Variation between pathogenic serovars within Salmonella pathogenicity islands.
ABSTRACT: Although four of the five Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) have been characterized in detail for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and the fifth has been characterized for Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, there have been limited studies to examine them in detail in a range of pathogenic serovars of S. enterica. The aim of this study was to examine these regions, shown to be crucial in virulence, in pathogenic serovars to identify any major deletions or insertions that may explain variation in virulence and provide further understanding of the elements involved in the evolution of these regions. Multiple strains of each of the 13 serovars were compared by Southern blot hybridization using a series of probes that together encompassed the full length of all five SPIs. With the exception of serovar Typhimurium, all strains of the same serovar were identical in all five SPIs. Those serovars that differed from serovar Typhimurium in SPI-1 to SPI-4 and from serovar Dublin in SPI-5 were examined in more detail in the variant regions by PCR, and restriction endonuclease digestion and/or DNA sequencing. While most variation in hybridization patterns was attributable to loss or gain of single restriction endonuclease cleavage sites, three regions, in SPI-1, SPI-3, and SPI-5, had differences due to major insertions or deletions. In SPI-1 the avrA gene was replaced by a 200-base fragment in three serovars, as reported previously. In SPI-5, two serovars had acquired an insertion with similarity to the pagJ and pagK genes between pipC and pipD. In SPI-3 the genes sugR and rhuM were deleted in most serovars and in some were replaced by sequences that were very similar to either the Escherichia coli fimbrial operon, flanked by two distinct insertion sequence elements, or to the E. coli retron phage PhiR73. The distribution of these differences suggests that there have been a number of relatively recent horizontal transfers of genes into S. enterica and that in some cases the same event has occurred in multiple lineages of S. enterica. Thus, it seems that insertion sequences and retron phages are likely to be involved in continuing evolution of the pathogenicity islands of pathogenic Salmonella serovars.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The impact of S. enterica colonization in cattle is highly variable and often serovar-dependent. The aim of this study was to compare the global transcriptomes of highly pathogenic bovine-adapted S. enterica serovar Dublin and the less pathogenic, bovine-adapted, serovar Cerro during interactions with bovine epithelial cells, to identify genes that impact serovar-related outcomes of S. enterica infections in dairy animals.<h4>Result</h4>Bovine epithelial cells were infected with S. enterica strains from serovars Dublin and Cerro, and the bacterial RNA was extracted and sequenced. The total number of paired-end reads uniquely mapped to non-rRNA and non-tRNA genes in the reference genomes ranged between 12.1 M (Million) and 23.4 M (median: 15.7 M). In total, 360 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with at least two-fold differences in the transcript abundances between S. Dublin and S. Cerro (false discovery rate ≤ 5%). The highest number of DEGs (17.5%, 63 of 360 genes) between the two serovars were located on the genomic regions potentially associated with Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs). DEGs potentially located in the SPI-regions that were upregulated (≥ 2-fold) in the S. Dublin compared with S. Cerro included: 37 SPI-1 genes encoding mostly Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) apparatus and effectors; all of the six SPI-4 genes encoding type I secretion apparatus (siiABCDEF); T3SS effectors and chaperone (sopB, pipB, and sigE) located in SPI-5; type VI secretion system associated protein coding genes (sciJKNOR) located in SPI-6; and T3SS effector sopF in SPI-11. Additional major functional categories of DEGs included transcription regulators (n = 25), amino acid transport and metabolism (n = 20), carbohydrate transport and metabolism (n = 20), energy production and metabolism (n = 19), cell membrane biogenesis (n = 18), and coenzyme transport and metabolism (n = 15). DEGs were further mapped to the metabolic pathways listed in the KEGG database; most genes of the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway were upregulated/uniquely present in the S. Dublin strains compared with the S. Cerro strains.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study identified S. enterica genes that may be responsible for symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and colonization of two bovine-adapted serovars in cattle.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a host-restricted serovar associated with typhoidal disease in cattle. In contrast, the fowl-associated serovar S. enterica serovar Gallinarum is avirulent in calves, yet it invades ileal mucosa and induces enteritis at levels comparable to those induced by S. enterica serovar Dublin. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify S. enterica serovar Dublin strain SD3246 genes absent from S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strain SG9. Forty-one S. enterica serovar Dublin fragments were cloned and sequenced. Among these, 24 mobile-element-associated genes were identified, and 12 clones exhibited similarity with sequences of known or predicted function in other serovars. Three S. enterica serovar Dublin-specific regions were homologous to regions from the genome of Enterobacter sp. strain 638. Sequencing of fragments adjacent to these three sequences revealed the presence of a 21-kb genomic island, designated S. enterica serovar Dublin island 1 (SDI-1). PCR analysis and Southern blotting showed that SDI-1 is highly conserved within S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates but rarely found in other serovars. To probe the role of genes identified by subtractive hybridization in vivo, 24 signature-tagged S. enterica serovar Dublin SD3246 mutants lacking loci not present in Salmonella serovar Gallinarum SG9 were created and screened by oral challenge of cattle. Though attenuation of tagged SG9 and SD3246 Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 mutant strains was detected, no obvious defects of these 24 mutants were detected. Subsequently, a DeltaSDI-1 mutant was found to exhibit weak but significant attenuation compared with the parent strain in coinfection of calves. SDI-1 mutation did not impair invasion, intramacrophage survival, or virulence in mice, implying that SDI-1 does not influence fitness per se and may act in a host-specific manner.
