Genomewide association analysis of human narcolepsy and a new resistance gene.
ABSTRACT: Human narcolepsy is a hypersomnia that is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors. One genetic factor strongly associated with narcolepsy is the HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype in the human leukocyte antigen region on chromosome 6, whereas the other genetic factors are not clear. To discover additional candidate regions for susceptibility or resistance to human narcolepsy, we performed a genomewide association study, using 23,244 microsatellite markers. Two rounds of screening with the use of pooled DNAs yielded 96 microsatellite markers (including 16 markers on chromosome 6) with significantly different estimated frequencies in case and control pools. Markers not located on chromosome 6 were evaluated by the individual typing of 95 cases and 95 controls; 30 markers still showed significant associations. A strong association was displayed by a marker on chromosome 21 (21q22.3). The surrounding region was subjected to high-density association mapping with 14 additional microsatellite markers and 74 SNPs. One microsatellite marker (D21S0012m) and two SNPs (rs13048981 and rs13046884) showed strong associations (P < .0005; odds ratios 0.19-0.33). These polymorphisms were in a strong linkage disequilibrium, and no other polymorphism in the region showed a stronger association with narcolepsy. The region contains three predicted genes--NLC1-A, NLC1-B, and NLC1-C--tentatively named "narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes," and NLC1-A and NLC1-C were expressed in human hypothalamus. Reporter-gene assays showed that the marker D21S0012m in the promoter region and the SNP rs13046884 in the intron of NLC1-A significantly affected expression levels. Therefore, NLC1-A is considered to be a new resistance gene for human narcolepsy.
Project description:Autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (APECED) is an autosomal recessive autoimmune disease (MIM 240300) characterized by hypoparathyroidism, primary adrenocortical failure, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The disease is highly prevalent in two isolated populations, the Finnish population and the Iranian Jewish one. Sporadic cases have been identified in many other countries, including almost all European countries. The APECED locus has previously been assigned to chromosome 21q22.3 by linkage analyses in 14 Finnish families. Locus heterogeneity is a highly relevant question in this disease affecting multiple tissues and with great phenotypic diversity. To solve this matter, we performed linkage and haplotype analyses on APECED families rising from different populations. Six microsatellite markers on the critical chromosomal region of 2.6 cM on 21q22.3 were analyzed. Pairwise linkage analyses revealed significant LOD scores for all these markers, maximum LOD score being 10.23. The obtained haplotype data and the geographic distribution of the great-grandparents of the Finnish APECED patients suggest the presence of one major, relatively old mutation responsible for approximately 90% of the Finnish cases. Similar evidence for one founder mutation was also found in analyses of Iranian Jewish APECED haplotypes. These haplotypes, however, differed totally from the Finnish ones. The linkage analyses in 21 non-Finnish APECED families originating from several European countries provided independent evidence for linkage to the same chromosomal region on 21q22.3 and revealed no evidence for locus heterogeneity. The haplotype analyses of APECED chromosomes suggest that in different populations APECED is due to a spectrum of mutations in a still unknown gene on chromosome 21.
Project description:The human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic genomic region occupying approximately 4 Mb on chromosome 6p21.3. The relationship between human MHC and type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been previously investigated. To fine map the disease locus in this region, we carried out both linkage and association analyses using the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium data.Two-point linkage analysis was performed with a set of microsatellite markers assuming a fully recessive inheritance model, where we found clustering of high LOD (logarithm of the odds) scores across the MHC region. To narrow down the linkage region, we performed association analyses using both microsatellite and two sets of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We focused on the nuclear families containing a discordant sib-pair (an affected and unaffected sib). For the microsatellite markers, we computed the average repeat length for each individual and carried out a paired t-test.Microsatellite marker D6S2884 showed the highest association in a sharp peak with a p value of 3.15E-24. We confirmed this finding when using also SNP markers performing a McNemar's test for association. The SNPs that showed the most significant evidence of association mapped to almost the same location as the microsatellite markers.Besides the main goal of fine mapping of T1D genes, our results also illustrated the differences and the advantage of using both linkage and association analyses. After the identification of a wide peak with linkage analysis, we were able to dramatically narrow down the region by performing association analysis.
