Compensatory functions of two alkyl hydroperoxide reductases in the oxidative defense system of Legionella pneumophila.
ABSTRACT: Legionella pneumophila expresses two catalase-peroxidase enzymes that exhibit strong peroxidatic but weak catalatic activities, suggesting that other enzymes participate in decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Comparative genomics revealed that L. pneumophila and its close relative Coxiella burnetii each contain two peroxide-scavenging alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) systems: AhpC1, which is similar to the Helicobacter pylori AhpC system, and AhpC2 AhpD (AhpC2D), which is similar to the AhpC AhpD system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To establish a catalatic function for these two systems, we expressed L. pneumophila ahpC1 or ahpC2 in a catalase/peroxidase mutant of Escherichia coli and demonstrated restoration of H2O2 resistance by a disk diffusion assay. ahpC1::Km and ahpC2D::Km chromosomal deletion mutants were two- to eightfold more sensitive to H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and paraquat than the wild-type L. pneumophila, a phenotype that could be restored by trans-complementation. Reciprocal strategies to construct double mutants were unsuccessful. Mutant strains were not enfeebled for growth in vitro or in a U937 cell infection model. Green fluorescence protein reporter assays revealed expression to be dependent on the stage of growth, with ahpC1 appearing after the exponential phase and ahpC2 appearing during early exponential phase. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that ahpC1 mRNA levels were approximately 7- to 10-fold higher than ahpC2D mRNA levels. However, expression of ahpC2D was significantly increased in the ahpC1 mutant, whereas ahpC1 expression was unchanged in the ahpC2D mutant. These results indicate that AhpC1 or AhpC2D (or both) provide an essential hydrogen peroxide-scavenging function to L. pneumophila and that the compensatory activity of the ahpC2D system is most likely induced in response to oxidative stress.
Project description:Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C gene (ahpC) functions were characterized in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a commonly occurring marine food-borne enteropathogenic bacterium. Two ahpC genes, ahpC1 (VPA1683) and ahpC2 (VP0580), encoded putative two-cysteine peroxiredoxins, which are highly similar to the homologous proteins of Vibrio vulnificus. The responses of deletion mutants of ahpC genes to various peroxides were compared with and without gene complementation and at different incubation temperatures. The growth of the ahpC1 mutant and ahpC1 ahpC2 double mutant in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by organic peroxides, cumene hydroperoxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. However, inhibition was higher at 12°C and 22°C than at 37°C. Inhibiting effects were prevented by the complementary ahpC1 gene. Inconsistent detoxification of H2O2 by ahpC genes was demonstrated in an agar medium but not in a liquid medium. Complementation with an ahpC2 gene partially restored the peroxidase effect in the double ahpC1 ahpC2 mutant at 22°C. This investigation reveals that ahpC1 is the chief peroxidase gene that acts against organic peroxides in V. parahaemolyticus and that the function of the ahpC genes is influenced by incubation temperature.
Project description:Genes encoding a homolog of Escherichia coli OxyR (oxyR) and an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase system (ahpC and ahpD) have been isolated from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The ahpC and ahpD genes constitute an operon transcribed divergently from the oxyR gene. Expression of both ahpCD and oxyR genes was maximal at early exponential phase and decreased rapidly as cells entered mid-exponential phase. Overproduction of OxyR in Streptomyces lividans conferred resistance against cumene hydroperoxide and H2O2. The oxyR mutant produced fewer ahpCD and oxyR transcripts than the wild type, suggesting that OxyR acts as a positive regulator for their expression. Both oxyR and ahpCD transcripts increased more than fivefold within 10 min of H2O2 treatment and decreased to the normal level in 50 min, with kinetics similar to those of the CatR-mediated induction of the catalase A gene (catA) by H2O2. The oxyR mutant failed to induce oxyR and ahpCD genes in response to H2O2, indicating that OxyR is the modulator for the H2O2-dependent induction of these genes. Purified OxyR protein bound specifically to the intergenic region between ahpC and oxyR, suggesting its direct role in regulating these genes. These results demonstrate that in S. coelicolor OxyR mediates H2O2 induction of its own gene and genes for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase system, but not the catalase gene (catA), unlike in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Project description:Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (AhpC) is the catalytic subunit responsible for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species that form in bacterial cells or are derived from the host; thus, AhpC facilitates the survival of pathogenic bacteria under environmental stresses or during infection. This study investigates the role of AhpC in the induction and maintenance of a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In this investigation, ahpC1 (VPA1683) and ahpC2 (VP0580) were identified in chromosomes II and I of this pathogen, respectively. Mutants with deletions of these two ahpC genes and their complementary strains were constructed from the parent strain KX-V231. The growth of these strains was monitored on tryptic soy agar-3% NaCl in the presence of the extrinsic peroxides H(2)O(2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) at different incubation temperatures. The results revealed that both ahpC genes were protective against t-BOOH, while ahpC1 was protective against H(2)O(2). The protective function of ahpC2 at 4°C was higher than that of ahpC1. The times required to induce the VBNC state (4.7 weeks) at 4°C in a modified Morita mineral salt solution with 0.5% NaCl and then to maintain the VBNC state (4.7 weeks) in an ahpC2 mutant and an ahpC1 ahpC2 double mutant were significantly shorter than those for the parent strain (for induction, 6.2 weeks; for maintenance, 7.8 weeks) and the ahpC1 mutant (for induction, 6.0 weeks; for maintenance, 8.0 weeks) (P < 0.03). Complementation with an ahpC2 gene reversed the effects of the ahpC2 mutation in shortening the times for induction and maintenance of the VBNC state. This investigation identified the different functions of the two ahpC genes and confirmed the particular role of ahpC2 in the VBNC state of V. parahaemolyticus.
