Side population in adult murine epidermis exhibits phenotypic and functional characteristics of keratinocyte stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Based on functional studies in the bone marrow, it has been suggested that the ability to efflux Hoechst 33342 may represent a universal stem cell trait. In this phenotypic and functional characterization of the Hoechst side population (SP) in adult murine epidermis, we demonstrate that these cells are a rare subset of the keratinocyte stem cell-enriched alpha(6)(bri)CD71(dim) fraction comprising SSC(low)/K14(+)/CD34(-)/Oil red O(-)/c-kit(-)/CD45(-) keratinocytes. Epidermal SPs have the smallest cell and nuclear size but exhibit the highest nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of any fraction examined, consistent with a primitive cell type. Although SPs demonstrated poor cumulative in vitro proliferative output, they exhibited sustained epidermal tissue-regenerative activity in vivo compared with unfractionated and non-SP cells. Collectively, these results indicate that the epidermal SP contains the most potent keratinocyte stem cell population in skin epithelium.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hair follicle (HF) development and growth are dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs). Dermal papilla (DP) cells are recognized as the key inductive mesenchymal player, but the ideal source of receptive keratinocytes for human HF regeneration is yet to be defined. We herein investigated whether human interfollicular epidermal keratinocytes with stem-like features (EpSlKCs), characterized by a ?6<sup>bri</sup>/CD71<sup>dim</sup> expression, can replace human hair follicular keratinocytes (HHFKCs) for the recreation of the HF epithelium and respective EMIs.<h4>Methods</h4>The ?6<sup>bri</sup>/CD71<sup>dim</sup> cellular fraction was selected from the whole interfollicular keratinocyte population through fluorescence-activated cell sorting and directly compared with follicular keratinocytes in terms of their proliferative capacity and phenotype. The crosstalk with DP cells was studied in an indirect co-culture system, and EpSlKC hair forming capacity tested in a hair reconstitution assay when combined with DP cells.<h4>Results</h4>EpSlKCs exhibited a phenotypic profile similar to follicular keratinocytes and were capable of increasing DP cell proliferation and, for short co-culture times, the number of alkaline phosphatase-active cells, suggesting an improvement of their inductivity. Moreover, the recreation of immature HFs and sebaceous glands was observed after EpSlKC and DP cell co-grafting in nude mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that EpSlKCs are akin to follicular keratinocytes and can crosstalk with DP cells, contributing to HF morphogenesis in vivo, thus representing an attractive epithelial cell source for hair regeneration strategies.
Project description:The identification and physical isolation of epithelial stem cells is critical to our understanding of their growth regulation during homeostasis, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. These stem cells remain poorly characterized because of the absence of specific molecular markers that permit us to distinguish them from their progeny, the transit amplifying (TA) cells, which have a more restricted proliferative potential. Cell kinetic analyses have permitted the identification of murine keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) as slowly cycling cells that retain [(3)H]thymidine ([(3)H]Tdr) label, termed label-retaining cells (LRCs), whereas TA cells are visualized as rapidly cycling cells after a single pulse of [(3)H]Tdr, termed pulse-labeled cells (PLCs). Here, we report on the successful separation of KSCs from TA cells through the combined use of in vivo cell kinetic analysis and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Specifically, we demonstrate that murine dorsal keratinocytes characterized by their high levels of alpha(6) integrin and low to undetectable expression of the transferrin receptor (CD71) termed alpha(6)(bri)CD71(dim) cells, are enriched for epithelial stem cells because they represent a minor ( approximately 8%) and quiescent subpopulation of small blast-like cells, with a high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, containing approximately 70% of label-retaining cells, the latter being a well documented characteristic of stem cells. Conversely, TA cells could be enriched in a phenotypically distinct subpopulation termed alpha(6)(bri)CD71(bri), representing the majority ( approximately 60%) of basal keratinocytes that are actively cycling, and importantly contain approximately 70% of [(3)H]Tdr pulse-labeled cells. Importantly, immunostaining of dorsal skin revealed the presence of CD71(dim) cells in the hair follicle bulge region, a well documented location for KSCs.
