Comparison of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and non-LT2 salmonella genomic sequences, and genotyping of salmonellae by using PCR.
ABSTRACT: Genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 expected to be specifically present in Salmonella were selected using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) program. The 152 selected genes were compared with 11 genomic sequences of Salmonella serovars, including Salmonella enterica subsp. I and IIIb and Salmonella bongori (V), and were clustered into 17 groups by their comparison patterns. A total of 38 primer pairs were constructed to represent each of the 17 groups, and PCR was performed with various Salmonella subspecies including Salmonella enterica subsp. I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IV, VI, and V to evaluate a comprehensive DNA-based scheme for identification of Salmonella subspecies and the major disease-causing Salmonella serovars. Analysis of PCR results showed that Salmonella enterica subsp. I was critically divided from other subspecies, and Salmonella strains belonging to S. enterica subsp. I were clustered based on their serovars. In addition, genotypic relationships within S. enterica subsp. I by PCR results were investigated. Also, Salmonella signature genes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium signature genes, and Salmonella enterica subsp. I signature genes were demonstrated based on their PCR results. The described PCR method suggests a rapid and convenient method for identification of Salmonella serovars that can be used by nonspecialized laboratories. Genome sequence comparison can be a useful tool in epidemiologic and taxonomic studies of Salmonella.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica comprises a number of serovars, many of which pose an epidemiological threat to humans and are a worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality. Most reported food infection outbreaks involve the serovars Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Rapid identification to determine the primary sources of the bacterial contamination is important to the improvement of public health. In recent years, many DNA-based techniques have been applied to genotype Salmonella. Herein, we report the use of a manual TRS-PCR approach for the differentiation of the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovars in a single-tube assay. One hundred seventy Salmonella strains were examined in this work. These consisted of serovars S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. Virchow, S. Hadar, S. Newport and S. Anatum. Five of the TRS-primers, N6(GTG)4, N6(CAC)4, N6(CGG)4, N6(CCG)4 and N6(CTG)4, perfectly distinguished the S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium serovars, and the N6(GTG)4 primer additionally grouped the other five frequently isolated serovars. In our opinion, the TRS-PCR methodology could be recommended for a quick and simple DNA-based test for inter-serovar discrimination of Salmonella strains.
Project description:We have developed a Salmonella genoserotyping array (SGSA) which rapidly generates an antigenic formula consistent with the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme, currently the gold standard for Salmonella serotyping. A set of 287 strains representative of 133 Salmonella serovars was assembled to validate the array and to test the array probes for accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Initially, 76 known serovars were utilized to validate the specificity and repeatability of the array probes and their expected probe patterns. The SGSA generated the correct serovar designations for 100% of the known subspecies I serovars tested in the validation panel and an antigenic formula consistent with that of the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme for 97% of all known serovars tested. Once validated, the SGSA was assessed against a blind panel of 100 Salmonella enterica subsp. I samples serotyped using traditional methods. In summary, the SGSA correctly identified all of the blind samples as representing Salmonella and successfully identified 92% of the antigens found within the unknown samples. Antigen- and serovar-specific probes, in combination with a pepT PCR for confirmation of S. enterica subsp. Enteritidis determinations, generated an antigenic formula and/or a serovar designation consistent with the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme for 87% of unknown samples tested with the SGSA. Future experiments are planned to test the specificity of the array probes with other Salmonella serovars to demonstrate the versatility and utility of this array as a public health tool in the identification of Salmonella.
