Hypertrophic growth in cardiac myocytes is mediated by Myc through a Cyclin D2-dependent pathway.
ABSTRACT: c-Myc (Myc) is highly expressed in developing embryos where it regulates body size by controlling proliferation but not cell size. However, Myc is also induced in many postmitotic tissues, including adult myocardium, in response to stress where the predominant form of growth is an increase in cell size (hypertrophy) and not number. The function of Myc induction in this setting is unproven. Therefore, to explore Myc's role in hypertrophic growth, we created mice where Myc can be inducibly inactivated, specifically in adult myocardium. Myc-deficient hearts demonstrated attenuated stress-induced hypertrophic growth, secondary to a reduction in cell growth of individual myocytes. To explore the dependence of Myc-induced cell growth on CycD2, we created bigenic mice where Myc can be selectively activated in CycD2-null adult myocardium. Myc-dependent hypertrophic growth and cell cycle reentry is blocked in CycD2-deficient hearts. However, in contrast to Myc-induced DNA synthesis, hypertrophic growth is independent of CycD2-induced Cdk2 activity. These data suggest that Myc is required for a normal hypertrophic response and that its growth-promoting effects are also mediated through a CycD2-dependent pathway.
Project description:Normally, cell cycle progression is tightly coupled to the accumulation of cell mass; however, the mechanisms whereby proliferation and cell growth are linked are poorly understood. We have identified cyclin (Cyc)D2, a G(1) cyclin implicated in mediating S phase entry, as a potential regulator of hypertrophic growth in adult post mitotic myocardium. To examine the role of CycD2 and its downstream targets, we subjected CycD2-null mice to mechanical stress. Hypertrophic growth in response to transverse aortic constriction was attenuated in CycD2-null compared with wild-type mice. Blocking the increase in CycD2 in response to hypertrophic agonists prevented phosphorylation of CycD2-target Rb (retinoblastoma gene product) in vitro, and mice deficient for Rb had potentiated hypertrophic growth. Hypertrophic growth requires new protein synthesis and transcription of tRNA genes by RNA polymerase (pol) III, which increases with hypertrophic signals. This load-induced increase in RNA pol III activity is augmented in Rb-deficient hearts. Rb binds and represses Brf-1 and TATA box binding protein (TBP), subunits of RNA pol III-specific transcription factor B, in adult myocardium under basal conditions. However, this association is disrupted in response to transverse aortic constriction. RNA pol III activity is unchanged in CycD2(-/-) myocardium after transverse aortic constriction, and there is no dissociation of TBP from Rb. These investigations identify an essential role for the CycD2-Rb pathway as a governor of cardiac myocyte enlargement in response to biomechanical stress and, more fundamentally, as a regulator of the load-induced activation of RNA pol III.
Project description:In the adult heart, regulation of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial genes is controlled by the PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family of transcriptional coactivators. However, in response to pathological stressors such as hemodynamic load or ischemia, cardiac myocytes downregulate PGC-1 activity and fatty acid oxidation genes in preference for glucose metabolism pathways. Interestingly, despite the reduced PGC-1 activity, these pathological stressors are associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, at least initially. The transcription factors that regulate these changes in the setting of reduced PGC-1 are unknown, but Myc can regulate glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis during cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in cancer cells. Here we have demonstrated that Myc activation in the myocardium of adult mice increases glucose uptake and utilization, downregulates fatty acid oxidation by reducing PGC-1alpha levels, and induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Inactivation of Myc in the adult myocardium attenuated hypertrophic growth and decreased the expression of glycolytic and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in response to hemodynamic load. Surprisingly, the Myc-orchestrated metabolic alterations were associated with preserved cardiac function and improved recovery from ischemia. Our data suggest that Myc directly regulates glucose metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac myocytes and is an important regulator of energy metabolism in the heart in response to pathologic stress.
