Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand.
ABSTRACT: Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bangkok plays a central role in the commerce of Thailand. This study aimed to characterize the district-level spatial-temporal patterns of dengue in Thailand and explore if a dengue peak in Bangkok led the peaks of dengue in other Thai provinces. METHODS:Monthly dengue data at district level in Thailand from January 2004 to December 2017 were obtained and used to assess the spatial and seasonal patterns of dengue in Thailand. As our seasonal decomposition and cross-correlation analyses showed that dengue in Bangkok peaked in November, which was a few months after the dengue peak in most other provinces, we used a time-series generalized linear model to explore if there was another province in which the dengue case number was most predictive of dengue case numbers in other Thai provinces. RESULTS:The highest district-level annual dengue incidence rates (per 10,000) in the three time periods (i.e. 2004-2008, 2009-2013 and 2014-2017) were 58.08 (Samphanthawong), 85.93 (Mueang Krabi), and 66.60 (Mae Sariang), respectively. Dengue incidence rates in the western part of Northern Thailand, southern part of Central Thailand, southern part of Eastern Thailand, and Southern Thailand were higher than in other regions. Dengue in most districts of Thailand peaked in June, July or August, but dengue peaks in all districts of Bangkok occurred in November. The number of dengue cases in Nakhon Ratchasima was most predictive of the number of dengue cases in other provinces in Thailand by a one-month lag. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the dengue peak in Bangkok did not lead the peaks of dengue in other Thai provinces. Future research exploring how changes in socio-ecological factors (e.g. road network and climate factors) in Nakhon Ratchasima have affected the transmission of dengue in Thailand might shed some new light on the prevention and control of dengue.
Project description:Phyllodiaptomus (Phyllodiaptomus) roietensissp. nov. was collected from temporary water bodies in Roi Et and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces in northeastern Thailand and Kampong Thom Province in central Cambodia. The new species is closely related to Phyllodiaptomus (P.) surinensis Sanoamuang & Yindee, 2001 in that it shares common morphological characters in the males: urosomites 2-3, P5 intercoxal sclerite, right P5 Exp-2, and left P5 Exp. Minor differences on the right antennule, right caudal ramus, P5 basis and Enp exist. The females differ in their Pdg 5, genital double-somite, and P5. An updated key to the species of the genus Phyllodiaptomus Kiefer, 1936 is provided.
Project description:The beach-hopper and land-hopper genus Floresorchestia Bousfield, 1984 is most widespread in terrestrial and marine littoral habitats and has been recorded from the South African coasts through to tropical Indo-Pacific and Caribbean Sea. In Thailand, there is only Floresorchestia samroiyodensis Azman, Wongkamhaeng & Dumrongrojwattana, 2014 reported from the swamp of Prachuab Kiri Khan, southern Thailand. In this work, two new species of Floresorchestia from Phutsa Reservoir in Nakhon Ratchasima and the man-made swamp in Burapha University are described. The new species are characterised by the mandible left lacinia mobilis 4-dentate; the posterior margin of merus, carpus and propodus covered in palmate setae; the uropod 3 peduncle with two robust setae and the telson longer than broad. The characters of the specimens are described and illustrated in this paper. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
Project description:The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java.
Project description:Sindora stipitata, a new species in the subfamily Detarioideae (Leguminosae), collected from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. The new species is morphologically similar to S. leiocarpa but differs in its smaller stature (3-5 m high), 6-foliolate paripinnate leaves, falcate persistent stipules, presence of a petal auricle, absence of a petal claw, stipitate ovary and capitate stigma. A key to the Thailand and Malesia species of Sindora is provided.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Invasive salmonellosis is a common cause of bloodstream infection in Southeast Asia. Limited epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance data are available from the region. METHODS:Blood cultures performed in all 20 hospitals in the northeastern province of Nakhon Phanom (NP) and eastern province of Sa Kaeo (SK), Thailand were captured in a bloodstream infection surveillance system. Cultures were performed as clinically indicated in hospitalized patients; patients with multiple positive cultures had only the first included. Bottles were incubated using the BacT/Alert system (bioMérieux, Thailand) and isolates were identified using standard microbiological techniques; all Salmonella isolates were classified to at least the serogroup level. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed using disk diffusion. RESULTS:Salmonella was the fifth most common pathogen identified in 147,535 cultures with 525 cases (211 in Nakhon Phanom (NP) and 314 in Sa Kaeo (SK)). The overall adjusted iNTS incidence rate in NP was 4.0 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 3.5-4.5) and in SK 6.4 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 5.7-7.1; p = 0.001). The most common serogroups were C (39.4%), D (35.0%) and B (9.9%). Serogroup D predominated in NP (103/211) with 59.2% of this serogroup being Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. Serogroup C predominated in SK (166/314) with 84.3% of this serogroup being Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis. Antibiotic resistance was 68.2% (343/503) for ampicillin, 1.2% (6/482) for ciprofloxacin (or 58.1% (280/482) if both intermediate and resistant phenotypes are considered), 17.0% (87/512) for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 12.2% (59/484) for third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime or ceftazidime). Multidrug resistance was seen in 99/516 isolates (19.2%). CONCLUSIONS:The NTS isolates causing bloodstream infections in rural Thailand are commonly resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, and TMP-SMX. Observed differences between NP and SK indicate that serogroup distribution and antibiotic resistance may substantially differ throughout Thailand and the region.
Project description:A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25-35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10-13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.
Project description:The elevated levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin 6 (IL6) are supposed to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Frequent high glycemic load (GL) consumption, central obesity, and a lack of physical activity are considered to be T2DM risk factors. This study aimed to determine the difference of these inflammatory markers as well as GL in individuals with versus those without T2DM in rural Thais.A total of 296 participants aged 35-66 living in Sung Noen District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand, were recruited. Blood was collected to evaluate blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers. A Semi-food frequency questionnaire was utilized to assess GL followed by socioeconomic and anthropometric assessment. Statistical analysis was subsequently performed.Elevated CRP and IL6 levels were associated with increased risk of developing T2DM [OR (95% CI): 7.51 (2.11, 26.74) and 4.95 (1.28, 19.11)], respectively. There was a trend towards increased risk of T2DM with elevated TNF-? levels [OR (95% CI): 1.56 (0.39, 6.14)]. GL correlated significantly with fasting blood glucose (r = 0.289, P = 0.016), suggesting that it is involved in T2DM in this study group.In this study, CRP, IL6, and TNF-? associated with T2DM. Our findings suggested that these inflammatory markers, especially CRP, may initiate T2DM.
Project description:The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianaesp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioidessp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similarissp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpigersp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamellasp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoirisp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius varisp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilissp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.
Project description:Ganoderma is a cosmopolitan genus of mushrooms, which can cause root and butt rot diseases on many tree species. Members of this genus are particularly diverse in tropical regions. Some Ganoderma spp. are medicinally active and therefore are used to treat human diseases or as a dietary supplement. In this study, three Ganoderma strains were collected in tropical southern Thailand. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, TEF1? and RPB2 sequence data indicated that the three strains grouped in a distinct lineage within laccate Ganoderma. One strain was collected from Surat Thani Province clustered in the G. casuarinicola clade with high statistical support (MLBS = 100% / MPBS = 98% / PP = 0.96), while the other two strains of Ganoderma, collected from Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, formed a distinct well-supported clade (MLBS = 100% / MPBS = 100% / PP = 1.00) and are described here as a new species. Ganoderma casuarinicola is reported here as a new record to Thailand. Morphological differences of the two taxa and their closely related taxa are discussed. Colour photographs of macro and micro morphological characteristics and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of the new record and new species are provided.