Sequence diversity, reproductive isolation and species concepts in Saccharomyces.
ABSTRACT: Using the biological species definition, yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces sensu stricto comprise six species and one natural hybrid. Previous work has shown that reproductive isolation between the species is due primarily to sequence divergence acted upon by the mismatch repair system and not due to major gene differences or chromosomal rearrangements. Sequence divergence through mismatch repair has also been shown to cause partial reproductive isolation among populations within a species. We have surveyed sequence variation in populations of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts and measured meiotic sterility in hybrids. This allows us to determine the divergence necessary to produce the reproductive isolation seen among species. Rather than a sharp transition from fertility to sterility, which may have been expected, we find a smooth monotonic relationship between diversity and reproductive isolation, even as far as the well-accepted designations of S. paradoxus and S. cerevisiae as distinct species. Furthermore, we show that one species of Saccharomyces--S. cariocanus--differs from a population of S. paradoxus by four translocations, but not by sequence. There is molecular evidence of recent introgression from S. cerevisiae into the European population of S. paradoxus, supporting the idea that in nature the boundary between these species is fuzzy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Matings between different Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeast species produce sexually sterile hybrids, so individuals should avoid mating with other species. Any mechanism that reduces the frequency of interspecific matings will confer a selective advantage. Here we test the ability of two closely-related Saccharomyces sensu stricto species to select their own species as mates and avoid hybridisation. RESULTS: We set up mate choice tests, using five independently isolated pairs of species, in which individual germinating spores were presented with the opportunity to mate either with a germinating spore of their own species or with a germinating spore of the other species. For all five strain pairs, whether a S. cerevisiae or S. paradoxus occupies the role of "chooser" strain, the level of hybridisation that is observed between the two species is significantly lower than would be expected if mates were selected at random. We also show that, overall, S. cerevisiae exhibited a stronger own-species preference than S. paradoxus. CONCLUSION: Prezygotic reproductive isolation is well known in higher organisms but has been largely overlooked in yeast, an important model microbe. Here we present the first report of prezygotic reproductive isolation in Saccharomyces. Prezygotic reproductive isolation may be important in yeast speciation or yeast species cohesion, and may have evolved to prevent wasted matings between different species. Whilst yeast has long been used as a genetic model system, little is known about yeast in the wild. Our work sheds light on an interesting aspect of yeast natural behaviour: their ability to avoid costly interspecific matings.
Project description:High-quality, well-annotated genome sequences and standardized laboratory strains fuel experimental and evolutionary research. We present improved genome sequences of three species of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts: S. bayanus var. uvarum (CBS 7001), S. kudriavzevii (IFO 1802(T) and ZP 591), and S. mikatae (IFO 1815(T)), and describe their comparison to the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. The new sequences, derived by assembling millions of short DNA sequence reads together with previously published Sanger shotgun reads, have vastly greater long-range continuity and far fewer gaps than the previously available genome sequences. New gene predictions defined a set of 5261 protein-coding orthologs across the five most commonly studied Saccharomyces yeasts, enabling a re-examination of the tempo and mode of yeast gene evolution and improved inferences of species-specific gains and losses. To facilitate experimental investigations, we generated genetically marked, stable haploid strains for all three of these Saccharomyces species. These nearly complete genome sequences and the collection of genetically marked strains provide a valuable toolset for comparative studies of gene function, metabolism, and evolution, and render Saccharomyces sensu stricto the most experimentally tractable model genus. These resources are freely available and accessible through www.SaccharomycesSensuStricto.org.
Project description:The Dobzhansky-Muller (D-M) model of speciation by genic incompatibility is widely accepted as the primary cause of interspecific postzygotic isolation. Since the introduction of this model, there have been theoretical and experimental data supporting the existence of such incompatibilities. However, speciation genes have been largely elusive, with only a handful of candidate genes identified in a few organisms. The Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts, which have small genomes and can mate interspecifically to produce sterile hybrids, are thus an ideal model for studying postzygotic isolation. Among them, only a single D-M pair, comprising a mitochondrially targeted product of a nuclear gene and a mitochondrially encoded locus, has been found. Thus far, no D-M pair of nuclear genes has been identified between any sensu stricto yeasts. We report here the first detailed genome-wide analysis of rare meiotic products from an otherwise sterile hybrid and show that no classic D-M pairs of speciation genes exist between the nuclear genomes of the closely related yeasts S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. Instead, our analyses suggest that more complex interactions, likely involving multiple loci having weak effects, may be responsible for their post-zygotic separation. The lack of a nuclear encoded classic D-M pair between these two yeasts, yet the existence of multiple loci that may each exert a small effect through complex interactions suggests that initial speciation events might not always be mediated by D-M pairs. An alternative explanation may be that the accumulation of polymorphisms leads to gamete inviability due to the activities of anti-recombination mechanisms and/or incompatibilities between the species' transcriptional and metabolic networks, with no single pair at least initially being responsible for the incompatibility. After such a speciation event, it is possible that one or more D-M pairs might subsequently arise following isolation.