Project description:The platelet-derived growth factors are implicated in development of fibrotic reactions and disease in several organs. We have overexpressed platelet-derived growth factor-C in the heart using the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter and created a transgenic mouse that exhibits cardiac fibrosis followed by hypertrophy with sex-dependent phenotypes. The transgenic mice developed several pathological changes including cardiac fibroblast proliferation and deposition of collagen, hypertrophy, vascular defects, and the presence of Anitschkow cells in the adult myocardium. Male mice developed a hypertrophic phenotype, whereas female mice were more severely affected and developed dilated cardiomyopathy, leading to heart failure and sudden death. The vascular defects initially included dilation of microvessels and vascular leakage. Subsequently, a marked loss of microvessels, formation of large vascular sac-like structures, and an increased density of smooth muscle-coated vessels were observed in the myocardium. In part, the observed vascular changes may be because of an up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cardiac fibroblasts of the transgenic hearts. This unique animal model reveals that a potent mitogen for cardiac fibroblasts result in an expansion of the interstitium that induce a secondary sex-dependent hypertrophic response in the cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Tat-interactive protein 60 (Tip60) is a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. Studies using cultured cells have shown that Tip60 has various functions including DNA repair, apoptosis and cell-cycle regulation. We globally ablated the Tip60 gene (Htatip), observing that Tip60-null embryos die at the blastocyst stage (Hu et al. Dev.Dyn.238:2912;2009). Although adult heterozygous (Tip60(+/-)) mice reproduce normally without a haploinsufficient phenotype, stress caused by Myc over-expression induced B-cell lymphoma in Tip60(+/-) adults, suggesting that Tip60 is a tumor suppressor (Gorrini et al. Nature 448:1063;2007). These findings prompted assessment of whether Tip60, alternative splicing of which generates two predominant isoforms termed Tip60? and Tip60?, functions to suppress the cell-cycle in adult cardiomyocytes.Western blotting revealed that Tip60? is the predominant Tip60 isoprotein in the embryonic heart, transitioning at neonatal stages to Tip60?, which is the only isoprotein in the adult heart wherein it is highly enriched. Over-expression of Tip60?, but not Tip60?, inhibited cell proliferation in NIH3T3 cells; and, Tip60-haploinsufficient cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes exhibited increased cell-cycle activity. To address whether Tip60? suppresses the cardiomyocyte cell-cycle in the adult heart, hypertrophic stress was induced in Tip60(+/+) and Tip(+/-) littermates via two methods, Myc over-expression and aortic banding. Based on immunostaining cell-cycle markers and western blotting cyclin D, stress increased cardiomyocyte cell-cycle mobilization in Tip60(+/-) hearts, in comparison with Tip60(+/+) littermates. Aortic-banded Tip60(+/-) hearts also exhibited significantly decreased apoptosis.These findings provide evidence that Tip60 may function in a tumor suppressor pathway(s) to maintain adult cardiomyocytes in replicative senescence.
Project description:Although studies have suggested a role for angiogenesis in determining heart size during conditions demanding enhanced cardiac performance, the role of EC mass in determining the normal organ size is poorly understood. To explore the relationship between cardiac vasculature and normal heart size, we generated a transgenic mouse with a regulatable expression of the secreted angiogenic growth factor PR39 in cardiomyocytes. A significant change in adult mouse EC mass was apparent by 3 weeks following PR39 induction. Heart weight; cardiomyocyte size; vascular density normalization; upregulation of hypertrophy markers including atrial natriuretic factor, beta-MHC, and GATA4; and activation of the Akt and MAP kinase pathways were observed at 6 weeks post-induction. Treatment of PR39-induced mice with the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME in the last 3 weeks of a 6-week stimulation period resulted in a significant suppression of heart growth and a reduction in hypertrophic marker expression. Injection of PR39 or another angiogenic growth factor, VEGF-B, into murine hearts during myocardial infarction led to induction of myocardial hypertrophy and restoration of myocardial function. Thus stimulation of vascular growth in normal adult mouse hearts leads to an increase in cardiac mass.
