Protective effect of propranolol on mitochondrial function in the ischaemic heart.
ABSTRACT: 1. The present study was aimed to determine whether propranolol improves contractile function of the ischaemic/reperfused heart through protection of the mitochondrial function during ischaemia. 2. Isolated perfused rat hearts were subjected to 35-min ischaemia followed by 60-min reperfusion. Pre-treatment with propranolol at the concentrations of 10 to 100 microM for the final 3 min of pre-ischaemia resulted in the improvement of ischaemia/reperfusion-induced contractile dysfunction, release of creatine kinase (CK) into perfusate, and decrease in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Propranolol also attenuated ischaemia-induced accumulation in Na+, suggesting that cytosolic sodium overload during ischaemia was prevented by propranolol. 3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of skinned bundles from the perfused heart decreased at the end of ischaemia and it further decreased at the end of reperfusion. These decreases were cancelled by treatment with propranolol. A release of cytochrome c from the perfused heart was observed during ischaemia, and this release was suppressed by treatment with propranolol. 4. To elucidate the direct effect of propranolol on mitochondria, the mitochondria were isolated from normal hearts and their activities were determined in the presence of various concentrations of Na+ and propranolol. The addition of sodium lactate, which mimicked sodium overload in the ischaemic heart, reduced the state 3 respiration, whereas this reduction was not attenuated by the presence of propranolol. 5. These results suggest that cardioprotection of propranolol may be exerted via attenuating Na+ influx into cardiac cells followed by prevention of the mitochondrial dysfunction in the ischaemic heart, leading to improvement of energy production of the heart during reperfusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) inhibitors are known to attenuate myocardial reperfusion injury. However, the exact mechanisms for the cardioprotection remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying the cardioprotection by NCX inhibitors against ischaemia/reperfusion injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Isolated rat hearts were subjected to 35-min ischaemia/60-min reperfusion or 20-min ischaemia/60-min reperfusion. NCX inhibitors (3-30 microM KB-R7943 (KBR) or 0.3-1 microM SEA0400 (SEA)) were given for 5 min prior to ischaemia (pre-ischaemic treatment) or for 10 min after the onset of reperfusion (post-ischaemic treatment). KEY RESULTS: With 35-min ischaemia/60-min reperfusion, pre- or post-ischaemic treatment with KBR or SEA neither enhanced post-ischaemic contractile recovery nor attenuated ischaemia- or reperfusion-induced Na+ accumulation and damage to mitochondrial respiratory function. With the milder model (20-min ischaemia/reperfusion), pre- or post-ischaemic treatment with 10 microM KBR or 1 microM SEA significantly enhanced the post-ischaemic contractile recovery, associated with reductions in reperfusion-induced Ca2+ accumulation, damage to mitochondrial function, and decrease in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, Na+ influx to mitochondria in vitro was enhanced by increased concentrations of NaCl. KBR (10 microM) and 1 microM SEA partially decreased the Na+ influx. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The NCX inhibitors exerted cardioprotective effects during relatively mild ischaemia. The mechanism may be attributable to prevention of mitochondrial damage, possibly mediated by attenuation of Na+ overload in cardiac mitochondria during ischaemia and/or Ca2+ overload via the reverse mode of NCX during reperfusion.
Project description:1. Phosphorus-nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements were made on perfused rat hearts at 37 degrees C. 2. With the improved sensitivity obtained by using a wide-bore 4.3 T superconducting magnet, spectra could be recorded in 1 min. 3. The concentrations of ATP, phosphocreatine and Pi and, from the position of the Pi resonance, the intracellular pH (pHi) were measured under a variety of conditions. 4. In a normal perfused heart pHi = 7.05 +/- 0.02 (mean +/- S.E.M. for seven hearts). 5. During global ischaemia pHi drops to 6.2 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- S.E.M.) in 13 min in a pseudoexponential decay with a rate constant of 0.25 min-1. 6. The relation between glycogen content and acidosis in ischaemia is studied in glycogen-depleted hearts. 7. Perfusion of hearts with a buffer containing 100 mM-Hepes before ischaemia gives a significant protective effect on the ischaemic myocardium. Intracellular pH and ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations decline more slowly under these conditions and metabolic recovery is observed on reperfusion after 30min of ischaemia at 37 degrees C. 8. The relation between acidosis and the export of protons is discussed and the significance of glycogenolysis in ischaemic acid production is evaluated.