Project description:Like for other somatic tissues, isolation of a pure population of stem cells has been a primary goal in epidermal biology. We isolated discrete populations of freshly obtained human neonatal keratinocytes (HNKs) using previously untested candidate stem cell markers aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD44 as well as the previously studied combination of integrin ?6 and CD71. An in vivo transplantation assay combined with limiting dilution analysis was used to quantify enrichment for long-term repopulating cells in the isolated populations. The ALDH(+) CD44(+) population was enriched 12.6-fold for long-term repopulating epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) and the integrin ?6(hi) CD71(lo) population was enriched 5.6-fold, over unfractionated cells. In addition to long-term repopulation, CD44(+) ALDH(+) keratinocytes exhibited other stem cell properties. CD44(+) ALDH(+) keratinocytes had self-renewal ability, demonstrated by increased numbers of cells expressing nuclear Bmi-1, serial transplantation of CD44(+) ALDH(+) cells, and holoclone formation in vitro. CD44(+) ALDH(+) cells were multipotent, producing greater numbers of hair follicle-like structures than CD44(-) ALDH(-) cells. Furthermore, 58% ± 7% of CD44(+) ALDH(+) cells exhibited label-retention. In vitro, CD44(+) ALDH(+) cells showed enhanced colony formation, in both keratinocyte and embryonic stem cell growth media. In summary, the CD44(+) ALDH(+) population exhibits stem cell properties including long-term epidermal regeneration, multipotency, label retention, and holoclone formation. This study shows that it is possible to quantify the relative number of EpiSCs in human keratinocyte populations using long-term repopulation as a functional test of stem cell nature. Future studies will combine isolation strategies as dictated by the results of quantitative transplantation assays, in order to achieve a nearly pure population of EpiSCs.
Project description:Epidermal stem cells (EpSCs) hold great expectations in a regenerative medicine context, but innovative methods that permit to obtain a significant yield of EpSCs or stem-like epidermal cells are still required. We propose a two-step strategy to obtain a superior epidermal stem-like cell fraction among primary keratinocytes (KCs) isolated from adult human skin. The approach is based on the combination of rapid adherence to collagen IV with the rock-associated kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) treatment, and the subsequent immunomagnetic separation of the ?6(high)/CD71(dim) cell subset. The combined collagen IV and ROCKi treatment showed not only to enhance cells clonogenic capacity, but also to induce an early epidermal phenotypic signature, along with the diminished expression of late differentiation-associated markers. More importantly, collagen IV and the ROCKi efficiently promoted a synergized effect over ?6(high)/CD71(dim) expression, boosting the number of highly proliferative KCs stem-like cells as demonstrated by the expression of ki67. This cell fraction showed a superior ability to generate a 3D stratified epithelium formed by cells with successive differentiation phenotypes. Overall, this strategy indulged the possibility to uncover, among adult KCs, a superior epidermal cell population with stem-like proliferation capacity and early differentiation degree to be used in numerous skin regeneration approaches.
Project description:The recent identification of "side population" (SP) cells in a number of unrelated human cancers and their normal tissue sources has renewed interest in the hypothesis that cancers may arise from somatic stem/progenitor cells. The high incidence of recurrence attributable to multidrug resistance and the multiple histologic phenotypes indicative of multipotency suggests a stem cell-like etiology of ovarian cancer. Here we identify and characterize SP cells from two distinct genetically engineered mouse ovarian cancer cell lines. Differential efflux of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342 from these cell lines defined a human breast cancer-resistance protein 1-expressing, verapamil-sensitive SP of candidate cancer stem cells. In vivo, mouse SP cells formed measurable tumors sooner than non-SP (NSP) cells when equal numbers were injected into the dorsal fat pad of nude mice. The presence of Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) signaling pathway transduction molecules in both SP and NSP mouse cells led us to investigate the efficacy of MIS against these populations in comparison with traditional chemotherapies. MIS inhibited the proliferation of both SP and NSP cells, whereas the lipophilic chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin more significantly inhibited the NSP cells. Finally, we identified breast cancer-resistance protein 1-expressing verapamil-sensitive SPs in three of four human ovarian cancer cell lines and four of six patient primary ascites cells. In the future, individualized therapy must incorporate analysis of the stem cell-like subpopulation of ovarian cancer cells when designing therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer patients.