Project description:How canonical Wnt/?-catenin signals in adult hearts, especially in different diseased states, remains unclear. The proto-oncogene, c-Myc, is a Wnt target and an early response gene during cardiac stress. It is not clear whether c-Myc is activated or how it is regulated during heart failure.We investigated canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling and how it regulated c-Myc expression in failing hearts of human ischemic heart disease, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and murine desmin-related cardiomyopathy. Our data demonstrated that canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling was activated through nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and murine desmin-related cardiomyopathy when compared with nonfailing controls and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) was the main ?-catenin partner of the T-cell factor (TCF) family in adult hearts. We further revealed that c-Myc mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in failing hearts by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining. Immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy further showed that ?-catenin interacted and colocalized with TCF7L2. More importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that ?-catenin and TCF7L2 were recruited to the regulatory elements of c-Myc. This recruitment was associated with increased histone H3 acetylation and transcriptional upregulation of c-Myc. With lentiviral infection, TCF7L2 overexpression increased c-Myc expression and cardiomyocyte size, whereas shRNA-mediated knockdown of TCF7L2 suppressed c-Myc expression and cardiomyocyte growth in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.This study indicates that TCF7L2 mediates canonic Wnt/?-catenin signaling and c-Myc upregulation during abnormal cardiac remodeling in heart failure and suppression of Wnt/?-catenin to c-Myc axis can be explored for preventing and treating heart failure.
Project description:Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive growth process that occurs in response to stress stimulation or injury wherein multiple signal transduction pathways are induced, culminating in transcription factor activation and the reprogramming of gene expression. GATA4 is a critical transcription factor in the heart that is known to induce/regulate the hypertrophic program, in part, by receiving signals from MAPKs. Here we generated knock-in mice in which a known MAPK phosphorylation site at serine 105 (S105) in Gata4 that augments activity was mutated to alanine. Homozygous Gata4-S105A mutant mice were viable as adults, although they showed a compromised stress response of the myocardium. For example, cardiac hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine agonist infusion for 2 wk was largely blunted in Gata4-S105A mice, as was the hypertrophic response to pressure overload at 1 and 2 wk of applied stimulation. Gata4-S105A mice were also more susceptible to heart failure and cardiac dilation after 2 wk of pressure overload. With respect to the upstream pathway, hearts from Gata4-S105A mice did not efficiently hypertrophy following direct ERK1/2 activation using an activated MEK1 transgene in vivo. Mechanistically, GATA4 mutant protein from these hearts failed to show enhanced DNA binding in response to hypertrophic stimulation. Moreover, hearts from Gata4-S105A mice had significant changes in the expression of hypertrophy-inducible, fetal, and remodeling-related genes.
