Cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in mast cell dependent-neurogenic inflammation induced by electrical stimulation of the rat saphenous nerve.
ABSTRACT: 1. We investigated the role of arachidonic acid metabolism and assessed the participation of mast cells and leukocytes in neurogenic inflammation in rat paw skin. We compared the effect of lipoxygenase (LOX) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors on oedema induced by saphenous nerve stimulation, substance P (SP), and compound 48/80. 2. Intravenous (i.v.) pre-treatment with a dual COX/LOX inhibitor (RWJ 63556), a dual LOX inhibitor/cysteinyl-leukotriene (CysLt) receptor antagonist (Rev 5901), a LOX inhibitor (AA 861), a five-lipoxygenase activating factor (FLAP) inhibitor (MK 886), or a glutathione S-transferase inhibitor (ethacrynic acid) significantly inhibited (40 to 60%) the development of neurogenic oedema, but did not affect cutaneous blood flow. Intradermal (i.d.) injection of LOX inhibitors reduced SP-induced oedema (up to 50% for RWJ 63556 and MK 886), whereas ethacrynic acid had a potentiating effect. 3. Indomethacin and rofecoxib, a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, did not affect neurogenic and SP-induced oedema. Surprisingly, the structurally related COX-2 inhibitors, NS 398 and nimesulide, significantly reduced both neurogenic and SP-induced oedema (70% and 42% for neurogenic oedema, respectively; 49% and 46% for SP-induced oedema, respectively). 4. COX-2 mRNA was undetectable in saphenous nerves and paw skin biopsy samples, before and after saphenous nerve stimulation. 5. A mast cell stabilizer, cromolyn, and a H(1) receptor antagonist, mepyramine, significantly inhibited neurogenic (51% and 43%, respectively) and SP-induced oedema (67% and 63%, respectively). 6. The co-injection of LOX inhibitors and compound 48/80 did not alter the effects of compound 48/80. Conversely, ethacrynic acid had a significant potentiating effect. The pharmacological profile of the effect of COX inhibitors on compound 48/80-induced oedema was similar to that of neurogenic and SP-induced oedema. 7. The polysaccharide, fucoidan (an inhibitor of leukocyte rolling) did not affect neurogenic or SP-induced oedema. 8. Thus, (i) SP-induced leukotriene synthesis is involved in the development of neurogenic oedema in rat paw skin; (ii) this leukotriene-mediated plasma extravasation might be independent of mast cell activation and/or of the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium; (iii) COX did not appear to play a significant role in this process.
Project description:1. Somatostatin (6.11 nmol kg(-1) i.p.) inhibited neurogenic plasma extravasation evoked by 1% mustard oil and non-neurogenic oedema induced by 5% dextran in the rat skin. 2. Cyclic synthetic octapeptide (TT-248 and TT-250) and heptapeptide (TT-232) somatostatin analogues proved to be more effective in reducing neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammatory reactions but octreotide had no influence on either neurogenic or non-neurogenic inflammation. 3. TT-232 administered i.p. or i.v. (1.06 - 42.40 nmol kg(-1)) inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the plasma extravasation evoked by mustard oil in the rat's paw. Neither diclofenac (15.78 - 315.60 micromol kg(-1)) nor the selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam (2.95 - 569.38 micromol kg(-1)) attenuated the mustard oil-induced neurogenic plasma extravasation. 4. TT-232, diclofenac and meloxicam dose-dependently diminished non-neurogenic dextran-oedema of the paw the ED(35) values were 1.73 nmol kg(-1) for TT-232 and 34.37 micromol kg(-1) for diclofenac. 5. TT-232 inhibited in the dose range of 1.06 - 21.21 nmol kg(-1) the bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the skin of the chronically denervated paw. 6. Mustard oil-induced cutaneous plasma extravasation was dose-dependently diminished by s.c. TT-232 1, 2, 4, 6 or 16 h after the treatment. TT-232 (2 x 106, 2 x 212 and 2 x 530 nmol kg(-1) per day s.c. for 18 days) caused dose-dependent inhibition of chronic Freund adjuvant-induced arthritis during the experimental period. 7. TT-232 (200 and 500 nM) inhibited the release of SP, CGRP and somatostatin from the rat isolated trachea induced by electrical field stimulation (40 V, 0.1 ms, 10 Hz, 120 s) or by capsaicin (10(-7) M), but did not influence the basal, non-stimulated peptide release. 8. It is concluded that somatostatin analogues without endocrine functions as TT-232 are promising compounds with a novel site of action for inhibition of non-neurogenic and neurogenic inflammatory processes.