Project description:Background:Recent evidence suggests that horizontal transfer plays a significant role in the evolution of of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotes. Many cases of horizontal TE transfer (HTT) been reported in animals and plants, however surprisingly few examples of HTT have been reported in fungi. Findings:Here I report evidence for a novel HTT event in fungi involving Tsu4 in Saccharomyces paradoxus based on (i) unexpectedly high similarity between Tsu4 elements in S. paradoxus and S. uvarum, (ii) a patchy distribution of Tsu4 in S. paradoxus and general absence from its sister species S. cerevisiae, and (iii) discordance between the phylogenetic history of Tsu4 sequences and species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group. Available data suggests the HTT event likely occurred somewhere in the Nearctic, Neotropic or Indo-Australian part of the S. paradoxus species range, and that a lineage related to S. uvarum or S. eubayanus was the likely donor species. The HTT event has led to massive proliferation of Tsu4 in the South American lineage of S. paradoxus, which exhibits partial reproductive isolation with other strains of this species because of multiple reciprocal translocations. Full-length Tsu4 elements are associated with both breakpoints of one of these reciprocal translocations. Conclusions:This work shows that comprehensive analysis of TE sequences in essentially-complete genome assemblies derived from long-read sequencing provides new opportunities to detect HTT events in fungi and other organisms. This work also provides support for the hypothesis that HTT and subsequent TE proliferation can induce genome rearrangements that contribute to post-zygotic isolation in yeast.
Project description:Yeasts within the Saccharomyces sensu stricto cluster can produce different killer toxins. Each toxin is encoded by a medium size (1.5-2.4 Kb) M dsRNA virus, maintained by a larger helper virus generally called L-A (4.6 Kb). Different types of L-A are found associated to specific Ms: L-A in K1 strains and L-A-2 in K2 strains. Here, we extend the analysis of L-A helper viruses to yeasts other than S. cerevisiae, namely S. paradoxus, S. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii. Our sequencing data from nine new L-A variants confirm the specific association of each toxin-producing M and its helper virus, suggesting co-evolution. Their nucleotide sequences vary from 10% to 30% and the variation seems to depend on the geographical location of the hosts, suggesting cross-species transmission between species in the same habitat. Finally, we transferred by genetic methods different killer viruses from S. paradoxus into S. cerevisiae or viruses from S. cerevisiae into S. uvarum or S. kudriavzevii. In the foster hosts, we observed no impairment for their stable transmission and maintenance, indicating that the requirements for virus amplification in these species are essentially the same. We also characterized new killer toxins from S. paradoxus and constructed "superkiller" strains expressing them.
Project description:In sexual microbes, mating occurs by fusion of individual cells. This complete fitness investment suggests that cell behaviour could potentially mediate prezygotic isolation between microbial species, a topic about which very little is known. To investigate this possibility, we conducted individual cell mate choice trials and mass-culture mating propensity assays with isolates from sympatric natural populations of the closely related yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Although we found no evidence for active species recognition in mate choice, we observed a marked difference in mating propensity between these two species. We briefly discuss the possibility that this mating propensity difference may contribute to reproductive isolation between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus in nature.
Project description:Mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibility has a major role in reproductive isolation between species. However, the underlying mechanism and driving force of mitochondrial-nuclear incompatibility remain elusive. Here, we report a pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (PPR) protein, Ccm1, and its interacting partner, 15S rRNA, to be involved in hybrid incompatibility between two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus S. bayanus-Ccm1 has reduced binding affinity for S. cerevisiae-15S rRNA, leading to respiratory defects in hybrid cells. This incompatibility can be rescued by single mutations on several individual PPR motifs, demonstrating the highly evolvable nature of PPR proteins. When we examined other PPR proteins in the closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts, about two-thirds of them showed detectable incompatibility. Our results suggest that fast co-evolution between flexible PPR proteins and their mitochondrial RNA substrates may be a common driving force in the development of mitochondrial-nuclear hybrid incompatibility.