Project description:Non-subspecies I salmonellae are commensals of cold-blooded vertebrates and cause sporadic disease in mammals. The reasons why non-subspecies I salmonellae do not circulate in populations of warm-blooded vertebrates, but instead only cause occasional disease in this niche, are unknown. We examined the ability of Salmonella enterica subsp. IIIa (subsp. arizonae) and subsp. IIIb (subsp. diarizonae) isolates to grow competitively with subspecies I (serovar Typhimurium) ATCC 14028 in vitro, to colonize Salmonella-sensitive BALB/c mice, and to persist in the intestine of Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice in competitive infections. Subspecies IIIa had severely reduced intestinal colonization, intestinal persistence, and systemic spread in mice. Subspecies IIIa is nonmotile on swarming agar and thus may also have reduced motility under viscous conditions in vivo. Surprisingly, subspecies IIIb colonizes the intestinal tract of BALB/c mice normally yet does not spread systemically. Subspecies IIIb colonization of the intestine of CBA/J mice is reduced late in infection. In order to understand why these isolates do not colonize systemic sites, we determined that subspecies IIIa and IIIb are not internalized well and do not replicate in J774-A.1 murine macrophages, despite normal adherence to these cells. We further show that selected effectors of both type III secretion systems 1 and 2 are secreted by subspecies IIIa and IIIb in vitro but that each of these isolates secretes a different combination of effectors. We outline the phenotypic differences between these subspecies and subspecies I and provide a possible explanation for the inability of these strains to spread systemically in murine models.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai are human-adapted pathogens that cause typhoid (enteric) fever. The acute prevalence in some global regions and the disease severity of typhoidal Salmonella have necessitated the development of rapid and specific detection tests. Most of the methodologies currently used to detect serovar Typhi do not identify serovars Paratyphi A or Sendai. To assist in this aim, comparative sequence analyses were performed at the loci of core bacterial genetic determinants and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 genes encoded by clinically significant S. enterica serovars. Genetic polymorphisms specific for serovar Typhi (at trpS), as well as polymorphisms unique to human-adapted typhoidal serovars (at sseC and sseF), were observed. Furthermore, entire coding sequences unique to human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella strains (i.e., serovar-specific genetic loci rather than polymorphisms) were observed in publicly available comparative genomic DNA microarray data sets. These polymorphisms and loci were developed into real-time PCR, standard PCR, and liquid microsphere suspension array-based molecular protocols and tested for with a panel of clinical and reference subspecies I S. enterica strains. A proportion of the nontyphoidal Salmonella strains hybridized with the allele-specific oligonucleotide probes for sseC and sseF; but the trpS allele was unique to serovar Typhi (with a singular serovar Paratyphi B strain as an exception), and the coding sequences STY4220 and STY4221 were unique among serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai. These determinants provided phylogenetic data on the genetic relatedness of serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai; and the protocols developed might allow the rapid identification of these Salmonella serovars that cause enteric fever.
Project description:Day-old chicks are very susceptible to infections with Salmonella enterica subspecies. The gut mucosa is the initial site of host invasion and provides the first line of defense against the bacteria. To study the potential of different S. enterica serovars to invade the gut mucosa and trigger an immune response, day-old chicks were infected orally with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Hadar, or S. enterica serovar Infantis, respectively. The localization of Salmonella organisms in gut mucosa and the number of immune cells in cecum were determined by immunohistochemistry in the period between 4 h and 9 days after infection. Using quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, mRNA expression of various cytokines, chemokines, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was examined in cecum. As a result, all S. enterica serovars were able to infect epithelial cells and the lamina propria. Notably, serovar Enteritidis showed the highest invasiveness of lamina propria tissue, whereas serovars Typhimurium and Hadar displayed moderate invasiveness and serovar Infantis hardly any invasion capabilities. Only a limited number of bacteria of all serovars were found within intestinal macrophages. Elevated numbers of granulocytes, CD8+ cells, and TCR1+ cells and mRNA expression rates for interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-18, tumor necrosis factor alpha factor, and iNOS in cecum correlated well with the invasiveness of serovars in the lamina propria. In contrast, changes in numbers of TCR2+ and CD4+ cells and IL-2 mRNA expression seemed to be more dependent on infection of epithelial cells. The data indicate that the capability of Salmonella serovars to enter the cecal mucosa and invade lower regions affects both the level and character of the immune response in tissue.