Project description:A radiation hybrid (RH)-derived physical map of 25 markers on the feline X chromosome (including 19 Type I coding loci and 6 Type II microsatellite markers) was compared to homologous marker order on the human and mouse X chromosome maps. Complete conservation of synteny and marker order was observed between feline and human X chromosomes, whereas the same markers identified a minimum of seven rearranged syntenic segments between mouse and cat/human X chromosome marker order. Within the blocks, the feline, human, and mouse marker order was strongly conserved. Similarly, Y chromosome locus order was remarkably conserved between cat and human Y chromosomes, with only one marker (SMCY) position rearranged between the species. Tight linkage and a conserved gene order for a segment encoding three genes, DFFRY-DBY-UTY in human, mouse, and cat Y chromosomes, coupled with demonstrated deletion effects of these genes on reproductive impairment in both human and mouse, implicates the region as critical for Y-mediated sperm production.
Project description:Migraine is a common and disabling neurological disease of unknown origin characterized by a remarkable clinical variability. It shows strong familial aggregation, suggesting that genetic factors are involved in its pathogenesis. Different approaches have been used to elucidate this hereditary component, but a unique transmission model and causative gene(s) have not yet been identified. We report clinical and molecular data from a large Italian pedigree in which migraine without aura (MO) segregates as an autosomal dominant trait. After exclusion of any association between MO and the known familial hemiplegic migraine and migraine with aura loci, we performed a genomewide linkage analysis using 482 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We obtained significant evidence of linkage between the MO phenotype and the marker D14S978 on 14q22.1 (maximum two-point LOD score of 3.70, at a recombination fraction of 0.01). Multipoint parametric analysis (maximum LOD score of 5.25 between markers D14S976 and D14S978) and haplotype construction showed strong evidence of linkage in a region of 10 cM flanked by markers D14S1027 and D14S980 on chromosome 14q21.2-q22.3. These results indicate the first evidence of a genetic locus associated with MO on chromosome 14.
Project description:In an effort to contribute to the transcript map of human chromosome 21 and the understanding of the pathophysiology of trisomy 21, we have used exon trapping to identify fragments of chromosome 21 genes. Two trapped exons, from pools of chromosome 21-specific cosmids, showed homology to the Drosophila white (w) gene. We subsequently cloned the corresponding cDNA for a human homologue of the Drosophila w gene (hW) from human retina and fetal brain cDNA libraries. The gene belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family and is homologous to Drosophila w (and to w genes from other species) and to a lesser extent to Drosophila brown (bw) and scarlet (st) genes that are all involved in the transport of eye pigment precursor molecules. A DNA polymorphism with 62% heterozygosity due to variation of a poly (T) region in the 3' UTR of the hW has been identified and used for the incorporation of this gene to the genetic map of chromosome 21. The hW is located at 21q22.3 between DNA markers D21S212 and D21S49 in a P1 clone that also contains marker BCEI. The gene is expressed at various levels in many human tissues. The contributions of this gene to the Down syndrome phenotypes, to human eye color, and to the resulting phenotypes of null or missense mutations are presently unknown.
Project description:Many domestic dog breeds have originated through fixation of discrete mutations by intense artificial selection. As a result of this process, markers in the proximity of genes influencing breed-defining traits will have reduced variation (a selective sweep) and will show divergence in allele frequency. Consequently, low-resolution genomic scans can potentially be used to identify regions containing genes that have a major influence on breed-defining traits. We model the process of breed formation and show that the probability of two or three adjacent marker loci showing a spurious signal of selection within at least one breed (i.e., Type I error or false-positive rate) is low if highly variable and moderately spaced markers are utilized. We also use simulations with selection to demonstrate that even a moderately spaced set of highly polymorphic markers (e.g., one every 0.8 cM) has high power to detect regions targeted by strong artificial selection in dogs. Further, we show that a gene responsible for black coat color in the Large Munsterlander has a 40-Mb region surrounding the gene that is very low in heterozygosity for microsatellite markers. Similarly, we survey 302 microsatellite markers in the Dachshund and find three linked monomorphic microsatellite markers all within a 10-Mb region on chromosome 3. This region contains the FGFR3 gene, which is responsible for achondroplasia in humans, but not in dogs. Consequently, our results suggest that the causative mutation is a gene or regulatory region closely linked to FGFR3.