Project description:Similar to the bone marrow, the mammary gland contains a distinct population of Hoechst-effluxing side population cells, MG-SPs. To better characterize MG-SPs, their microarray gene profiles were compared to the remaining cells, which retain Hoechst dye (MG-NSPs). For analysis, gene ontology (GO) that describes genes in terms of biological processes and ontology traverser (OT) that performs enrichment analysis were utilized. OT showed that MG-SP specific genes were enriched in the GO categories of cell cycle regulation and checkpoints, multi-drug resistant transporters, organogenesis, and vasculogenesis. The MG-NSP upregulated genes were enriched in the GO category of cellular organization and biogenesis which includes basal epithelial markers, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), myosin, ï?¡6 integrin, cytokeratin (CK) 14, as well as luminal markers, CK8 and CD24. Additional studies showed that a higher percentage of MG-SPs exist in the G1 phase of the cell cycle compared to the MG-NSPs. G1 cell cycle block of MG-SPs may be explained by higher expression of cell cycle negative regulatory genes such as TGF-ï?¢2 (transforming growth factor-ï?¢2), IGFBP-5 (insulin like growth factor binding protein-5), P18 INK4C and Wnt-5a (wingless-5a). Accordingly, a smaller percentage of MG-SPs expressed nuclear b-catenin, possibly as a consequence of the higher expression of Wnt-5a. In conclusion, microarray gene profiling suggests that MG-SPs are a lineage deficient mammary gland sub-population expressing key genes involved in cell cycle regulation, development and angiogenesis. Supplemental File Descriptions:; Table 1 is a list of 1632 Genes differentially expressed by MG-SP and MG-NSP; Criteria for comparison included 1.2-fold difference in expression levels, false discovery rate (FDR) 9.4%, P value less than 0.05. Table 2 is a list of 771 Genes differentially expressed by MG-SP and MG-NSP; Criteria for comparison included 1.5-fold difference in expression levels, FDR 3.4%, P value less than 0.05. Table 3 is a list of 335 Genes differentially expressed by MG-SP and MG-NSP; Criteria for comparison included 2-fold difference in expression levels, FDR 0%, P value less than 0.05. Table 4 is a list of 90 Genes differentially expressed by MG-SP and MG-NSP; Criteria for comparison included 2-fold difference in expression levels, FDR 0%, P value less than 0.01. Experiment Overall Design: Gene expression profiles were obtained by hybridizing amplified RNA from four replicate MG-SP and MG-NSP samples to Affymetrix 430 2.0 microarray chips. To isolate MG-SP and MG-NSPs, mammary gland cells were stained using the Hoechst dye 33342 and fluorescence displayed at two wavelength emissions, blue and red. The MG-SP and MG-NSP regions were indicated by trapezoids on the left (R1) and right (R2), respectively. We and others have previously shown that the R1 region is composed of side population cells since verapamil blocks their appearance. The cells in each region (R1 and R2) were sorted, their RNA isolated and amplified by two rounds of in vitro amplification and applied to Affymetrix chips. Hybridization, scanning, and production of raw data files were performed according to the Affymetrix standard protocols. Normalization and model-based expression measurements were performed with dChip. Two of the chips were eliminated from further analysis due to the high percentage of probe sets called an array outlier after model based expression analysis by dChip (Not included). The genes were filtered to eliminate those with very low expression values in most samples. From 45,000 probe sets, 16,744 probe sets were retained and used for further analysis. For normalization purposes and to allow for data comparison with other centers, universal mouse reference RNA (Stratagene) was hybridized to two chips. All other arrays were normalized to one of the universal mouse reference RNA arrays expressing average intensity closest to the median intensity of all chips (Stratagene Ref 2).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Side population (SP) fraction cells, identified by efflux of Hoechst dye, are present in virtually all normal and malignant tissues. The relationship between SP cells, drug resistance and cancer stem cells is poorly understood. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive human tumour with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. These features suggest enrichment in cancer stem cells.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We examined several SCLC cell lines and found that they contain a consistent SP fraction that comprises <1% of the bulk population. Side population cells have higher proliferative capacity in vitro, efficient self-renewal and reduced cell surface expression of neuronal differentiation markers, CD56 and CD90, as compared with non-SP cells. Previous reports indicated that several thousand SP cells from non-small-cell lung cancer are required to form tumours in mice. In contrast, as few as 50 SP cells from H146 and H526 SCLC cell lines rapidly reconstituted tumours. Whereas non-SP cells formed fewer and slower-growing tumours, SP cells over-expressed many genes associated with cancer stem cell and drug resistance: ABCG2, FGF1, IGF1, MYC, SOX1/2, WNT1, as well as genes involved in angiogenesis, Notch and Hedgehog pathways.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Side population cells from SCLC are highly enriched in tumourigenic cells and are characterised by a specific stem cell-associated gene expression signature. This gene signature may be used for development of targeted therapies for this rapidly fatal tumour.