Project description:In this research, we exploited derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]pyridine as dual inhibitors of the key enzymes in eicosanoid biosynthesis, cyclooxygenase (COX, subtypes 1 and 2) and 5-lipoxygensase (5-LOX). Testing these compounds in a rat paw oedema model revealed potency higher than ibuprofen. The most active compounds 7a, 7b, 8b, and 8c were screened against COX-1/2 and 5-LOX enzymes. Compound 7a was the most powerful inhibitor of 5-LOX with IC50 = 0.15 µM, while its p-chloro analogue 7b was more active against COX-2 (IC50 = 7.5 µM). The less desirable target COX-1 was inhibited more potently by 8c with IC50 = 7.7 µM. Surflex docking programme predicted that the more stable anti- conformer of compound (7a) formed a favourable complex with the active site of 5-LOX but not COX-1. This is in contrast to the binding mode of 8c, which resembles the syn-conformer of series 7 and binds favourably to COX-1.
Project description:The COX isoforms (COX-1, COX-2) regulate human gut motility, although their role under pathological conditions remains unclear. This study examines the effects of COX inhibitors on excitatory motility in colonic tissue from patients with diverticular disease (DD).Longitudinal muscle preparations, from patients with DD or uncomplicated cancer (controls), were set up in organ baths and connected to isotonic transducers. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or DFU (COX-2 inhibitor) were assayed on electrically evoked, neurogenic, cholinergic and tachykininergic contractions, or carbachol- and substance P (SP)-induced myogenic contractions. Distribution and expression of COX isoforms in the neuromuscular compartment were assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis.In control preparations, neurogenic cholinergic contractions were enhanced by COX inhibitors, whereas tachykininergic responses were blunted. Carbachol-evoked contractions were increased by indomethacin or SC-560, but not DFU, whereas all inhibitors reduced SP-induced motor responses. In preparations from DD patients, COX inhibitors did not affect electrically evoked cholinergic contractions. Both indomethacin and DFU, but not SC-560, decreased tachykininergic responses. COX inhibitors did not modify carbachol-evoked motor responses, whereas they counteracted SP-induced contractions. COX-1 expression was decreased in myenteric neurons, whereas COX-2 was enhanced in glial cells and smooth muscle.In control colon, COX-1 and COX-2 down-regulate cholinergic motility, whereas both isoforms enhance tachykininergic motor activity. In the presence of DD, there is a loss of modulation by both COX isoforms on the cholinergic system, whereas COX-2 displays an enhanced facilitatory control on tachykininergic contractile activity.
Project description:Thrombin, generated in the circulation during injury, cleaves proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) to stimulate plasma extravasation and granulocyte infiltration. However, the mechanism of thrombin-induced inflammation in intact tissues is unknown. We hypothesized that thrombin cleaves PAR1 on sensory nerves to release substance P (SP), which interacts with the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) on endothelial cells to cause plasma extravasation. PAR1 was detected in small diameter neurons known to contain SP in rat dorsal root ganglia by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Thrombin and the PAR1 agonist TFLLR-NH(2) (TF-NH(2)) increased [Ca(2+)](i) >50% of cultured neurons (EC(50)s 24 mu ml(-1) and 1.9 microM, respectively), assessed using Fura-2 AM. The PAR1 agonist completely desensitized responses to thrombin, indicating that thrombin stimulates neurons through PAR1. Injection of TF-NH(2) into the rat paw stimulated a marked and sustained oedema. An NK1R antagonist and ablation of sensory nerves with capsaicin inhibited oedema by 44% at 1 h and completely by 5 h. In wild-type but not PAR1(-/-) mice, TF-NH(2) stimulated Evans blue extravasation in the bladder, oesophagus, stomach, intestine and pancreas by 2 - 8 fold. Extravasation in the bladder, oesophagus and stomach was abolished by an NK1R antagonist. Thus, thrombin cleaves PAR1 on primary spinal afferent neurons to release SP, which activates the NK1R on endothelial cells to stimulate gap formation, extravasation of plasma proteins, and oedema. In intact tissues, neurogenic mechanisms are predominantly responsible for PAR1-induced oedema.
