Spatial localization of m-calpain to the plasma membrane by phosphoinositide biphosphate binding during epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated activation.
ABSTRACT: Calpain activity is required for de-adhesion of the cell body and rear to enable productive locomotion of adherent cells during wound repair and tumor invasion. Growth factors activate m-calpain (calpain 2, CAPN2) via ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinases, but only when these kinases are localized to the plasma membrane. We thus hypothesized that m-calpain is activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) only when it is juxtaposed to the plasma membrane secondary to specific docking. Osmotic disruption of NR6 fibroblasts expressing the EGF receptor demonstrated m-calpain being complexed with the substratum-adherent membrane with this increasing in an EGF-dependent manner. m-Calpain colocalized with phosphoinositide biphosphate (PIP(2)) with exogenous phospholipase C removal of phosphoinositides, specifically, PI(4,5)P(2) but not PI(4)P(1) or PIP(3), releasing the bound m-calpain. Downregulation of phosphoinositide production by 1-butanol resulted in diminished PIP(2) in the plasma membrane and eliminated EGF-induced calpain activation. This PIP(2)-binding capacity resided in domain III of calpain, which presents a putative C2-like domain. This active conformation of this domain appears to be partially masked in the holoenzyme as both activation of m-calpain by phosphorylation at serine 50 and expression of constitutively active phosphorylation mimic glutamic acid-increased m-calpain binding to the membrane, consistent with blockade of this cascade diminishing membrane association. Importantly, we found that m-calpain was enriched toward the rear of locomoting cells, which was more pronounced in the plasma membrane footprints; EGF further enhanced this enrichment, in line with earlier reports of loss of PIP(2) in lamellipodia of motile cells. These data support a model of m-calpain binding to PIP(2) concurrent with and likely to enable ERK activation and provides a mechanism by which cell de-adhesion is directed to the cell body and tail as phospholipase C-gamma hydrolyzes PIP(2) in the protruding lamellipodia.
Project description:m-Calpain plays a critical role in cell migration enabling rear de-adhesion of adherent cells by cleaving structural components of the adhesion plaques. Growth factors and chemokines regulate keratinocyte, fibroblast, and endothelial cell migration by modulating m-calpain activity. Growth factor receptors activate m-calpain secondary to phosphorylation on serine 50 by ERK. Concurrently, activated m-calpain is localized to its inner membrane milieu by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Opposing this, CXCR3 ligands inhibit cell migration by blocking m-calpain activity secondary to a PKA-mediated phosphorylation in the C2-like domain. The failure of m-calpain activation in the absence of PIP(2) points to a key regulatory role, although whether this PIP(2)-mediated membrane localization is regulatory for m-calpain activity or merely serves as a docking site for ERK phosphorylation is uncertain. Herein, we report the effects of two CXCR3 ligands, CXCL11/IP-9/I-TAC and CXCL10/IP-10, on the EGF- and VEGF-induced redistribution of m-calpain in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The two chemokines block the tail retraction and, thus, the migration within minutes, preventing and reverting growth factor-induced relocalization of m-calpain to the plasma membrane of the cells. PKA phosphorylation of m-calpain blocks the binding of the protease to PIP(2). Unexpectedly, we found that this was due to membrane anchorage itself and not merely serine 50 phosphorylation, as the farnesylation-induced anchorage of m-calpain triggers a strong activation of this protease, leading notably to an increased cell death. Moreover, the ERK and PKA phosphorylations have no effect on this membrane-anchored m-calpain. However, the presence of PIP(2) is still required for the activation of the anchored m-calpain. In conclusion, we describe a novel mechanism of m-calpain activation by interaction with the plasma membrane and PIP(2) specifically, this phosphoinositide acting as a cofactor for the enzyme. The phosphorylation of m-calpain by ERK and PKA by growth factors and chemokines, respectively, act in cells to regulate the enzyme only indirectly by controlling its redistribution.
Project description:PKD2, or polycystin 2, the product of the gene mutated in type 2 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, belongs to the transient receptor potential channel superfamily and has been shown to function as a nonselective cation channel in the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism of PKD2 activation remains elusive. We show that PKD2 overexpression increases epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced inward currents in LLC-PK(1) kidney epithelial cells, while the knockdown of endogenous PKD2 by RNA interference or the expression of a pathogenic missense variant, PKD2-D511V, blunts the EGF-induced response. Pharmacological experiments indicate that the EGF-induced activation of PKD2 occurs independently of store depletion but requires the activity of phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Pipette infusion of purified phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) suppresses the PKD2-mediated effect on EGF-induced conductance, while pipette infusion of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) does not have any effect on this conductance. Overexpression of type Ialpha phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase [PIP(5)Kalpha], which catalyzes the formation of PIP(2), suppresses EGF-induced currents. Biochemical experiments show that PKD2 physically interacts with PLC-gamma2 and EGF receptor (EGFR) in transfected HEK293T cells and colocalizes with EGFR and PIP(2) in the primary cilium of LLC-PK(1) cells. We propose that plasma membrane PKD2 is under negative regulation by PIP(2). EGF may reduce the threshold of PKD2 activation by mechanical and other stimuli by releasing it from PIP(2)-mediated inhibition.