Project description:Burkholderia thailandensis is a model organism for human pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The study of B. thailandensis peroxiredoxin is helpful for understanding the survival, pathogenic infection, and antibiotic resistance of its homologous species. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C (AhpC) is an important peroxiredoxin involved in oxidative damage defense. Here, we report that BthAhpC exhibits broad specificity for peroxide substrates, including inorganic and organic peroxides and peroxynitrite. AhpC catalyzes the reduction of oxidants using the N-terminal conserved Cys57 as a peroxidatic Cys and the C-terminal conserved Cys171 and Cys173 as resolving Cys. These three conserved Cys residues play critical roles in the catalytic mechanism. AhpD directly interacts with AhpC as an electron donor, and the conserved Cys residues in active site of AhpD are important for AhpC reduction. AhpC is directly repressed by OxyR as shown by identifying the OxyR binding site in the ahpC promoter with a DNA binding assay. This work sheds light on the function of AhpC in the peroxides and peroxynitrite damage response in B. thailandensis and homologous species.
Project description:A Bacteroides fragilis mutant resistant to hydrogen peroxide and alkyl peroxide was isolated by enrichment in increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. The mutant strain was constitutively resistant to 100 mM H2O2 and 5 mM cumene hydroperoxide (15-min exposure). In contrast, the parent strain was protected against <10 mM H2O2 when the peroxide response was induced with a sublethal concentration of H2O2, and no protection was observed in untreated cells. In addition, catalase activity in the mutant strain was not repressed in anaerobic cultures as reported previously for the parent strain. Comparison of the protein profile of crude extracts of the B. fragilis strains revealed that at least three oxidative stress-induced proteins in the parent strain were constitutively expressed in the mutant as detected by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. N-terminal amino acid sequence of these overexpressed proteins confirmed the presence of a deregulated catalase (KatB), an alkyl hydroperoxidase reductase subunit C (AhpC), and a Dps/PexB homologue. Northern blot analysis and katB::cat transcriptional fusion studies revealed that in the mutant, katB was deregulated compared to the parent and that katB was controlled by a trans-acting regulatory mechanism. Moreover, constitutive expression of KatB and of the AhpC and Dps homologues in the H2O2-resistant mutant suggests that these proteins may share a common oxidative stress transcriptional regulator and may be involved in B. fragilis peroxide resistance.
Project description:We have isolated a new organic hydroperoxide resistance (ohr) gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. This was done by complementation of an Escherichia coli alkyl hydroperoxide reductase mutant with an organic hydroperoxide-hypersensitive phenotype. ohr encodes a 14.5-kDa protein. Its amino acid sequence shows high homology with several proteins of unknown function. An ohr mutant was subsequently constructed, and it showed increased sensitivity to both growth-inhibitory and killing concentrations of organic hydroperoxides but not to either H2O2 or superoxide generators. No alterations in sensitivity to other oxidants or stresses were observed in the mutant. ohr had interesting expression patterns in response to low concentrations of oxidants. It was highly induced by organic hydroperoxides, weakly induced by H2O2, and not induced at all by a superoxide generator. The novel regulation pattern of ohr suggests the existence of a second organic hydroperoxide-inducible system that differs from the global peroxide regulator system, OxyR. Expression of ohr in various bacteria tested conferred increased resistance to tert-butyl hydroperoxide killing, but this was not so for wild-type Xanthomonas strains. The organic hydroperoxide hypersensitivity of ohr mutants could be fully complemented by expression of ohr or a combination of ahpC and ahpF and could be partially complemented by expression ahpC alone. The data suggested that Ohr was a new type of organic hydroperoxide detoxification protein.
