ABSTRACT: 1. Transcriptional control of the human beta(2) adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) predominantly resides within a 549 base pair region immediately 5' to the start of translation. Within this region, four naturally occurring polymorphisms, -468 C-->G, -367 T-->C, -47 T-->C, and -20 T-->C, have been identified. 2. To determine the individual site and haplotype effects of these polymorphisms, we generated 16 luciferase-based mutant constructs which were transiently transfected into HEK293 cells, and measured ADRB2 promoter-driven luciferase activity. 3. Two of the 16 mutant constructs, GCCT (-468G, -367C, -47C, -20T) and CTCT, showed a highly significant 3 fold decrease in luciferase induction relative to the reference CTTT. These haplotype effects could not be accounted for by the separate and additive effects of each site. 4. These findings indicate that promoter polymorphisms interact to significantly alter beta(2) adrenergic receptor expression, and should be examined further for their association with disease-related phenotypes.
Project description:By screening the 1470 bp 5' to the start codon of the human beta2 adrenergic receptor gene, we have identified a total of eight polymorphisms (-20 T-->C, -47 T-->C, -367 T-->C, -468 C-->G, -654 G-->A, -1023 G-->A, -1343 A-->G and -1429 T-->A c.f. beta2 adrenergic receptor start codon). Transient transfection of 5' flanking deletion luciferase reporter constructs demonstrated the majority of activity of the human beta2 adrenergic gene 5' flanking region to be present within a 549 bp fragment immediately upstream from the start codon. Because of linkage disequilibrium, some combinations of polymorphisms were particularly frequent. We transiently transfected COS-7 cells with luciferase constructs under the control of the 549 bp of 5' flanking DNA containing the two most frequent extended haplotypes in this region. Luciferase activity was significantly reduced in cells transfected with the 'mutant' construct (-20C, -47C, -367C, -468G) c.f. the 'wild-type' construct (-20T, -47T, -367T, -468C). These data suggest that polymorphisms have the potential to alter human beta2 adrenergic receptor gene expression.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have suggested that ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is associated with COPD. However, the role of genetic polymorphisms in ADRB2 on COPD has not been evaluated yet. Methods:In this study, SNaPshot genotyping, luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction were adopted to investigate the association between ADRB2 genetic polymorphisms and COPD, comprehensively. Results:One single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12654778), located upstream of ADRB2, showed a significant association with COPD by the logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex and smoking history (p=0.04) in 200 COPD patients and 222 controls from southwest Chinese population. Furthermore, the luciferase assay indicated that rs12654778-A allele reduced the relative promoter activity by ~26% compared with rs12654778-G allele (p=0.0034). The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that rs12654778 modulated the binding affinity of transcription factor neurofibromin 1. In addition, a significantly reduced expression of ADRB2 in COPD patients was observed, compared with normal controls (p=0.017). Conclusion:Our findings suggest a previously unknown mechanism linking allele-specific effects of rs12654778 on ADRB2 expression to COPD onset, for the first time.
Project description:The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta-2 AR) modulates metabolic processes in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue in response to catecholamine stimulation. We showed previously that expression of the porcine beta-2 AR gene (ADRB2) is affected by cis-regulatory polymorphisms. These are most likely responsible for the association of ADRB2 with economically relevant muscle-related traits in pigs. The present study focused on characterization of promoter elements involved in basal transcriptional regulation of the porcine ADRB2 in different cell types to aid identification of its cis-regulatory polymorphisms. Based on in silico analysis, luciferase reporter gene assays and gel shift assays were performed using COS-7, HepG2, C2C12, and 3T3-L1 cells. Deletion mapping of the 5´ flanking region (-1324 to +33) of ADRB2 revealed the region between -307 and -269 to be the minimal promoter, including regulatory elements essential for the basal transcriptional activity in all four tested cell types. Directly upstream (-400 to -323) we identified an important enhancer element required for maximal promoter activity. In silico analysis and gel shift assays revealed that this GC-rich element harbors two evolutionarily conserved binding sites of Sp1, a constitutive transcriptional activator. Significant transcriptional activation of the porcine ADRB2 promoter was demonstrated by overexpression of Sp1. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, an important role of Sp1 and of the responsive enhancer element in the regulation of ADRB2 expression. Polymorphisms located in this domain of the porcine ADRB2 promoter represent candidate causal cis-regulatory variants.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers including breast carcinomas. In this study, we show that HIC1 is a direct transcriptional repressor of ?-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2). Through promoter luciferase activity, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequential ChIP experiments, we demonstrate that ADRB2 is a direct target gene of HIC1, endogenously in WI-38 cells and following HIC1 re-expression in breast cancer cells. Agonist-mediated stimulation of ADRB2 increases the migration and invasion of highly malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but these effects are abolished following HIC1 re-expression or specific down-regulation of ADRB2 by siRNA treatment. Our results suggest that early inactivation of HIC1 in breast carcinomas could predispose to stress-induced metastasis through up-regulation of the ?-2 adrenergic receptor.