Project description:Phosphoinositides (PtdInss) play key roles in cell polarization and motility. With a series of biosensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer, we examined the distribution and metabolism of PtdInss and diacylglycerol (DAG) in stochastically migrating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The concentrations of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), phosphatidylinositol (3,4)-bisphosphate, and DAG were higher at the plasma membrane in the front of the cell than at the plasma membrane of the rear of the cell. The difference in the concentrations of PtdInss was estimated to be less than twofold between the front and rear of the migrating MDCK cells. To decode the spatial activities of PtdIns metabolic enzymes from the obtained concentration maps of PtdInss, we developed a one-dimensional reaction diffusion model of PtdIns metabolism. In this model, the activities of phosphatidylinositol monophosphate 5-kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phospholipase C, and PIP(3) 5-phosphatases were higher at the plasma membrane of the front than at the plasma membrane of the rear of the cell. This result suggests that, although the difference in the steady-state level of PtdInss is less than twofold, PtdInss were more rapidly turned over at the front than the rear of the migrating MDCK cells.
Project description:We studied the spatiotemporal regulation of Akt (also called protein kinase B), phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4)P2], and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] by using probes based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. On epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, the amount of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was increased diffusely in the plasma membrane, whereas that of PtdIns(3,4)P2 was increased more in the nascent lamellipodia than in the plasma membrane of the central region. The distribution and time course of Akt activation were similar to that of increased PtdIns(3,4)P2 levels, which were most prominent in the nascent lamellipodia. Moreover, we found that upon EGF stimulation 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) was also recruited to nascent lamellipodia in an Akt-dependent manner. Because PDK1 is known to activate Ral GTPase and because Ral is required for EGF-induced lamellipodial protrusion, we speculated that the PDK1-Akt complex may be indispensable for the induction of lamellipodia. In agreement with this idea, EGF-induced lamellipodia formation was promoted by the overexpression of Akt and inhibited by an Akt inhibitor or a Ral-binding domain of Sec5. These results identified the Akt-PDK1 complex as an upstream positive regulator of Ral GTPase in the induction of lamellipodial protrusion.
Project description:Directional cell migration is of paramount importance in both physiological and pathological processes, such as development, wound healing, immune response, and cancer invasion. Here, we report that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) regulates epithelial directional migration and invasion by binding and activating myotonic dystrophy kinase-related CDC42-binding kinase ? (MRCK?). We show that the effect of PDK1 on cell migration does not involve its kinase activity but instead relies on its ability to bind membrane phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. Upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, PDK1 and MRCK? colocalize at the cell membrane in lamellipodia. We demonstrate that PDK1 positively modulates MRCK? activity and drives its localization within lamellipodia. Likewise, the retraction phase of lamellipodia is controlled by PDK1 through an MRCK?-dependent mechanism. In summary, we discovered a functional pathway involving PDK1-mediated activation of MRCK?, which links EGF signaling to myosin contraction and directional migration.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent chemotactic and mitogenic factor for epidermal keratinocytes, and these properties are central for normal epidermal regeneration after injury. The involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases as mediators of the proliferative effects of EGF is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate motogenic responses to this growth factor are not clearly understood. An obligatory step for forward cell migration is the development of front-rear polarity and formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge. We show that stimulation of epidermal keratinocytes with EGF, but not with other growth factors, induces development of front-rear polarity and directional migration through a pathway that requires integrin-linked kinase (ILK), Engulfment and Cell Motility-2 (ELMO2), integrin ?1, and Rac1. Furthermore, EGF induction of front-rear polarity and chemotaxis require the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGF receptor and are mediated by complexes containing active RhoG, ELMO2, and ILK. Our findings reveal a novel link between EGF receptor stimulation, ILK-containing complexes, and activation of small Rho GTPases necessary for acquisition of front-rear polarity and forward movement.
Project description:A major function of Rho-family GTPases is to regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton; filopodia, lamellipodia, and stress fiber are regarded as typical phenotypes of the activated Cdc42, Rac, and Rho, respectively. Using probes based on fluorescent resonance energy transfer, we report on the spatiotemporal regulation of Rac1 and Cdc42 at lamellipodia and membrane ruffles. In epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated Cos1 and A431 cells, both Rac1 and Cdc42 were activated diffusely at the plasma membrane, followed by lamellipodial protrusion and membrane ruffling. Although Rac1 activity subsided rapidly, Cdc42 activity was sustained at lamellipodia. A critical role of Cdc42 in these EGF-induced morphological changes was demonstrated as follows. First, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which activated Rac1 but not Cdc42, could not induce full-grown lamellipodia in Cos1 cells. Second, a GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42, KIAA1204/CdGAP, inhibited lamellipodial protrusion and membrane ruffling without interfering with Rac1 activation. Third, expression of the Cdc42-binding domain of N-WASP inhibited the EGF-induced morphological changes. Therefore, Rac1 and Cdc42 seem to synergistically induce lamellipodia and membrane ruffles in EGF-stimulated Cos1 cells and A431 cells.
Project description:Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PI-PLC) plays an essential role in cell signaling. A unique Trypanosoma cruzi PI-PLC (TcPI-PLC) is lipid modified in its N terminus and localizes to the outer surface of the plasma membrane of amastigotes. We show here that TcPI-PLC is developmentally regulated in amastigotes and shows two peaks of surface expression during the developmental cycle of T. cruzi, the first immediately after differentiation of trypomastigotes into amastigotes and the second before differentiation of amastigotes into trypomastigotes. Surface expression of TcPI-PLC coincides with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) depletion in the host cell membrane and with an increase in the levels of its product, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. During extracellular differentiation, PI-PLC is secreted into the incubation medium. Maximal early expression of TcPI-PLC on the surface of amastigotes and PIP(2) depletion coincide with host cytoskeletal changes, Ca(2+) signaling, and transcriptional responses described previously. The presence of TcPI-PLC on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of the parasite and the capacity to be secreted and to alter host phospholipids are novel mechanisms of the host-parasite interaction.
Project description:Phagocytosis requires localized and transient remodeling of actin filaments. Phosphoinositide signaling is believed to play an important role in cytoskeletal organization, but it is unclear whether lipids, which can diffuse along the membrane, can mediate the focal actin assembly required for phagocytosis. We used imaging of fluorescent chimeras of pleckstrin homology and C1 domains in live macrophages to monitor the distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (4,5-PIP(2)) and diacylglycerol, respectively, during phagocytosis. Our results reveal a sequence of exquisitely localized, coordinated steps in phospholipid metabolism: a focal, rapid accumulation of 4,5-PIP(2) accompanied by recruitment of type Ialpha phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase to the phagosomal cup, followed by disappearance of the phosphoinositide as the phagosome seals. Loss of 4,5-PIP(2) correlated with mobilization of phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) and with the localized formation of diacylglycerol. The presence of 4, 5-PIP(2) and active PLCgamma at the phagosome was shown to be essential for effective particle ingestion. The temporal sequence of phosphoinositide metabolism suggests that accumulation of 4,5-PIP(2) is involved in the initial recruitment of actin to the phagocytic cup, while its degradation contributes to the subsequent cytoskeletal remodeling.
Project description:Cofilin is a key player in actin dynamics during cell migration. Its activity is regulated by (de)phosphorylation, pH, and binding to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. Here, we here use a human cofilin-1 (D122K) mutant with increased binding affinity for PI(4,5)P(2) and slower release from the plasma membrane to study the role of the PI(4,5)P(2)-cofilin interaction in migrating cells. In fibroblasts in a background of endogenous cofilin, D122K cofilin expression negatively affects cell turning frequency. In carcinoma cells with down-regulated endogenous cofilin, D122K cofilin neither rescues the drastic morphological defects nor restores the effects in cell turning capacity, unlike what has been reported for wild-type cofilin. In cofilin knockdown cells, D122K cofilin expression promotes outgrowth of an existing lamellipod in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) but does not result in initiation of new lamellipodia. This indicates that, next to phospho- and pH regulation, the normal release kinetics of cofilin from PI(4,5)P(2) is crucial as a local activation switch for lamellipodia initiation and as a signal for migrating cells to change direction in response to external stimuli. Our results demonstrate that the PI(4,5)P(2) regulatory mechanism, that is governed by EGF-dependent phospholipase C activation, is a determinant for the spatial and temporal control of cofilin activation required for lamellipodia initiation.