Project description:Vi capsular polysaccharide production is encoded by the viaB locus, which has a limited distribution in Salmonella enterica serovars. In S. enterica serovar Typhi, viaB is encoded on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as SPI-7 that is located between partially duplicated tRNA(pheU) sites. Functional and bioinformatic analysis suggests that SPI-7 has a mosaic structure and may have evolved as a consequence of several independent insertion events. Analysis of viaB-associated DNA in Vi-positive S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C and S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates revealed the presence of similar SPI-7 islands. In S. enterica serovars Paratyphi C and Dublin, the SopE bacteriophage and a 15-kb fragment adjacent to the intact tRNA(pheU) site were absent. In S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C only, a region encoding a type IV pilus involved in the adherence of S. enterica serovar Typhi to host cells was missing. The remainder of the SPI-7 islands investigated exhibited over 99% DNA sequence identity in the three serovars. Of 30 other Salmonella serovars examined, 24 contained no insertions at the equivalent tRNA(pheU) site, 2 had a 3.7-kb insertion, and 4 showed sequence variation at the tRNA(pheU)-phoN junction, which was not analyzed further. Sequence analysis of the SPI-7 region from S. enterica serovar Typhi strain CT18 revealed significant synteny with clusters of genes from a variety of saprophytic bacteria and phytobacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. This analysis suggested that SPI-7 may be a mobile element, such as a conjugative transposon or an integrated plasmid remnant.
Project description:Most Salmonella serovars cause disease in many host species, while a few serovars have evolved to be host specific. Very little is known about the mechanisms that contribute to Salmonella host specificity. We compared the interactions between chicken primary macrophages (CDPM) and host-generalist serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, host-adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, and avian host-specific Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum. S Gallinarum was taken up in lower numbers by CDPM than S Typhimurium and S Dublin; however, a higher survival rate was observed for this serovar. In addition, S Typhimurium and S Dublin caused substantially higher levels of cell death to the CDPM, while significantly higher concentrations of NO were produced by S Gallinarum-infected cells. Global transcriptome analysis performed 2?h postinfection showed that S Gallinarum infection triggered a more comprehensive response in CDPM with 1,114 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) compared to the responses of S Typhimurium (625 DEGs) and S Dublin (656 DEGs). Comparable levels of proinflammation responses were observed in CDPM infected by these three different serovars at the initial infection phase, but a substantially quicker reduction in levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), CXCLi1, and CXCLi2 gene expression was detected in the S Gallinarum-infected macrophages than that of two other groups as infections proceeded. KEGG cluster analysis for unique DEGs after S Gallinarum infection showed that the JAK-STAT signaling pathway was top enriched, indicating a specific role for this pathway in response to S Gallinarum infection of CDPM. Together, these findings provide new insights into the interaction between Salmonella and the host and increase our understanding of S Gallinarum host specificity.