Project description:Myocardial stunning is a contractile dysfunction that occurs after a brief ischaemic insult. Substantial evidence supports that this dysfunction is triggered by Ca2+ overload during reperfusion. The aim of the present manuscript is to define the origin of this Ca2+ increase in the intact heart.To address this issue, Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts positioned on a pulsed local field fluorescence microscope and loaded with fluorescent dyes Rhod-2, Mag-fluo-4, and Di-8-ANEPPS, to assess cytosolic Ca2+, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+, and transmembrane action potentials (AP), respectively, in the epicardial layer of the hearts, were submitted to 12 min of global ischaemia followed by reperfusion. Ischaemia increased cytosolic Ca2+ in association with a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ transients and a depression of Ca2+ transient kinetics, i.e. the rise time and decay time constant of Ca2+ transients were significantly prolonged. Reperfusion produced a transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ (Ca2+ bump), which was temporally associated with a decrease in SR-Ca2+ content, as a mirror-like image. Caffeine pulses (20 mM) confirmed that SR-Ca2+ content was greatly diminished at the onset of reflow. The SR-Ca2+ decrease was associated with a decrease in Ca2+ transient amplitude and a shortening of AP duration mainly due to a decrease in phase 2.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which SR-Ca2+ transients are recorded in the intact heart, revealing a previously unknown participation of SR on cytosolic Ca2+ overload upon reperfusion in the intact beating heart. Additionally, the associated shortening of phase 2 of the AP may provide a clue to explain early reperfusion arrhythmias.
Project description:Growth factors and various cellular stresses are known to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which plays a role in conveying signals from the cytosol to the nucleus. The phosphorylation of MAP kinase is thought to be a prerequisite for translocation. Here, we investigate the translocation and activation of MAP kinase during ischaemia and reperfusion in perfused rat heart. Ischaemia (0-40 min) induces the translocation of MAP kinase from the cytosol fraction to the nuclear fraction. Immunohistochemical observation shows that MAP kinase staining in the nucleus is enhanced after ischaemia for 40 min. Unexpectedly, tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase is unchanged in the nuclear fraction during ischaemia, indicating that unphosphorylated MAP kinase translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus. During reperfusion (0-30 min), after ischaemia for 20 min, tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase in the nuclear fraction is increased with a peak at 10 min of reperfusion. The activation is confirmed by MAP kinase activity with similar kinetics to the tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the amount of MAP kinase in the fraction is almost constant during reperfusion for 10 min. Although an upstream kinase for MAP kinase, MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-1, remains in the cytosol throughout ischaemia and reperfusion, MEK-2, another upstream kinase for MAP kinase, is constantly present in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm, based on analyses by fractionation and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, MEK-2 activity in the nuclear fraction is rapidly increased during post-ischaemic reperfusion. These findings demonstrate that nuclear MAP kinase is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation during reperfusion, probably by MEK-2.