Project description:Substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) released from capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves induce local neurogenic inflammation; somatostatin exerts systemic anti-inflammatory actions presumably via sst4/sst1 receptors. This study investigates the effects of a high affinity, sst4-selective, synthetic agonist, J-2156, on sensory neuropeptide release in vitro and inflammatory processes in vivo.Electrically-induced SP, CGRP and somatostatin release from isolated rat tracheae was measured with radioimmunoassay. Mustard oil-induced neurogenic inflammation in rat hindpaw skin was determined by Evans blue leakage and in the mouse ear with micrometry. Dextran-, carrageenan- or bradykinin-induced non-neurogenic inflammation was examined with plethysmometry or Evans blue, respectively. Adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis was assessed by plethysmometry and histological scoring. Granulocyte accumulation was determined with myeloperoxidase assay and IL-1beta with ELISA.J-2156 (10-2000 nM) diminished electrically-evoked neuropeptide release in a concentration-dependent manner. EC50 for the inhibition of substance P, CGRP and somatostatin release were 11.6 nM, 14.3 nM and 110.7 nM, respectively. J-2156 (1-100 microg kg(-1) i.p.) significantly, but not dose-dependently, inhibited neurogenic and non-neurogenic acute inflammatory processes and adjuvant-induced chronic oedema and arthritic changes. Endotoxin-evoked myeloperoxidase activity and IL-1beta production in the lung, but not IL-1beta- or zymosan-induced leukocyte accumulation in the skin were significantly diminished by J-2156.J-2156 acting on sst4 receptors inhibits neuropeptide release, vascular components of acute inflammatory processes, endotoxin-induced granulocyte accumulation and IL-1beta synthesis in the lung and synovial and inflammatory cells in chronic arthritis. Therefore it might be a promising lead for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs.
Project description:Fatty acid metabolism impacts multiple intracellular signaling pathways in many cell types, but its role in prostate cancer cells is still unclear. Our previous studies have shown that the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by a syndecan-1 (SDC-1)-dependent mechanism. Here, we examined the contribution of lipoxygenase (LOX)- and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated DHA metabolism to this effect. Pan-LOX inhibitor (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), 15-LOX inhibitor (luteolin) or 15/12-LOX inhibitor (baicalein) blocked the induced effect of DHA on SDC-1 expression and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells, whereas 5-LOX inhibitor, AA861, was ineffective. Human prostate cancer cells lines (PC3, LNCaP and DU145 cells) expressed two 15-LOX isoforms, 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2, with higher 15-LOX-1 and lower 15-LOX-2 expressions compared with human epithelial prostate cells. Knockdown of 15-LOX-1 blocked the effect of DHA on SDC-1 expression and caspase-3 activity, whereas silencing 15-LOX-2, 5-LOX, COX-1, COX-2 or 12-LOX had no effect. Moreover, the ability of DHA to inhibit the activity of the PDK/Akt (T308) signaling pathway was abrogated by silencing 15-LOX-1. These findings demonstrate that 15-LOX-1-mediated metabolism of DHA is required for it to upregulate SDC-1 and trigger the signaling pathway that elicits apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Adequate platelet reactivity is required for maintaining hemostasis. However, excessive platelet reactivity can also lead to the formation of occlusive thrombi. Platelet 12(S)-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), an oxygenase highly expressed in the platelet, has been demonstrated to regulate platelet function and thrombosis ex vivo, supporting a key role for 12-LOX in the regulation of in vivo thrombosis. However, the ability to pharmacologically target 12-LOX in vivo has not been established to date. Here, we studied the effect of the first highly selective 12-LOX inhibitor, ML355, on in vivo thrombosis and hemostasis. APPROACH AND RESULTS:ML355 dose-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation and 12-LOX oxylipin production, as confirmed by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the antiplatelet effects of ML355 were reversed after exposure to high concentrations of thrombin in vitro. Ex vivo flow chamber assays confirmed that human platelet adhesion and thrombus formation at arterial shear over collagen were attenuated in whole blood treated with ML355 comparable to aspirin. Oral administration of ML355 in mice showed reasonable plasma drug levels by pharmacokinetic assessment. ML355 treatment impaired thrombus growth and vessel occlusion in FeCl3-induced mesenteric and laser-induced cremaster arteriole thrombosis models in mice. Importantly, hemostatic plug formation and bleeding after treatment with ML355 was minimal in mice in response to laser ablation on the saphenous vein or in a cremaster microvasculature laser-induced rupture model. CONCLUSIONS:Our data strongly support 12-LOX as a key determinant of platelet reactivity in vivo, and inhibition of platelet 12-LOX with ML355 may represent a new class of antiplatelet therapy.