Project description:In sub-Saharan Africa, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are emerging as a prominent cause of invasive disease (bacteremia and focal infections such as meningitis) in infants and young children. Importantly, including data from Mali, three serovars, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin, account for the majority of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from these patients.We have extended a previously developed series of polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) based on O serogrouping and H typing to identify Salmonella Typhimurium and variants (mostly I 4,,12:i:-), Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Dublin. We also designed primers to detect Salmonella Stanleyville, a serovar found in West Africa. Another PCR was used to differentiate diphasic Salmonella Typhimurium and monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium from other O serogroup B, H:i serovars. We used these PCRs to blind-test 327 Salmonella serogroup B and D isolates that were obtained from the blood cultures of febrile patients in Bamako, Mali.We have shown that when used in conjunction with our previously described O-serogrouping PCR, our PCRs are 100% sensitive and specific in identifying Salmonella Typhimurium and variants, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Stanleyville. When we attempted to differentiate 171 Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,[ 5],12:i:1,2) strains from 52 monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (I 4,,12:i:-) strains, we were able to correctly identify 170 of the Salmonella Typhimurium and 51 of the Salmonella I 4,,12:i:- strains.We have described a simple yet effective PCR method to support surveillance of the incidence of invasive disease caused by NTS in developing countries.
Project description:Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.
Project description:Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections constitute a major health problem among infants and toddlers in sub-Saharan Africa; these infections also occur in infants and the elderly in developed countries. We genetically engineered a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain of multilocus sequence type 313, the predominant genotype circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the capacities of S. Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ?guaBA ?clpX live oral vaccines to protect mice against a highly lethal challenge dose of the homologous serovar and determined protection against other group B and D serovars circulating in sub-Saharan Africa. The vaccines S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 were immunogenic and protected BALB/c mice against 10,000 50% lethal doses (LD50) of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis, respectively. S. Typhimurium CVD 1931 protected mice against the group B serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Stanleyville (91% vaccine efficacy), and S. Enteritidis CVD 1944 protected mice against the group D serovar Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin (85% vaccine efficacy). High rates of survival were observed when mice were infected 12 weeks postimmunization, indicating that the vaccines elicited long-lived protective immunity. Whereas CVD 1931 did not protect against S. Enteritidis R11, CVD 1944 did mediate protection against S. Typhimurium D65 (81% efficacy). These findings suggest that a bivalent (S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis) vaccine would provide broad protection against the majority of invasive NTS infections in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nal(r) strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis.
Project description:The horizontal transfer and acquisition of virulence genes via mobile genetic elements have been a major driving force in the evolution of Salmonella pathogenicity. Serovars of Salmonella enterica carry variable assortments of phage-encoded virulence genes, suggesting that temperate phages play a pivotal role in this process. Epidemic isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium are consistently lysogenic for two lambdoid phages, Gifsy-1 and Gifsy-2, carrying known virulence genes. Other serovars of S. enterica, including serovars Dublin, Gallinarum, Enteritidis, and Hadar, carry distinct prophages with similarity to the Gifsy phages. In this study, we analyzed Gifsy-related loci from S. enterica serovar Abortusovis, a pathogen associated exclusively with ovine infection. A cryptic prophage, closely related to serovar Typhimurium phage Gifsy-2, was identified. This element, named Gifsy-2AO, was shown to contribute to serovar Abortusovis systemic infection in lambs. Sequence analysis of the prophage b region showed a large deletion which covers genes encoding phage tail fiber proteins and putative virulence factors, including type III secreted effector protein SseI (GtgB, SrfH). This deletion was identified in most of the serovar Abortusovis isolates tested and might be dependent on the replicative transposition of an adjacent insertion sequence, IS1414, previously identified in pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. IS1414 encodes heat-stable toxin EAST1 (astA) and showed multiple genomic copies in isolates of serovar Abortusovis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of intergeneric transfer of virulence genes via insertion sequence elements in Salmonella. The acquisition of IS1414 (EAST1) and its frequent transposition within the chromosome might improve the fitness of serovar Abortusovis within its narrow ecological niche.
Project description:Salmonella enterica is an animal and zoonotic pathogen of worldwide importance and may be classified into serovars differing in virulence and host range. We sequenced and annotated the genomes of serovar Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, Dublin, and Gallinarum strains of defined virulence in each of three food-producing animal hosts. This provides valuable measures of intraserovar diversity and opportunities to formally link genotypes to phenotypes in target animals.