Mammalian SWI/SNF complexes facilitate DNA double-strand break repair by promoting gamma-H2AX induction.
ABSTRACT: Although mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes have been well established to play important role in transcription, their role in DNA repair has remained largely unexplored. Here we show that inactivation of the SWI/SNF complexes and downregulation of the catalytic core subunits of the complexes both result in inefficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and increased DNA damage sensitivity as well as a large defect in H2AX phosphorylation (gamma-H2AX) and nuclear focus formation after DNA damage. The expression of most DSB repair genes remains unaffected and DNA damage checkpoints are grossly intact in the cells inactivated for the SWI/SNF complexes. Although the SWI/SNF complexes do not affect the expression of ATM, DNA-PK and ATR, or their activation and/or recruitment to DSBs, they rapidly bind to DSB-surrounding chromatin via interaction with gamma-H2AX in the manner that is dependent on the amount of DNA damage. Given the crucial role for gamma-H2AX in efficient DSB repair, these results suggest that the SWI/SNF complexes facilitate DSB repair, at least in part, by promoting H2AX phosphorylation by directly acting on chromatin.
Project description:Although recent studies highlight the importance of histone modifications and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, how these mechanisms cooperate has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, earlier known to facilitate the phosphorylation of histone H2AX at Ser-139 (S139ph) after DNA damage, binds to gamma-H2AX (the phosphorylated form of H2AX)-containing nucleosomes in S139ph-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, BRG1, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, binds to gamma-H2AX nucleosomes by interacting with acetylated H3, not with S139ph itself, through its bromodomain. Blocking the BRG1 interaction with gamma-H2AX nucleosomes either by deletion or overexpression of the BRG1 bromodomain leads to defect of S139ph and DSB repair. H3 acetylation is required for the binding of BRG1 to gamma-H2AX nucleosomes. S139ph stimulates the H3 acetylation on gamma-H2AX nucleosomes, and the histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 is responsible for this novel crosstalk. The H3 acetylation on gamma-H2AX nucleosomes is induced by DNA damage. These results collectively suggest that SWI/SNF, gamma-H2AX and H3 acetylation cooperatively act in a feedback activation loop to facilitate DSB repair.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) is crucial for genomic integrity. BRIT1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene C terminus-repeat inhibitor of human telomerase repeat transcriptase expression), a tumor suppressor and early DDR factor, is recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by phosphorylated H2A histone family, member X (γ-H2AX), where it promotes chromatin relaxation by recruiting the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI-SNF) chromatin remodeler to facilitate DDR. However, regulation of BRIT1 recruitment is not fully understood. The baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)-containing ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (BRUCE) is an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP). Here, we report a non-IAP function of BRUCE in the regulation of the BRIT1-SWI-SNF DSB-response pathway and genomic stability. We demonstrate that BRIT1 is K63 ubiquitinated in unstimulated cells and that deubiquitination of BRIT1 is a prerequisite for its recruitment to DSB sites by γ-H2AX. We show mechanistically that BRUCE acts as a scaffold, bridging the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) and BRIT1 in a complex to coordinate USP8-catalyzed deubiquitination of BRIT1. Loss of BRUCE or USP8 impairs BRIT1 deubiquitination, BRIT1 binding with γ-H2AX, the formation of BRIT1 DNA damage foci, and chromatin relaxation. Moreover, BRUCE-depleted cells display reduced homologous recombination repair, and BRUCE-mutant mice exhibit repair defects and genomic instability. These findings identify BRUCE and USP8 as two hitherto uncharacterized critical DDR regulators and uncover a deubiquitination regulation of BRIT1 assembly at damaged chromatin for efficient DDR and genomic stability.
Project description:The DNA damage response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for cellular viability. Recent work has shown that a host of chromatin regulators are recruited to a DSB, and that they are important for the DNA damage response. However, the functional relationships between different chromatin regulators at DSBs remain unclear. Here we describe a conserved functional interaction among the chromatin remodeling enzyme, SWI/SNF, the NuA4 and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferases, and phosphorylation of histone H2A.X (?H2AX). Specifically, we find that the NuA4 and Gcn5 enzymes are both required for the robust recruitment of SWI/SNF to a DSB, which in turn promotes the phosphorylation of H2A.X.
Project description:Chromatin remodeling complexes play important roles in various DNA metabolism processes, including DNA damage repair. BRG1 is the core subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, which plays critical roles in cell cycle regulation, cell development, cell differentiation, and tumorigenesis. In the present study, we report that BRG1 depletion increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in etoposide-treated cells. Moreover, western blotting and immunofluorescence data showed that BRG1 depletion decreased H2AX phosphorylation and caused defective phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX) clearance. Furthermore, we found that in both SW13 and U2OS cells, BRG1 expression could increase the sensitivity of genomic DNA to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) and facilitate chromatin relaxation around DNA damage sites. Thus, the results provide evidence that BRG1 plays an important role in early DNA damage repair by remodeling the chromatin structure near DNA damage sites.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by either the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Pathway choice is determined by the generation of 3? single-strand DNA overhangs at the break that are initiated by the action of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex to direct repair toward HR. DSB repair occurs in the context of chromatin, and multiple chromatin regulators have been shown to play important roles in the repair process. We have investigated the role of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent nucleosome-remodeling complex in the repair of a defined DNA DSB. SWI/SNF was previously shown to regulate presynaptic events in HR, but its function in these events is unknown. We find that in the absence of functional SWI/SNF, the initiation of DNA end resection is significantly delayed. The delay in resection initiation is accompanied by impaired recruitment of MRX to the DSB, and other functions of MRX in HR including the recruitment of long-range resection factors and activation of the DNA damage response are also diminished. These phenotypes are correlated with a delay in the eviction of nucleosomes surrounding the DSB. We propose that SWI/SNF orchestrates the recruitment of a pool of MRX that is specifically dedicated to HR.
Project description:The efficiency and type of pathway chosen to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are critically influenced by the nucleosome packaging and the chromatin architecture surrounding the DSBs. The Swi/Snf (PBAF and BAF) chromatin-remodeling complexes contribute to DNA damage-induced nucleosome remodeling, but the mechanism by which it contributes to this function is poorly understood. Herein, we report how the Baf200 (Arid2) PBAF-defining subunit regulates DSB repair. We used cytological and biochemical approaches to show that Baf200 plays an important function by facilitating homologous recombination-dependent processes, such as recruitment of Rad51 (a key component of homologous recombination) to DSBs, homology-directed repair, and cell survival after DNA damage. Furthermore, we observed that Baf200 and Rad51 are present in the same complex and that this interaction is mediated by C-terminal sequences in both proteins. It has been recognized previously that the interplay between distinct forms of Swi/Snf has profound functional consequences, but we understand little about the composition of complexes formed by PBAF protein subunits. Our biochemical analyses reveal that Baf200 forms at least two distinct complexes. One is a canonical form of PBAF including the Swi/Snf-associated Brg1 catalytic subunit, and the other contains Baf180 but not Brg1. This distinction of PBAF complexes based on their unique composition provides the foundation for future studies on the specific contributions of the PBAF forms to the regulation of DNA repair.