Project description:Extrahepatic tissues which oxidise ketone bodies also have the capacity to accumulate them under particular conditions. We hypothesised that acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) accumulation and altered redox status during low-flow ischaemia would support ketone body production in the heart. Combining a Langendorff heart model of low-flow ischaemia/reperfusion with liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we show that β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) accumulated in the ischaemic heart to 23.9 nmol/gww and was secreted into the coronary effluent. Sodium oxamate, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibitor, increased ischaemic β-OHB levels 5.3-fold and slowed contractile recovery. Inhibition of β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase (HMGCS2) with hymeglusin lowered ischaemic β-OHB accumulation by 40%, despite increased flux through succinyl-CoA-3-oxaloacid CoA transferase (SCOT), resulting in greater contractile recovery. Hymeglusin also protected cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity during ischaemia/reperfusion. In conclusion, net ketone generation occurs in the heart under conditions of low-flow ischaemia. The process is driven by flux through both HMGCS2 and SCOT, and impacts on cardiac functional recovery from ischaemia/reperfusion.
Project description:Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury can be significantly reduced by an episode(s) of ischaemia-reperfusion applied prior to or during myocardial ischaemia (MI) to peripheral tissue located at a distance from the heart; this phenomenon is called remote ischaemic conditioning (RIc). Here, we compared the efficacy of RIc in protecting the heart when the RIc stimulus is applied prior to, during and at different time points after MI. A rat model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury involved 30 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Remote ischaemic conditioning was induced by 15 min occlusion of femoral arteries and conferred a similar degree of cardioprotection when applied 25 min prior to MI, 10 or 25 min after the onset of MI, or starting 10 min after the onset of reperfusion. These RIc stimuli reduced infarct size by 54, 56, 56 and 48% (all P < 0.001), respectively. Remote ischaemic conditioning applied 30 min into the reperfusion period was ineffective. Activation of sensory nerves by application of capsaicin was effective in establishing cardioprotection only when elicited prior to MI. Vagotomy or denervation of the peripheral ischaemic tissue both completely abolished cardioprotection induced by RIc applied prior to MI. Cardioprotection conferred by delayed remote postconditioning was not affected by either vagotomy or peripheral denervation. These results indicate that RIc confers potent cardioprotection even if applied with a significant delay after the onset of myocardial reperfusion. Cardioprotection by remote preconditioning is critically dependent on afferent innervation of the remote organ and intact parasympathetic activity, while delayed remote postconditioning appears to rely on a different signalling pathway(s).
Project description:1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are under study in ischaemic heart diseases, their mechanism of action being still unknown. 2. The anti-ischaemic effect of trandolapril and the possible involvement of a bradykinin-modulation on endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in exerting this effect, were investigated. 3. Three doses of trandolapril, chronically administered in vivo, were studied in isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to global ischaemia followed by reperfusion. 4. Trandolapril has an anti-ischaemic effect. The dose of 0.3 mg kg(-1) exerted the best effect reducing diastolic pressure increase during ischaemia (from 33.0+/-4.5 to 14.0+/-5.2 mmHg; P<0.05 vs control) and reperfusion (from 86.1+/-9.4 to 22.2+/-4.1 mmHg; P<0.01 vs control), improving functional recovery, counteracting creatine phosphokinase release and ameliorating energy metabolism after reperfusion. 5. Trandolapril down-regulated the baseline developed pressure. 6. Trandolapril increased myocardial bradykinin content (from 31.8+/-6.1 to 54.8+/-7.5 fmol/gww; P<0.05, at baseline) and eNOS expression and activity in aortic endothelium (both P<0.01 vs control) and in cardiac myocytes (from 11.3+/-1.5 to 17.0+/-2.0 mUOD microg protein(-1) and from 0.62+/-0.05 to 0.80+/-0.06 pmol mg prot(-1) min(-1); both P<0.05 vs control). 7. HOE 140 (a bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist) and NOS inhibitors counteracted the above-reported effects. 8. There was a negative correlation between myocyte's eNOS up-regulation and myocardial contraction down-regulation. 9. Our findings suggest that the down-regulation exerted by trandolapril on baseline cardiac contractility, through a bradykinin-mediated increase in NO production, plays a crucial role in the anti-ischaemic effect of trandolapril by reducing energy breakdown during ischaemia.