Project description:The present study has been undertaken to establish the therapeutic benefit of cotargeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and sonic hedgehog pathways by using gefitinib and cyclopamine, respectively, for improving the efficacy of the current chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel to counteract the prostate cancer progression from locally invasive to metastatic and recurrent disease stages. The data from immuofluorescence analyses revealed that EGFR/Tyr(1173)-pEGFR, sonic hedgehog ligand, smoothened coreceptor, and GLI-1 were colocalized with the CD133(+) stem cell-like marker in a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells. These signaling molecules were also present in the bulk tumor mass of CD133(-) prostate cancer cells with a luminal phenotype detected in patient's adenocarcinoma tissues. Importantly, the results revealed that the CD133(+)/CD44(high)/AR(-/low) side population (SP) cell fraction endowed with a high self-renewal potential isolated from tumorigenic and invasive WPE1-NB26 cells by the Hoechst dye technique was insensitive to the current chemotherapeutic drug, docetaxel. In contrast, the docetaxel treatment induced significant antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on the CD133(-)/CD44(low)/AR(+) non-SP cell fraction isolated from the WPE1-NB26 cell line. Of therapeutic interest, the results have also indicated that combined docetaxel, gefitinib, and cyclopamine induced greater antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on SP and non-SP cell fractions isolated from WPE1-NB26 cells than individual drugs or two-drug combinations. Altogether, these observations suggest that EGFR and sonic hedgehog cascades may represent the potential therapeutic targets of great clinical interest to eradicate the total prostate cancer cell mass and improve the current docetaxel-based therapies against locally advanced and invasive prostate cancers, and thereby prevent metastases and disease relapse.
Project description:Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are responsible for maintaining spermatogenesis throughout life in the male by continuous production of daughter cells that differentiate into spermatozoa. However, no unique phenotypic markers to identify SSCs have been described. In this study, the SSC surface phenotype was characterized by using flow cytometric cell sorting in conjunction with a transplantation functional assay for SSCs. Highly enriched stem cell activity was found in the MHC class I (MHC-I)-Thy-1+c-kit- cell fraction of the mouse cryptorchid testis. There was little or no stem cell activity in any other fraction. The antigenic phenotype of the MHC-I-Thy-1+c-kit- SSCs was alpha6-integrin+CD24+alphavintegrin-Sca-1-CD34-. Subsequently, testis side population (SP) cells, which are defined by a Hoechst dye efflux assay, were identified. Their surface phenotype was found to be MHC-I+Thy-1-Sca-1+, and the transplantation assay demonstrated that the testis SP and SSCs are distinct populations. In several other tissues, the SP has been shown to contain stem cells, but we found that this characteristic does not define SSCs. The identification of a surface phenotype that allows production of a highly enriched SSC population will facilitate functional and genomic studies and enable further comparison with other stem cells.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Side population (SP) cells and their relationship to stem cell-like properties have been insufficiently studied in colorectal cancer (CRC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted much attention but their roles in the maintenance of SP phenotype remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>The SPs from CRC cell lines and primary cell cultures were analysed for stem cell-like properties. MiRNA microarray analysis identified miR-328 as a potential stemness miRNA of SP phenotype. The level of miR-328 expression in clinical samples and its correlation with SP fraction were determined. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies were performed to examine its roles in cancer stem-like SP cells. Furthermore, bioinformatics prediction and experimental validation were used to identify miR-328 target genes.<h4>Results</h4>The SP cells sorted from CRC possess cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, including self-renewal, differentiation, resistance to chemotherapy, invasive and strong tumour formation ability. MiR-328 expression was significantly reduced in SP cells compared with Non-SP cells (P<0.05). Moreover, miR-328 expression was downregulated in CRC (n=33, P<0.05) and low miR-328 expression tend to correlate with high SP fraction (n=15, r=0.6559, P<0.05, Pearson's correlation). Functional studies indicated that miR-328 expression affects the number of SP cells. In addition, miR-328 overexpression reversed drug resistance and inhibited cell invasion of SP cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-328 directly targets ABCG2 and MMP16 and affects the levels of mRNA and protein expression in SP cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings indicate that CRC contain cancer stem-like SP cells. MiR-328 has an important role in maintaining cancer stem-like SP phenotype that may be a potential target for effective CRC therapy.