Project description:Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine food-borne enteropathogen. In this study, we examined the antioxidative activity, growth, biofilm formation, and cell mobility of an oxyR deletion mutant and its genetically complementary strain of V. parahaemolyticus. oxyR is the regulator of catalase and ahpC genes. Protection against extrinsic H2O2 and against the organic peroxides cumene hydroperoxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide was weaker in the deletion mutant than in its parent strain. Expression of the major functional antioxidative genes, ahpC1 and VPA1418, was markedly decreased in the oxyR mutant. Growth of this mutant on agar medium was significantly inhibited by autoclaved 0.25% glucose and by 0.25% dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, 0.5% monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose), or 114.8 mM phosphates. The inhibition of the growth of this oxyR mutant by extrinsic peroxides, autoclaved sugars, and phosphates was eliminated by the complementary oxyR gene or by the addition of catalase to the autoclaved medium, while no inhibition of growth was observed when filter-sterilized sugars were used. The formation of biofilm and swimming mobility were significantly inhibited in the oxyR mutant relative to that in the wild-type strain. This investigation demonstrates the antioxidative function of oxyR in V. parahaemolyticus and its possible roles in biofilm formation, cell mobility, and the protection of growth in heated rich medium.
Project description:In Bacillus subtilis, hydrogen peroxide induces the synthesis of catalase (KatA), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpCF), and a DNA-binding protein of the Dps family (MrgA). KatA, AhpCF, heme biosynthesis enzymes, and MrgA are also induced upon entry into stationary phase under conditions of iron and manganese limitation. In an effort to define the peroxide regulon repressor, PerR, we used mini-Tn10 mutagenesis to identify loci affecting the regulation of mrgA. From this screen, we isolated two mini-Tn10 insertions in ahpC, the gene encoding the small subunit of AhpCF, that increase the transcription of mrgA-lacZ even in iron-supplemented minimal medium. Indeed, these ahpC::Tn10 insertions lead to elevated expression from all peroxide regulon promoters, including those for mrgA, katA, hemAXCDBL, and ahpCF. As a result, the ahpC::Tn10 mutants display an increased resistance to H2O2. The ahpCF promoter region contains three sequences similar to the peroxide regulon consensus operator (per box). We demonstrate that the ability of ahpC::Tn10 mutations to derepress mrgA requires aerobic growth. In contrast, a second distinct trans-acting regulatory mutation bypasses this requirement for aerobic growth. Since the peroxide regulon is activated in the absence of AhpCF, which degrades alkyl hydroperoxides, we propose that organic hydroperoxides may be physiologically relevant inducers in vivo.
Project description:The AhpC subunit of the Bacillus subtilis alkyl hydroperoxide reductase was identified as a general stress protein induced in response to heat or salt stress or after entry of the organism into the stationary phase. The ahp operon, encoding the two subunits AhpC and AhpF, was cloned and localized between the gntRKPZ operon and the bglA locus. Two-dimensional gel analyses revealed an especially strong induction of AhpC and AhpF in cells subjected to oxidative stress. Transcriptional studies showed a 3- to 4-fold induction of ahp mRNA after heat or salt stress or starvation for glucose and a 20-fold induction by oxidative stress, thus confirming the protein induction data for AhpC and AhpF. Stress induction occurred at a sigmaA-dependent promoter that overlaps with operator sites similar to the per box. Compared with the wild type, the ahpC mutant was resistant to hydrogen peroxide because of the derepression of the peroxide regulon (N. Bsat, L. Chen, and J. D. Helmann, J. Bacteriol. 178:6579-6586, 1996) but more sensitive to cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) during exponential growth. In contrast, stationary-phase wild-type and ahpC mutant cells displayed complete resistance to treatment with 1 mM CHP. Moreover, a sigmaB mutant was found to be extremely sensitive to CHP during vegetative growth and in stationary phase, which indicates that sigmaB-dependent general stress proteins are involved in the protection of cells against oxidative stress.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a natural mutant with inactivated oxidative stress regulatory gene oxyR. This characteristic has been linked to the exquisite sensitivity of M. tuberculosis to isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH). In the majority of mycobacteria tested, including M. tuberculosis, oxyR is divergently transcribed from ahpC, a gene encoding a homolog of the subunit of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase that carries out substrate peroxide reduction. Here we compared ahpC expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a mycobacterium less sensitive to INH, with that in two highly INH sensitive species, M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium aurum. The ahpC gene of M. smegmatis was cloned and characterized, and the 5' ends of ahpC mRNA were mapped by S1 nuclease protection analysis. M. smegmatis AhpC and eight other polypeptides were inducible by exposure to H2O2 or organic peroxides, as determined by metabolic labeling and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. In contrast, M. aurum displayed differential induction of only one 18-kDa polypeptide when exposed to organic peroxides. AhpC could not be detected in this organism by immunological means. AhpC was also below detection levels in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that ahpC expression and INH sensitivity are inversely correlated in the mycobacterial species tested. In further support of this conclusion, the presence of plasmid-borne ahpC reduced M. smegmatis susceptibility to INH. Interestingly, mutations in the intergenic region between oxyR and ahpC were identified and increased ahpC expression observed in deltakatG M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis INH(r) strains. We propose that mutations activating ahpC expression may contribute to the emergence of INH(r) strains.