Project description:Recently, a number of reports have shown that neurogenic inflammation may play a role in the secondary injury response following acute injury to the CNS, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. In particular substance P (SP) release appears to be critically involved. Specifically, the expression of the neuropeptide SP is increased in acute CNS injury, with the magnitude of SP release being related to both the frequency and magnitude of the insult. SP release is associated with an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability and the development of vasogenic oedema as well as neuronal injury and worse functional outcome. Moreover, inhibiting the actions of SP through use of a NK1 receptor antagonist is highly beneficial in both focal and diffuse models of TBI, as well as in ischaemic stroke, with a therapeutic window of up to 12?h. We propose that NK1 receptor antagonists represent a novel therapeutic option for treatment of neurogenic inflammation following acute CNS injury.
Project description:Lipid molecules play an important role in regulating the sensitivity of sensory neurons and enhancing pain perception, and growing evidence indicates that the effect occurs both at the site of injury and in the spinal cord. Using high-throughput mass spectrometry methodology, we sought to determine the contribution of spinal bioactive lipid species to inflammation-induced hyperalgesia in rats. Quantitative analysis of CSF and spinal cord tissue for eicosanoids, ethanolamides and fatty acids revealed the presence of 102 distinct lipid species. After induction of peripheral inflammation by intra-plantar injection of carrageenan to the ipsilateral hind paw, lipid changes in cyclooxygenase (COX) and 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) signaling pathways peaked at 4 h in the CSF. In contrast, changes occurred in a temporally disparate manner in the spinal cord with LOX-derived hepoxilins followed by COX-derived prostaglandin E(2), and subsequently the ethanolamine anandamide. Systemic treatment with the mu opioid agonist morphine, the COX inhibitor ketorolac, or the LOX inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid significantly reduced tactile allodynia, while their effects on the lipid metabolites were different. Morphine did not alter the lipid profile in the presence or absence of carrageenan inflammation. Ketorolac caused a global reduction in eicosanoid metabolism in naïve animals that remained suppressed following injection of carrageenan. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid-treated animals also displayed reduced basal levels of COX and 12-LOX metabolites, but only 12-LOX metabolites remained decreased after carrageenan treatment. These findings suggest that both COX and 12-LOX play an important role in the induction of carrageenan-mediated hyperalgesia through these pathways.
Project description:Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases are proinflammatory enzymes; the former affects platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation and later the development of atherosclerosis. Red wines from Georgia and central and western Europe inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) activity in the range of 63-94%, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in the range of 20-44% (tested at a concentration of 5 mL/L), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity in the range of 72-84% (at a concentration of 18.87 mL/L). White wines inhibited 5-LOX in the range of 41-68% at a concentration of 18.87 mL/L and did not inhibit COX-1 and COX-2. Piceatannol (IC50 = 0.76 ?M) was identified as a strong inhibitor of 5-LOX followed by luteolin (IC50 = 2.25 ?M), quercetin (IC50 = 3.29 ?M), and myricetin (IC50 = 4.02 ?M). trans-Resveratrol was identified as an inhibitor of COX-1 (IC50 = 2.27 ?M) and COX-2 (IC50 = 3.40 ?M). Red wine as a complex mixture is a powerful inhibitor of COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX, the enzymes involved in eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway.