Ctf3p, the Mis6 budding yeast homolog, interacts with Mcm22p and Mcm16p at the yeast outer kinetochore.
ABSTRACT: The budding yeast kinetochore is composed of an inner and outer protein complex, which binds to centromere (CEN) DNA and attaches to microtubules. We performed a genetic synthetic dosage lethality screen to identify novel kinetochore proteins in a collection of chromosome transmission fidelity mutants. Our screen identified several new kinetochore-related proteins including YLR381Wp/Ctf3p, which is a member of a conserved family of centromere-binding proteins. Ctf3p interacts with Mcm22p, Mcm16p, and the outer kinetochore protein Ctf19p. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that Ctf3p, Mcm22p, and Mcm16p bind to CEN DNA in a Ctf19p-dependent manner. In addition, Ctf3p, Mcm22p, and Mcm16p have a localization pattern similar to other kinetochore proteins. The fission yeast Ctf3p homolog, Mis6, is required for loading of a CENP-A centromere specific histone, Cnp1, onto centromere DNA. We find however that Ctf3p is not required for loading of the budding yeast CENP-A homolog, Cse4p, onto CEN DNA. In contrast, Ctf3p and Ctf19p fail to bind properly to the centromere in a cse4-1 mutant strain. We conclude that the requirements for CENP-A loading onto centromere DNA differ in fission versus budding yeast.
Project description:The centromere (CEN) DNA-kinetochore complex is the specialized chromatin structure that mediates chromosome attachment to the spindle and is required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation. Although kinetochore function is conserved from budding yeast to humans, it was thought that transcription had no role in centromere function in budding yeast, in contrast to other eukaryotes including fission yeast.We report here that transcription at the centromere facilitates centromere activity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified transcripts at CEN DNA and found that Cbf1, which is a transcription factor that binds to CEN DNA, is required for transcription at CEN DNA. Chromosome instability of cbf1? cells is suppressed by transcription driven from an artificial promoter. Furthermore, we have identified Ste12, which is a transcription factor, and Dig1, a Ste12 inhibitor, as a novel CEN-associated protein complex by an in vitro kinetochore assembly system. Dig1 represses Ste12-dependent transcription at the centromere.Our studies reveal that transcription at the centromere plays an important role in centromere function in budding yeast.
Project description:The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species--Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast.
Project description:Centromeres serve as platforms for the assembly of kinetochores and are essential for nuclear division. Here we identified Neurospora crassa centromeric DNA by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) of DNA associated with tagged versions of the centromere foundation proteins CenH3 (CENP-A) and CEN-C (CENP-C) and the kinetochore protein CEN-T (CENP-T). On each chromosome we found an ?150- to 300-kbp region of enrichment for all three proteins. These regions correspond to intervals predicted to be centromeric DNA by genetic mapping and DNA sequence analyses. By ChIP-seq we found extensive colocalization of CenH3, CEN-C, CEN-T, and histone H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3). In contrast, H3K4me2, which has been found at the cores of plant, fission yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian centromeres, was not enriched in Neurospora centromeric DNA. DNA methylation was most pronounced at the periphery of centromeric DNA. Mutation of dim-5, which encodes an H3K9 methyltransferase responsible for nearly all H3K9me3, resulted in altered distribution of CenH3-green fluorescent protein (GFP). Similarly, CenH3-GFP distribution was altered in the absence of HP1, the chromodomain protein that binds to H3K9me3. We conclude that eukaryotes with regional centromeres make use of different strategies for maintenance of CenH3 at centromeres, and we suggest a model in which centromere proteins nucleate at the core but require DIM-5 and HP1 for spreading.
Project description:In most eukaryotes, centromeres are defined epigenetically by presence of the histone H3 variant CENP-A [1-3]. CENP-A-containing chromatin recruits the constitutive centromere-associated network (CCAN) of proteins, which in turn directs assembly of the outer kinetochore to form microtubule attachments and ensure chromosome segregation fidelity [4-6]. Whereas the mechanisms that load CENP-A at centromeres are being elucidated, the functions of its divergent N-terminal tail remain enigmatic [7-12]. Here, we employ the well-studied fission yeast centromere [13-16] to investigate the function of the CENP-A (Cnp1) N-tail. We show that alteration of the N-tail does not affect Cnp1 loading at centromeres, outer kinetochore formation, or spindle checkpoint signaling but nevertheless elevates chromosome loss. N-tail mutants exhibited synthetic lethality with an altered centromeric DNA sequence, with rare survivors harboring chromosomal fusions in which the altered centromere was epigenetically inactivated. Elevated centromere inactivation was also observed for N-tail mutants with unaltered centromeric DNA sequences. N-tail mutants specifically reduced localization of the CCAN proteins Cnp20/CENP-T and Mis6/CENP-I, but not Cnp3/CENP-C. Overexpression of Cnp20/CENP-T suppressed defects in an N-tail mutant, suggesting a link between reduced CENP-T recruitment and the observed centromere inactivation phenotype. Thus, the Cnp1 N-tail promotes epigenetic stability of centromeres in fission yeast, at least in part via recruitment of the CENP-T branch of the CCAN.
Project description:In many eukaryotes, the centromere is epigenetically specified and not strictly defined by sequence. In contrast, budding yeast has a specific 125 bp sequence required for kinetochore function. Despite the difference in centromere specification, budding yeast and multicellular eukaryotic centromeres contain a highly conserved histone H3 variant, CENP-A. The localization of budding yeast CENP-A, Cse4, requires the centromere DNA binding components, which are not conserved in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we report that Cse4 localizes and functions at a synthetic kinetochore assembly site that lacks centromere sequence. The outer kinetochore Dam1-DASH and inner kinetochore CBF3 complexes are required for Cse4 localization to that site. Furthermore, the natural kinetochore also requires the outer kinetochore proteins for full Cse4 localization. Our results suggest that Cse4 localization at a functional kinetochore does not require the recognition of a specific DNA sequence by the CBF3 complex; rather, its localization depends on stable interactions among kinetochore proteins.
Project description:During cell division, segregation of sister chromatids to daughter cells is achieved by the poleward pulling force of microtubules, which attach to the chromatids by means of a multiprotein complex, the kinetochore. Kinetochores assemble at the centromeric DNA organized by specialized centromeric nucleosomes. In contrast to other eukaryotes, which typically have large repetitive centromeric regions, budding yeast CEN DNA is defined by a 125 bp sequence and assembles a single centromeric nucleosome. In budding yeast, as well as in other eukaryotes, the Cse4 histone variant (known in vertebrates as CENP-A) is believed to substitute for histone H3 at the centromeric nucleosome. However, the exact composition of the CEN nucleosome remains a subject of debate. We report the use of a novel ChIP approach to reveal the composition of the centromeric nucleosome and its localization on CEN DNA in budding yeast. Surprisingly, we observed a strong interaction of H3, as well as Cse4, H4, H2A, and H2B, but not histone chaperone Scm3 (HJURP in human) with the centromeric DNA. H3 localizes to centromeric DNA at all stages of the cell cycle. Using a sequential ChIP approach, we could demonstrate the co-occupancy of H3 and Cse4 at the CEN DNA. Our results favor a H3-Cse4 heterotypic octamer at the budding yeast centromere. Whether or not our model is correct, any future model will have to account for the stable association of histone H3 with the centromeric DNA.
Project description:In eukaryotes, accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis maintains genome stability and prevents aneuploidy. Kinetochores are large protein complexes that, by assembling onto specialized Cenp-A nucleosomes1,2, function to connect centromeric chromatin to microtubules of the mitotic spindle3,4. Whereas the centromeres of vertebrate chromosomes comprise millions of DNA base pairs and attach to multiple microtubules, the simple point centromeres of budding yeast are connected to individual microtubules5,6. All 16 budding yeast chromosomes assemble complete kinetochores using a single Cenp-A nucleosome (Cenp-ANuc), each of which is perfectly centred on its cognate centromere7-9. The inner and outer kinetochore modules are responsible for interacting with centromeric chromatin and microtubules, respectively. Here we describe the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inner kinetochore module, the constitutive centromere associated network (CCAN) complex, assembled onto a Cenp-A nucleosome (CCAN-Cenp-ANuc). The structure explains the interdependency of the constituent subcomplexes of CCAN and shows how the Y-shaped opening of CCAN accommodates Cenp-ANuc to enable specific CCAN subunits to contact the nucleosomal DNA and histone subunits. Interactions with the unwrapped DNA duplex at the two termini of Cenp-ANuc are mediated predominantly by a DNA-binding groove in the Cenp-L-Cenp-N subcomplex. Disruption of these interactions impairs assembly of CCAN onto Cenp-ANuc. Our data indicate a mechanism of Cenp-A nucleosome recognition by CCAN and how CCAN acts as a platform for assembly of the outer kinetochore to link centromeres to the mitotic spindle for chromosome segregation.