Project description:While gemcitabine has been the mainstay therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer, newer combination regimens (e.g. FOLFIRINOX) have extended patient survival, though carry greater toxicity. Biomarkers are needed to better stratify patients for appropriate therapy. Previously, we reported that one-third of pancreatic cancers harbor deletions or deleterious mutations in key subunits of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex. The SWI/SNF complex mobilizes nucleosomes on DNA, and plays a key role in modulating DNA transcription and repair. Thus, we hypothesized that pancreatic cancers with SWI/SNF aberrations might exhibit compromised DNA repair, and show increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Here, we studied human pancreatic cancer cell lines with deficient (or else exogenously reconstituted) SWI/SNF subunits, as well as normal pancreatic epithelial cells following SWI/SNF subunit knockdown. Cells were challenged with DNA damaging agents, including those used in current combination regimens, and then cell viability assayed. We found that pancreatic cells with SWI/SNF dysfunction showed markedly increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, and in particular DNA crosslinking agents (cisplatin and oxaliplatin). Assaying clearance of ?H2AX confirmed that SWI/SNF dysfunction impaired DNA damage response/repair. Finally, by analyzing pancreatic cancer patient data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found that pancreatic cancers with SWI/SNF deficiency (subunit mutation and/or decreased expression) were associated with extended patient survival specifically when treated with platinum containing regimens. Thus, SWI/SNF dysfunction sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to DNA crosslinking agents, and SWI/SNF mutation status may provide a useful biomarker to predict which patients are likely to benefit from platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy with a high global prevalence and a dismal prognosis. Studies are urgently needed to examine the molecular pathogenesis and biological characteristics of HCC. Chromatin remodelling, an integral component of the DNA damage response, protects against DNA damage-induced genome instability and tumorigenesis by triggering the signalling events that activate the interconnected DNA repair pathways. The SWI/SNF complexes are one of the most extensively investigated adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes, and mutations in genes encoding SWI/SNF subunits are frequently observed in various human cancers, including HCC. The mutated SWI/SNF complex subunits exert dual functions by accelerating or inhibiting HCC initiation and progression. Furthermore, the abnormal SWI/SNF complexes influence the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes, as well as the differentiation, activation and recruitment of several immune cell types. In addition, they exhibit synergistic effects with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of diverse tumour types. Therefore, understanding the mutations and deficiencies of the SMI/SNF complexes, together with the associated functional mechanisms, may provide a novel strategy to treat HCC through targeting the related genes or modulating the tumour microenvironment.
Project description:To detect and repair damaged DNA, DNA-damage-response proteins need to overcome the barrier of condensed chromatin to gain access to DNA lesions. ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling is one of the fundamental mechanisms used by cells to relax chromatin in DNA repair. However, the mechanism mediating their recruitment to DNA lesions remains largely unknown. BRIT1 (also known as MCPH1) is an early DNA-damage-response protein that is mutated in human primary microcephaly. Here we report a previously unknown function of BRIT1 as a regulator of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex SWI-SNF in DNA repair. After damage to DNA, BRIT1 increases its interaction with SWI-SNF through ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation on the BAF170 subunit. This increase in binding affinity provides a means by which SWI-SNF can be specifically recruited to and maintained at DNA lesions. Loss of BRIT1 causes impaired chromatin relaxation as a result of decreased association of SWI-SNF with chromatin. This explains the decreased recruitment of repair proteins to DNA lesions and the reduced efficiency of repair in BRIT1-deficient cells, resulting in impaired cell survival after DNA damage. Our findings therefore identify BRIT1 as a key molecule that links chromatin remodelling with response to DNA damage in the control of DNA repair, and its dysfunction contributes to human disease.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a type of lethal DNA damage. The repair of DSBs requires tight coordination between the factors modulating chromatin structure and the DNA repair machinery. BRG1, the ATPase subunit of the chromatin remodelling complex Switch/Sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF), is often linked to tumorigenesis and genome instability, and its role in DSB repair remains largely unclear. In the present study, we show that BRG1 is recruited to DSB sites and enhances DSB repair. Using DR-GFP and EJ5-GFP reporter systems, we demonstrate that BRG1 facilitates homologous recombination repair rather than nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. Moreover, the BRG1-RAD52 complex mediates the replacement of RPA with RAD51 on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to initiate DNA strand invasion. Loss of BRG1 results in a failure of RAD51 loading onto ssDNA, abnormal homologous recombination repair and enhanced DSB-induced lethality. Our present study provides a mechanistic insight into how BRG1, which is known to be involved in chromatin remodelling, plays a substantial role in the homologous recombination repair pathway in mammalian cells.