Project description:Pressure-overload stress to the heart causes pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which increases the risk of cardiac morbidity and mortality. However, the detailed signaling pathways induced by pressure overload remain unclear. Here we used phosphoproteomics to delineate signaling pathways in the myocardium responding to acute pressure overload and chronic hypertrophy in mice. Myocardial samples at 4 time points (10, 30, 60 min and 2 weeks) after transverse aortic banding (TAB) in mice underwent quantitative phosphoproteomics assay. Temporal phosphoproteomics profiles showed 360 phosphorylation sites with significant regulation after TAB. Multiple mechanical stress sensors were activated after acute pressure overload. Gene ontology analysis revealed differential phosphorylation between hearts with acute pressure overload and chronic hypertrophy. Most interestingly, analysis of the cardiac hypertrophy pathway revealed phosphorylation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) by prohypertrophic kinases. Phosphorylation of DRP1 S622 was confirmed in TAB-treated mouse hearts and phenylephrine (PE)-treated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. TAB-treated mouse hearts showed phosphorylation-mediated mitochondrial translocation of DRP1. Inhibition of DRP1 with the small-molecule inhibitor mdivi-1 reduced the TAB-induced hypertrophic responses. Mdivi-1 also prevented PE-induced hypertrophic growth and oxygen consumption in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. We reveal the signaling responses of the heart to pressure stress in vivo and in vitro. DRP1 may be important in the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
Project description:Cardiomyocytes exhibit differential growth patterns throughout development. In fetal life the increase in cardiac mass is associated with hyperplastic growth and cardiomyocyte proliferation. The majority of fetal cardiomyocytes are also mononucleated. During the early neonatal period in mice there is a switch from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. This period is characterized by bi-nucleation and polyploidization of cardiomyocyte nuclei and a decreased capacity for cardiomyocytes to proliferate and complete cytokinesis. Increases in myocardial mass occur predominantly via hypertrophic growth. Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes are generally accepted to have little or no proliferative capacity and to be terminally withdrawn from the cell cycle. The vast majority of adult murine cardiomyocytes are bi-nucleated. The present study sought to accurately establish the growth pattern of cardiomyocytes throughout development in mice and identify genes associated with the switch from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth. These cell cycle associated genes are crucial to the understanding of the mechanisms of bi-nucleation, polyploidization and hypertrophy in the neonatal period. Cardiomyocytes were FACS sorted from the hearts of ED11-12 embryos, neonatal day 3-4 and adult (10 week) eGFP ?-MHC mice whereby GFP expression is driven constitutively by the ?-MHC promoter. Gene analyses identified genes whose expression was predicted to be particular to day 3 -4 neonatal cardiomyocytes, compared to embryonic or adult cells. Cell cycle associated genes are crucial to the understanding of the mechanisms of bi-nucleation and hypertrophy in the neonatal period, and offer attractive candidates for manipulation. Total RNA obtained from isolated cardiomyocytes from ED11-12; Neonatal day 3-4 and adult timepoints compared with each other. Several hearts per sample, RNA was pooled within samples. FACS samples were prepared in the following manner: embryonic, neonatal and adult hearts were dissected and dissociated to single cell solution with Liberase Blendzyme 3 (0.1 mg/ml) (Roche Diagnostics), washed and spun down and resuspended in cardiomyocyte isolation buffer (130 mM NaCl; 5 mM KCl; 1.2 mM KH2PO4; 6 mM HEPES; 5 mM NaHCO3; 1 mM MgCl2; 5 mM Glucose).
Project description:Pathological cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis are remodeling events that result in mechanical stiffness and pathophysiological changes of the myocardium. Both humans and animal models display a sexual dimorphism where females are more protected from pathological remodeling. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) mediates cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and protection against cardiac injury and is made in high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms (Hi FGF2 and Lo FGF2, respectively). Although some light has been shed on isoform-specific functions in cardiac pathophysiology, their roles in pathologic cardiac remodeling have yet to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that Lo FGF2 and Hi FGF2 modulate pathological cardiac remodeling in an isoform-specific manner. Young adult male and female mice between 8-12 weeks of age of mixed background that were deficient in either Hi FGF2 or Lo FGF2 (Hi KO or Lo KO, respectively) were subjected to daily injections of isoproterenol (Iso) for four days after which their hearts were compared to wildtype cohorts. Post-Iso treatment, female Lo KO hearts don't exhibit significant differences in their hypertrophic and fibrotic response, while female Hi KO hearts present with a blunted hypertrophic response. In male animals Lo KO hearts present with an exacerbated fibrotic response and increased alpha-smooth muscle actin protein expression while Hi KO hearts present with a blunted fibrotic response and increased atrial natriuretic factor protein expression Thus, in female hearts Hi FGF2 mediate cardiac hypertrophy while in male hearts Lo FGF2 and Hi FGF2 display an antithetical role in cardiac fibrosis where Lo FGF2 is protective while Hi FGF2 is damaging. In conclusion, cardiac remodeling following catecholamine overactivation is modulated by FGF2 in isoform- and sex-specific manners.