Project description:Variations in the mass spectral profiles of multiple housekeeping proteins of 126 strains representing Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (subspecies I), S. enterica subsp. salamae (subspecies II), S. enterica subsp. arizonae (subspecies IIIa), S. enterica subsp. diarizonae (subspecies IIIb), S. enterica subsp. houtenae (subspecies IV), and S. enterica subsp. indica (subspecies VI), and Salmonella bongori were analyzed to obtain a phylogenetic classification of salmonellae based on whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometric bacterial typing. Sinapinic acid produced highly informative spectra containing a large number of biomarkers and covering a wide molecular mass range (2,000 to 40,000 Da). Genus-, species-, and subspecies-identifying biomarker ions were assigned on the basis of available genome sequence data for Salmonella, and more than 200 biomarker peaks, which corresponded mainly to abundant and highly basic ribosomal or nucleic acid binding proteins, were selected. A detailed comparative analysis of the biomarker profiles of Salmonella strains revealed sequence variations corresponding to single or multiple amino acid changes in multiple housekeeping proteins. The resulting mass spectrometry-based bacterial classification was very comparable to the results of DNA sequence-based methods. A rapid protocol that allowed identification of Salmonella subspecies in minutes was established.
Project description:While advances in genomic sequencing have highlighted significant strain variability between and within Salmonella serovars, only a few protein variants have been directly related to evolutionary adaptation for survival, such as host specificity or differential virulence. The current study investigated whether allelic variation of the Salmonella adhesin/invasin PagN influences bacterial interaction with their receptors. The Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) allelic variant of PagN was found to bind significantly better to different enterocytes as well as to the extracellular matrix protein laminin than did the major Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) allele. The two alleles differed at amino acid residues 49 and 109 in two of the four predicted PagN surface loops, and residue substitution analysis revealed that a glutamic acid at residue 49 increased the adhesive and invasive properties of S. Typhi PagN. PagN sequence comparisons from 542 Salmonella strains for six representative S. enterica serovars and S. diarizonae further supported the role of glutamic acid at residues 49 and 109 in optimizing adhesion to cells and laminin, as well as for cell invasion. In summary, this study characterized unique residues in allelic variants of a virulence factor that participates in the colonization and invasive properties of different Salmonella stains, subspecies and serovars.
Project description:We describe a rare isolate of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama with an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) profile from a German cattle-fattening farm. Applying two next-generation sequencing methods we generated sequences of the genome as well as the plasmids; assembled the draft genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Panama isolate 18PM0209. Antimicrobial resistance genes, virulence-associated genes and plasmids were analyzed using bioinformatics. Occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serovars at cattle-fattening farms indicate the need of enhanced surveillance to prevent further spread of these organisms.
Project description:Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne disease in the United States. Molecular subtyping methods are powerful tools for tracking the farm-to-fork spread of food-borne pathogens during outbreaks. In order to develop a novel multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for subtyping the major serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica, the virulence genes sseL and fimH and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci were sequenced from 171 clinical isolates from nine Salmonella serovars, Salmonella serovars Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Newport, Heidelberg, Javiana, I 4,,12:i:-, Montevideo, Muenchen, and Saintpaul. The MLST scheme using only virulence genes was congruent with serotyping and identified epidemic clones but could not differentiate outbreaks. The addition of CRISPR sequences dramatically improved discriminatory power by differentiating individual outbreak strains/clones. Of particular note, the present MLST scheme provided better discrimination of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis strains than pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This method showed high epidemiologic concordance for all serovars screened except for Salmonella serovar Muenchen. In conclusion, the novel MLST scheme described in the present study accurately differentiated outbreak strains/clones of the major serovars of Salmonella, and therefore, it shows promise for subtyping this important food-borne pathogen during investigations of outbreaks.
Project description:The genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Weltevreden strain 2007-60-3289-1 was sequenced. The genome sequence of this fresh-vegetable isolate from Scandinavia will be useful for the elucidation of plant host factors in comparison to other serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica.