Differential in vitro expression of the brkA gene in Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis clinical isolates.
ABSTRACT: In this study, we set up a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay to measure the relative amounts of brkA transcripts in 50 Bordetella isolates. The results suggested that brkA expression is strain dependent and its level may play a role in determining the serum resistance or susceptibility phenotype. Pertussis immunocompetent sera were unable to kill Bordetella parapertussis via complement deposition.
Project description:Pertactin is an outer membrane protein expressed by Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica that induces protective immunity to Bordetella infections. The immunodominant and immunoprotective epitopes of pertactin include two repeated regions, I and II. Comparison of these two repeated regions showed that B. parapertussis pertactin is invariant, whereas B. pertussis pertactin varies mostly in region I and B. bronchiseptica pertactin varies in both repeated regions I and II, but mostly in region II. These differences may result from specific characteristics of these Bordetella species.
Project description:We have characterized a new virulence factor in Bordetella pertussis: serum resistance. Compared with Escherichia coli HB101, wild-type B. pertussis was relatively resistant to classical-pathway, complement-dependent killing by normal human serum. However, a mutant of B. pertussis (BPM2041) which is less virulent in mice and which has Tn5 lac inserted in a previously uncharacterized bvg-regulated gene was found to be at least 10-fold more susceptible to serum killing than the wild type. We have named this locus brk, for Bordetella resistance to killing. We have cloned and sequenced the brk locus, and it encodes two divergently transcribed open reading frames (ORFs), termed BrkA and BrkB. Both ORFs are necessary for serum resistance. Within the 300 bases which separate the two ORFs and upstream of each ORF are putative sites for BvgA binding. BrkA shows 29% identity to pertactin and has two RGD motifs in addition to a conserved proteolytic processing site and an outer membrane targeting signal. Like pertactin, BrkA is involved in adherence and invasion. Despite the similarities, a pertactin mutant was found to be not as sensitive to serum killing as the BrkA or BrkB mutants. BrkB is similar to ORFs in E. coli and Mycobacterium leprae and displays domains of homology to various transporters. On the basis of its hydropathy profile, BrkB is predicted to be a cytoplasmic membrane protein. By Southern blot, brk sequences were found in Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis but not in Bordetella avium.
Project description:Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis are the causal agents of whooping cough in humans. They produce diverse virulence factors, including adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (AC-Hly), a secreted toxin of the repeat in toxins (RTX) family with cyclase, pore-forming, and hemolytic activities. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are essential for the biological activities of the toxin produced by B. pertussis. In this study, we compared AC-Hly toxins from various clinical isolates of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, focusing on (i) the genomic sequences of cyaA genes, (ii) the PTMs of partially purified AC-Hly, and (iii) the cytotoxic activity of the various AC-Hly toxins. The genes encoding the AC-Hly toxins of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis displayed very limited polymorphism in each species. Most of the sequence differences between the two species were found in the C-terminal part of the protein. Both toxins harbored PTMs, mostly corresponding to palmitoylations of the lysine 860 residue and palmoylations and myristoylations of lysine 983 for B. pertussis and AC-Hly and palmitoylations of lysine 894 and myristoylations of lysine 1017 for B. parapertussis AC-Hly. Purified AC-Hly from B. pertussis was cytotoxic to macrophages, whereas that from B. parapertussis was not.
Project description:PCR is increasingly being used as a diagnostic test for the detection of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis DNA, as it has improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to conventional techniques. The assay described here uses the two insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001 for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, respectively, with detection by molecular beacons. The real-time PCR for IS481 detects both B. pertussis and Bordetella holmesii, and the real-time PCR for IS1001 detects both B. parapertussis and B. holmesii. By performing both assays discrimination between B. pertussis and B. parapertussis can be obtained. The sensitivity was 1 to 10 CFU/ml for B. pertussis, 10 CFU/ml for B. parapertussis, and 10 CFU/ml for B. holmesii in both assays. The clinical sensitivity of the B. pertussis assay was not affected by duplexing with an internal control PCR. Real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and culture were performed on 57 clinical samples. Eight of the 57 (14%) were found positive by culture, 19 of 57 (33%) were found positive by conventional PCR, and 22 of 57 (39%) were found positive by real-time PCR. One sample was inhibitory. When the B. pertussis assay was compared with a clinical standard for B. pertussis infection, sensitivity was 38, 83, and 100% and specificity was 100, 97, and 97% for culture, conventional PCR, and real-time PCR, respectively. The real-time PCR designed for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis provides sensitive and specific diagnosis of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis infections and is therefore suitable for implementation in the diagnostic laboratory.
Project description:We analyzed the Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis isolates circulating in Saint Petersburg that were collected between 1998 and 2000 and compared them with isolates collected 40 years ago and Russian vaccine strains. The analysis involved serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA after digestion with XbaI and SpeI, and sequencing of the ptxS1 and prn genes, which encode the S1 subunit of the pertussis toxin and the major adhesin pertactin, respectively. The Russian isolates were classified in five of the six pulsed-field gel electrophoresis groups identified in other European countries. The B. pertussis isolates currently circulating in Saint Petersburg differed from the Russian whole-cell vaccine strains and the isolates collected in the prevaccine era. However, their repartition in the major pulsed-field gel electrophoresis groups was slightly different from that of isolates collected in countries that have had a high level of vaccine coverage for a long time, probably because the level of vaccine coverage in Saint Petersburg has increased only recently, after decreasing until the early 1990s. Most of the B. parapertussis isolates studied were similar to those circulating in France. However, some variants were observed, perhaps because B. parapertussis infections are more common in children in this area.
Project description:A rapid real-time multiplex PCR assay for detecting and differentiating Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in nasopharyngeal swabs was developed. This assay (LC-PCR-IS) targets the insertion sequences IS481 and IS1001 of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, respectively, and is performed using the LightCycler (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Indianapolis, Ind.). The analytical sensitivity is less than one organism per reaction. Results for Bordetella culture and/or direct fluorescent antibody testing and a second LightCycler PCR assay (target, pertussis toxin gene) were compared to results of the LC-PCR-IS assay for 111 nasopharyngeal swabs submitted for pertussis testing. Of the specimens, 12 were positive (9 B. pertussis and 3 B. parapertussis) and 68 specimens were negative by all methods. Three other specimens were positive for B. pertussis by at least two of the methods (including the LC-PCR-IS assay), and another 28 specimens were positive for B. pertussis by the LC-PCR-IS assay only. No specimens were negative by the LC-PCR-IS assay and positive by the other methods. A conventional PCR method (target, IS481) was also compared to the LC-PCR-IS assay for a different group of nasopharyngeal swab specimens (n = 96): 44 specimens were positive and 41 specimens were negative for B. pertussis with both PCR methods. Nine specimens were positive for B. pertussis by the LC-PCR-IS assay and negative by the conventional PCR assay, and two specimens were positive for B. pertussis by the conventional PCR assay and negative by the LC-PCR-IS assay. Positivity of the two assays was not significantly different (P = 0.0654). The insertion sequence IS481 is also present in Bordetella holmesii; specimens containing B. holmesii may yield false-positive results. The LC-PCR-IS assay takes approximately 45 min to complete post-nucleic acid extraction, compared to 24 h for the conventional PCR assay previously used in our laboratory. The LC-PCR-IS assay is easier to perform than the conventional PCR assay, and the closed system decreases the chance of contamination. All of these characteristics represent a significant improvement in the detection of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis in nasopharyngeal specimens.
Project description:In order to initially colonize a host, bacteria must avoid various components of the innate immune system, one of which is complement. The genus Bordetella includes three closely related species that differ in their ability to resist complement-mediated killing. Bordetella parapertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica resist killing in naïve serum, a characteristic that may aid in efficient respiratory tract colonization and has been attributed to expression of O antigen. Bordetella pertussis lacks O antigen and is sensitive to naïve serum in vitro, yet it also efficiently colonizes the respiratory tract. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that B. pertussis may have an alternate mechanism to resist complement in vivo. While a number of reports on serum sensitivity of the bordetellae have been published, we show here that serum concentration and growth conditions can greatly alter the observed level of sensitivity to complement and that all but one strain of B. pertussis observed were sensitive to some level of naïve serum in vitro, particularly when there was excess complement. However, B. pertussis rapidly acquires increased resistance in vivo to naïve serum that is specific to the alternative pathway. Resistance is not efficiently acquired by B. parapertussis and B. bronchiseptica mutants lacking O antigen. This B. pertussis-specific mechanism of complement resistance does not appear to be dependent on either brkA or other genes expressed specifically in the Bvg(+) phase. This in vivo acquisition of alternative pathway resistance suggests that there is a novel O antigen-independent method by which B. pertussis evades complement-mediated killing.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Rapid diagnosis of pertussis is important for the timely isolation of the infection source and early prevention measures among the contact persons, especially among non-vaccinated infants for whom pertussis is life-threatening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Targets IS481, IS1001, BP0026 and human GAPDH gene were used to develop a multiplex real-time PCR assay based on the TaqMan technology for detection and identification of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in clinical samples. A total of 121 human clinical specimens obtained within 2012-2013 were used to evaluate the multiplex real-time PCR assay. Clinical specimens were also tested for culture and conventional PCR. Sensitivity and specificity for culture, conventional PCR, and multiplex real-time PCR were measured in comparison with a clinical standard for B. pertussis infection. RESULTS: The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of the multiplex assay was similar to the LLOD of each target in an individual assay format, which was approximately 1 genomic equivalent per reaction for IS481, IS1001 and 10 genomic equivalents per reaction for BP0026 target. When the B. pertussis assays were compared with a clinical standard for B. pertussis infection, sensitivity was 5, 59 and 89% the specificity was 100, 100 and 100% for culture, conventional PCR, and multiplex real-time PCR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Developed multiplex real-time PCR offers a fast tool with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis infections which is suitable for implementation in a routine laboratory diagnostics.
Project description:Whooping cough's primary etiological agent is Bordetella pertussis. The closely related Bordetella parapertussis rarely causes severe disease. Here we report an unusual case of bacteremia caused by B. parapertussis, review the literature, and characterize the genomic sequence of the bacterial isolate in comparison with B. parapertussis isolates from respiratory infections.
Project description:Bordetella pertussis expresses a bvg-regulated 95-kDa protein, Vag8, encoded by vag-8. Southern blot analysis indicates that strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis have DNA homologous to vag-8. Antiserum raised to a fusion of maltose binding protein to an N-terminal 60-kDa fragment of Vag8 recognizes the native 95-kDa protein in immunoblots of B. pertussis and B. bronchiseptica but not B. parapertussis. A 95-kDa protein-negative derivative of B. pertussis 18323 containing a deletion of vag-8 colonized mice as efficiently as the parent B. pertussis strain in a mouse aerosol model of pertussis.