Project description:Wegener granulomatosis (WG) belongs to the heterogeneous group of systemic vasculitides. The multifactorial pathophysiology of WG is supposedly caused by yet unknown environmental influence(s) on the basis of genetic predisposition. The presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in the plasma of patients and genetic involvement of the human leukocyte antigen system reflect an autoimmune background of the disease. Strong associations were revealed with WG by markers located in the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) region in the vicinity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 and the retinoid X receptor B (RXRB) loci. In order to define the involvement of the 6p21.3 region in WG in more detail this previous population-based association study was expanded here to the respective 3.6 megabase encompassing this region on chromosome 6. The RXRB gene was analysed as well as a splice-site variation of the butyrophilin-like (BTNL2) gene which is also located within the respective region. The latter polymorphism has been evaluated here as it appears as a HLA independent susceptibility factor in another granulomatous disorder, sarcoidosis.150-180 German WG patients and a corresponding cohort of healthy controls (n = 100-261) were used in a two-step study. A panel of 94 microsatellites was designed for the initial step using a DNA pooling approach. Markers with significantly differing allele frequencies between patient and control pools were individually genotyped. The RXRB gene was analysed for single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The splice-site polymorphism in the BTNL2 gene was also investigated by RFLP analysis.A previously investigated microsatellite (#22.214.171.124, Santa Cruz genome browser (UCSC) May 2004 Freeze localisation: chr6:31257596-34999883), which was used as a positive control, remained associated throughout the whole two-step approach. Yet, no additional evidence for association of other microsatellite markers was found in the entire investigated region. Analysis of the RXRB gene located in the WG associated region revealed associations of two variations (rs10548957 pallelic = 0.02 and rs6531 pallelic = 5.20 x 10-5, OR = 1.88). Several alleles of markers located between HLA-DPB1, SNP rs6531 and microsatellite 126.96.36.199 showed linkage disequilibrium with r2 values exceeding 0.10. Significant differences were not demonstrable for the sarcoidosis associated splice-site variation (rs2076530 pallelic = 0.80) in our WG cohort.Since a microsatellite flanking the RXRB gene and two intragenic polymorphisms are associated significantly with WG on chromosome 6p21.3, further investigations should be focussed on extensive fine-mapping in this region by densely mapping with additional markers such as SNPs. This strategy may reveal even deeper insights into the genetic contributions of the respective region for the pathogenesis of WG.
Project description:Background:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with narcolepsy. However, the sum impact of these SNPs on defining the genomic risk of narcolepsy remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the associations between genetic risk scores (GRSs) and narcolepsy along with their predictive power. Methods:A case-control study consisting of 903 narcolepsy patients and 1,981 healthy control subjects was performed. Thirty-two SNPs previously reported to confer susceptibility to narcolepsy were assessed for their association with narcolepsy risk. Subsequently, we constructed four GRS groups comprising reported narcolepsy susceptibility SNPs located in different genomic regions, and tested their association with narcolepsy risk using a regression model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the discriminatory power of the GRSs for predicting narcolepsy. Results:Nine individual SNPs were significantly associated with narcolepsy after Bonferroni correction. All four GRSs were strongly associated with narcolepsy risk even when GRSs were constructed using SNPs located outside the previously implicated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6. The odds ratio (OR) for narcolepsy risk increased with the number of genetic loci implicated, ranging from an OR of 2.016 (95% CI, 1.657-2.456) to an OR of 4.298 (95% CI, 3.378-5.481). GRS4, constructed using the narcolepsy-associated SNPs identified in the Chinese population, was most closely associated with narcolepsy risk. Conclusions:The results suggest that the GRS method for combining common genetic variations can significantly associate GRS scores with narcolepsy risk and may facilitate narcolepsy risk stratification for prevention trials, both for HLA-DQB1*06:02-positive and -negative individuals.
Project description:Recent advances in the identification of susceptibility genes and environmental exposures provide broad support for a post-infectious autoimmune basis for narcolepsy/hypocretin (orexin) deficiency. We genotyped loci associated with other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in 1,886 individuals with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy and 10,421 controls, all of European ancestry, using a custom genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Three loci located outside the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 were significantly associated with disease risk. In addition to a strong signal in the T cell receptor alpha (TRA@), variants in two additional narcolepsy loci, Cathepsin H (CTSH) and Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 4 (TNFSF4, also called OX40L), attained genome-wide significance. These findings underline the importance of antigen presentation by HLA Class II to T cells in the pathophysiology of this autoimmune disease.
Project description:Five feline-derived microsatellite markers were genotyped in a large pedigree of cats that segregates for ventral white spotting. Both KIT and EDNRB cause similar white spotting phenotypes in other species. Thus, three of the five microsatellite markers chosen were on feline chromosome B1 in close proximity to KIT; the other two markers were on feline chromosome A1 near EDNRB. Pairwise linkage analysis supported linkage of the white spotting with the three chromosome B1 markers but not with the two chromosome A1 markers. This study indicates that KIT, or another gene within the linked region, is a candidate for white spotting in cats. Platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) is also a strong candidate, assuming that the KIT-PDGFRA linkage group, which is conserved in many mammalian species, is also conserved in the cat.