Project description:Acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion (I-R) are major causes of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with a history of coronary artery disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has previously been shown to be antiarrhythmic in fetal hearts. This study was performed to investigate if UDCA protects against ischaemia-induced and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias in the adult myocardium, and compares the effect of acute (perfusion only) versus prolonged (2 weeks pre-treatment plus perfusion) UDCA administration. Langendorff-perfused adult Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were subjected to acute regional ischaemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (10 min), followed by reperfusion (2 min), and arrhythmia incidence quantified. Prolonged UDCA administration reduced the incidence of acute ischaemia-induced arrhythmias (p?=?0.028), with a reduction in number of ventricular ectopic beats during the ischaemic phase compared with acute treatment (10?±?3 vs 58?±?15, p?=?0.036). No antiarrhythmic effect was observed in the acute UDCA administration group. Neither acute nor prolonged UDCA treatment altered the incidence of reperfusion arrhythmias. The antiarrhythmic effect of UDCA may be partially mediated by an increase in cardiac wavelength, due to the attenuation of conduction velocity slowing (p?=?0.03), and the preservation of Connexin43 phosphorylation during acute ischaemia (p?=?0.0027). The potential antiarrhythmic effects of prolonged UDCA administration merit further investigation.
Project description:1. The yield of mitochondria isolated from perfused hearts subjected to 30 min ischaemia followed by 15 min reperfusion was significantly less than that for control hearts, and this was associated with a decrease in the rates of ADP-stimulated respiration. 2. The presence of 0.2 microM cyclosporin A (CsA) in the perfusion medium during ischaemia and reperfusion caused mitochondrial recovery to return to control values, but did not reverse the inhibition of respiration. 3. A technique has been devised to investigate whether the Ca(2+)-induced non-specific pore of the mitochondrial inner membrane opens during ischaemia and/or reperfusion of the isolated rat heart. The protocol involved loading the heart with 2-deoxy[3H]glucose ([3H]DOG), which will only enter mitochondria when the pore opens. Subsequent isolation of mitochondria demonstrated that [3H]DOG did not enter mitochondria during global isothermic ischaemia, but did enter during the reperfusion period. 4. The amount of [3H]DOG that entered mitochondria increased with the time of ischaemia, and reached a maximal value after 30-40 min of ischaemia. 5. CsA at 0.2 microM did not prevent [3H]DOG becoming associated with the mitochondria, but rather increased it; this was despite CsA having a protective effect on heart function similar to that shown previously [Griffiths and Halestrap (1993) J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 25, 1461-1469]. 6. The non-immunosuppressive CsA analogue [MeAla6]cyclosporin was shown to have a similar Ki to CsA on purified mitochondrial peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans-isomerase and mitochondrial pore opening, and also to have a similar protective effect against reperfusion injury. 7. Using isolated heart mitochondria, it was demonstrated that pore opening could become CsA-insensitive under conditions of adenine nucleotide depletion and high matrix [Ca2+] such as may occur during the initial phase of reperfusion. The apparent increase in mitochondrial [3H]DOG in the CsA-perfused hearts is explained by the ability of the drug to stabilize pore closure and so decrease the loss of [3H]DOG from the mitochondria during their preparation.
Project description:This commentary on the review by DA Saint in the current issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology focuses on the pathological role of late I(Na) in the heart, the evidence supporting inhibition of late I(Na) as a therapeutic target in ischaemic heart disease, and the therapeutic applications and challenges for development of new late I(Na) inhibitors. Recent reports from a large clinical outcome trial (MERLIN) of ranolazine, a drug known to inhibit late I(Na), indicated that it was safe and reduced recurrent ischaemia and arrhythmic activity. In combination with other results indicating that inhibition of late I(Na) reduces ischaemia, myocardial Ca(2+) overload, and electrical and mechanical dysfunction when late I(Na) is increased, the new clinical trial results suggest that reduction of cardiac late I(Na) is safe and therapeutically beneficial.