Project description:The basic determinant of chromosome inheritance, the centromere, is specified in many eukaryotes by an epigenetic mark. Using gene targeting in human cells and fission yeast, chromatin containing the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A is demonstrated to be the epigenetic mark that acts through a two-step mechanism to identify, maintain and propagate centromere function indefinitely. Initially, centromere position is replicated and maintained by chromatin assembled with the centromere-targeting domain (CATD) of CENP-A substituted into H3. Subsequently, nucleation of kinetochore assembly onto CATD-containing chromatin is shown to require either the amino- or carboxy-terminal tail of CENP-A for recruitment of inner kinetochore proteins, including stabilizing CENP-B binding to human centromeres or direct recruitment of CENP-C, respectively.
Project description:Chromatin containing the histone variant CENP-A (CEN chromatin) exists as an essential domain at every centromere and heritably marks the location of kinetochore assembly. The size of the CEN chromatin domain on alpha satellite DNA in humans has been shown to vary according to underlying array size. However, the average amount of CENP-A reported at human centromeres is largely consistent, implying the genomic extent of CENP-A chromatin domains more likely reflects variations in the number of CENP-A subdomains and/or the density of CENP-A nucleosomes within individual subdomains. Defining the organizational and spatial properties of CEN chromatin would provide insight into centromere inheritance via CENP-A loading in G1 and the dynamics of its distribution between mother and daughter strands during replication.Using a multi-color protein strategy to detect distinct pools of CENP-A over several cell cycles, we show that nascent CENP-A is equally distributed to sister centromeres. CENP-A distribution is independent of previous or subsequent cell cycles in that centromeres showing disproportionately distributed CENP-A in one cycle can equally divide CENP-A nucleosomes in the next cycle. Furthermore, we show using extended chromatin fibers that maintenance of the CENP-A chromatin domain is achieved by a cycle-specific oscillating pattern of new CENP-A nucleosomes next to existing CENP-A nucleosomes over multiple cell cycles. Finally, we demonstrate that the size of the CENP-A domain does not change throughout the cell cycle and is spatially fixed to a similar location within a given alpha satellite DNA array.We demonstrate that most human chromosomes share similar patterns of CENP-A loading and distribution and that centromere inheritance is achieved through specific placement of new CENP-A near existing CENP-A as assembly occurs each cell cycle. The loading pattern fixes the location and size of the CENP-A domain on individual chromosomes. These results suggest that spatial and temporal dynamics of CENP-A are important for maintaining centromere identity and genome stability.
Project description:Point and regional centromeres specify a unique site on each chromosome for kinetochore assembly. The point centromere in budding yeast is a unique 150-bp DNA sequence, which supports a kinetochore with only one microtubule attachment. In contrast, regional centromeres are complex in architecture, can be up to 5 Mb in length, and typically support many kinetochore-microtubule attachments. We used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to count the number of core structural kinetochore protein complexes at the regional centromeres in fission yeast and Candida albicans. We find that the number of CENP-A nucleosomes at these centromeres reflects the number of kinetochore-microtubule attachments instead of their length. The numbers of kinetochore protein complexes per microtubule attachment are nearly identical to the numbers in a budding yeast kinetochore. These findings reveal that kinetochores with multiple microtubule attachments are mainly built by repeating a conserved structural subunit that is equivalent to a single microtubule attachment site.