Project description:We investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of the proapoptotic ?-2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) influence treatment-induced changes in ADRB2 expression in leukemia cells and response to chemotherapy. The ADRB2 promoter region was genotyped in germline DNA from 369 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). For 95 of the patients, sufficient RNA was available before and after in vivo treatment to assess treatment-induced gene expression changes in ALL cells. After treatment, the median ADRB2 mRNA expression was ninefold lower in leukemia cells of patients who ultimately relapsed as compared with patients who remained in continuous complete remission (CCR). Polymorphisms in the ADRB2 promoter were significantly linked to methotrexate (MTX)-induced upregulation in ADRB2 gene expression in ALL cells. Moreover, the ADRB2 promoter haplotype was significantly related to early treatment response in 245 children with ALL who received uniform treatment. We conclude that germline polymorphisms in ADRB2 are linked to the antileukemic effects of ALL chemotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study aims to compare the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphisms of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) with those of healthy control subjects, and to investigate the possible relationship between symptoms of FMS and polymorphisms of the ADRB2 gene.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>The study included 170 females (mean age 47.8±10.3 years; range, 21 to 75 years) diagnosed with FMS according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology criteria and 170 healthy females (mean age 47.2±8.8 years; range, 20 to 72 years) as the control group. Several clinical symptoms of the participants related to FMS were questioned and recorded. The visual analog scale (VAS) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) scores of the fibromyalgia group were recorded. In both groups, the ADRB2 (rs1042717) single-nucleotide polymorphism was detected by way of a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The wild-type (Guanine/Guanine), the mutant type (Adenine/Adenine) and heterozygous type (Adenine/Guanine) were detected. The sample power was calculated considering the minor allele frequency.<h4>Results</h4>The comparison of the ADRB2 gene polymorphism between patients with FMS and the control subjects showed that the groups were similar in terms of ADBR2 gene polymorphism and genotype (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in terms of genotype when the ADRB2 gene polymorphisms in patients with FMS were compared in terms of clinical symptoms, VAS and FIQ scores (p>0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Beta-2 adrenergic receptor (rs1042717) gene polymorphisms and genotype distribution are no different between patients with FMS and healthy individuals. ADRB2 gene polymorphisms in patients with FMS have no effect on clinical symptoms and VAS and FIQ scores. The results of the present study will light the way for future research into ADRB2 gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of FMS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Asthma is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The ADRB2 gene, which encodes the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, is one of the most extensively studied genes with respect to asthma prevalence and severity. The Arg16Gly (+46A?>?G) and Gln27Glu (+79C?>?G) polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene cause changes in the amino acids flanking the receptor ligand site, altering the response to bronchodilators and the risk of asthma through complex pathways. The ADRB2 polymorphisms affect beta-adrenergic bronchodilator action and are a tool to identify at-risk populations. OBJECTIVE:To determine the frequency of these two polymorphisms in allergic asthma patients and healthy subjects and to correlate these data with the occurrence and severity of asthma. METHODS:Eighty-eight allergic asthma patients and 141 healthy subjects were included in this study. The ADRB2 polymorphisms were analyzed using the amplification-refractory mutation system - polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 21.0 software using the Fisher's Exact and ?2 tests. RESULTS:The ADRB2 polymorphisms were associated with asthma occurrence. The Arg16Arg, Gln27Gln and Gln27Glu genotypes were risk factors; the odds ratios were 6.782 (CI?=?3.07 to 16.03), 2.120 (CI?=?1.22 to 3.71) and 8.096 (CI?=?3.90 to 17.77), respectively. For the Gly16Gly and Glu27Glu genotypes, the odds ratios were 0.312 (CI?=?0.17 to 0.56) and 0.084 (CI?=?0.04 to 0.17), respectively. The haplotype analysis showed that there were associations between the following groups: Arg16Arg-Gln27Gln (OR?=?5.108, CI?=?1.82 to 16.37), Gly16Gly-Glu27Glu (OR?=?2.816, CI?=?1.25 to 6.54), Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR?=?0.048, CI?=?0.01 to 0.14) and Gly16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR?=?0.1036, CI?=?0.02 to 0.39). The polymorphism Gln27Glu was associated with asthma severity, as the Gln27Gln genotype was a risk factor for severe asthma (OR?=?2.798, CI?=?1.099 to 6.674) and the Gln27Glu genotype was a protective factor for mild (OR?=?3.063, CI?=?1.037 to 9.041) and severe (OR?=?0.182, CI?=?0.048 to 0.691) asthma. CONCLUSIONS:The Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene are associated with asthma presence and severity.
