusion assay resulting in productive fusion may provide insight into interactions that occur to trigger fusion. These findings may be of therapeutic significance for control of deadly BV infections.