Project description:Obesity is a growing health concern in the Oceanic populations. To investigate the genetic factors associated with adult obesity in the Oceanic populations, the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with obesity was examined in 694 adults living in Tonga and Solomon Islands.A screening for variation in 16 Oceanic subjects detected 17 SNPs in the entire region of ADRB2, of which nine SNPs including two non-synonymous ones, rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu), were further genotyped for all subjects. The rs34623097-A allele, at a SNP located upstream of ADRB2, showed the strongest association with risk for obesity in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and population (P=5.6 × 10(-4), odds ratio [OR]=2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.5-4.2). The 27Glu was also significantly associated with obesity in the single-point association analysis (P=0.013, OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.2-3.4); however, this association was no longer significant after adjustment for rs34623097 since these SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. A copy of the obesity-risk allele, rs34623097-A, led to a 1.6?kg/m(2) increase in body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) (P=0.0019). A luciferase reporter assay indicated that rs34623097-A reduced the transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter gene by approximately 10% compared with rs34623097-G. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that rs34623097 modulated the binding affinity with nuclear factors. An evolutionary analysis implies that a G>A mutation at rs34623097 occurred in the Neandertal genome and then the rs34623097-A allele flowed into the ancestors of present-day humans.The present results suggest that rs34623097-A, which would lead to lower expression of ADRB2, contributes to the onset of obesity in the Oceanic populations.
Project description:Plasma levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) are associated with risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hypertension. Limited data exist on whether there is genetic covariance between plasma levels of GGT and NAFLD risk factors. Variants of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) have been associated with dyslipidemia, IR, and hypertension, but its effect on GGT secretion is not known. We estimated the heritability of GGT using a twin-study design and examined the genetic covariance between GGT levels, IR, hypertension, levels of low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides, and ADRB2 variants.We studied phenotypes of 362 twins; the heritabilities of increased GGT activity and genetic covariance with NAFLD risk factors were estimated by variance-component methodology. ADRB2 genotype associations with plasma GGT activity were examined using generalized estimating equations to account for intra-twinship correlations.GGT activity was heritable at 49% +/- 8% of the twin cohort and had significant covariance with IR; insulin, triglyceride, and uric acid levels; and diastolic blood pressure. In generalized estimating equation models, the most common haplotype of ADRB2 was significantly associated with plasma GGT activity. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADRB2 were associated with levels of GGT; ADRB2 haplotypes displayed pleiotropic effects on GGT and triglyceride levels.In a twin study, GGT shared genetic codetermination with traits of metabolic syndrome. The ADRB2 gene had pleiotropic effects on plasma levels of GGT and triglycerides, indicating linked pathways (eg, adrenergic) between genetic susceptibility to NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.
Project description:AIMS:?-Adrenergic receptors (ADRBs) play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. Recently, genetic polymorphisms of ADRB1 and ADRB2 have been suggested to be associated with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, but the results of relevant studies are inconsistent and controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between ADRB1 and ADRB2 polymorphisms with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in CAD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases were searched for eligible studies published before April 2018. A total of 5495 patients from eight studies were included in our meta-analysis. RESULTS:We found that CAD patients harboring the ADRB2 rs1042714 Glu27 allele exhibited a positive association with cardiovascular events (risk ratio [RR]?=?1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.58, p?=?0.006), but not with all-cause mortality (RR?=?0.97, 95% CI: 0.70-1.35, p?=?0.859), compared with patients who were Gln27 homozygotes. No other significant associations were observed between ADRB1 (rs1801252, rs1801253), ADRB2 (rs1042713, rs1800888) polymorphisms and cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality in CAD patients. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that the identified ADRB2 polymorphism could influence the outcomes of CAD patients, showing important clinical value.