Project description:Although microorganisms account for the largest fraction of Earth's biodiversity, we know little about how their reproductive barriers evolve. Sexual microorganisms such as Saccharomyces yeasts rapidly develop strong intrinsic post-zygotic isolation, but the role of extrinsic isolation in the early speciation process remains to be investigated. We measured the growth of F1 hybrids between two incipient species of Saccharomyces paradoxus to assess the presence of extrinsic post-zygotic isolation across 32 environments. More than 80% of hybrids showed either partial dominance of the best parent or over-dominance for growth, revealing no fitness defects in F1 hybrids. Extrinsic reproductive isolation therefore likely plays little role in limiting gene flow between incipient yeast species and is not a requirement for speciation.
Project description:Background: The Dobzhansky-Muller (D-M) model of speciation by genic incompatibility is widely accepted as the primary cause of interspecific postzygotic isolation. Since the introduction of this model, there have been theoretical and experimental data supporting the existence of such incompatibilities. However, speciation genes have been largely elusive, with only a handful of candidate genes identified in a few organisms. The Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts have small genomes, can be easily cultured, and can mate interspecifically to produce sterile hybrids, are thus an ideal model for studying postzygotic isolation. Among them, only a single D-M pair has been found, between S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae, comprising the mitochondrially targeted product of a nuclear gene, AEP2, and a mitochondrially encoded locus, OLI1, the 5' region of whose transcript is bound by Aep2. Thus far, no D-M pair of nuclear genes has been identified between any sensu stricto yeasts. Methods: We report here the first detailed genome-wide analysis of rare F2 progeny from an otherwise sterile hybrid, and show that no classic D-M pairs of speciation genes exist between the nuclear genomes of the closely related yeasts S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. Instead, our analyses suggest that more complex interactions may be responsible for their post-zygotic separation. These interactions most likely involve multiple loci having weak effects, as there were multiple significant pairwise combinations of loci, with no single combination being completely excluded from the viable F2s. Conclusions: The lack of a nuclear encoded classic D-M pair between these two yeasts, yet the existence of multiple loci that may each exert a small effect through complex interactions, suggests that initial speciation events might not always be mediated by D-M pairs. An alternative explanation may be that "death by a thousand cuts" leads to speciation, whereby an accumulation of polymorphisms can lead to an incompatibility between the species "transcriptional and metabolic networks, with no single pair at least initially being responsible for the incompatibility. After such a speciation event, it is possible that one or more D-M pairs might subsequently arise following isolation. Genotypes for hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. A genotyping experiment design type classifies an individual or group of individuals on the basis of alleles, haplotypes, SNP's. Overall design: Genotyping design
Project description:Understanding the molecular basis of how reproductive isolation evolves between individuals from the same species offers valuable insight into patterns of genetic differentiation as well as the onset of speciation [1, 2]. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitutes an ideal model partly due to its vast ecological range, high level of genetic diversity [3-6], and laboratory-amendable sexual reproduction. Between S. cerevisiae and its sibling species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex, reproductive isolation acts postzygotically and could be attributed to chromosomal rearrangements , cytonuclear incompatibility [8, 9], and antirecombination [10, 11], although the implication of these mechanisms at the incipient stage of speciation remains unclear due to further divergence in the nascent species. Recently, several studies assessed the onset of intraspecific reproductive isolation in S. cerevisiae by evaluating the effect of the mismatch repair system [12-14] or by fostering incipient speciation using the same initial genetic background [15-18]. Nevertheless, the overall genetic diversity within this species was largely overlooked, and no systematic evaluation has been performed. Here, we carried out the first species-wide survey for postzygotic reproductive isolation in S. cerevisiae. We crossed 60 natural isolates sampled from diverse niches with the reference strain S288c and identified 16 cases of reproductive isolation with reduced offspring viabilities ranging from 44% to 86%. Using different mapping strategies, we identified reciprocal translocations in a large fraction of all isolates surveyed, indicating that large-scale chromosomal rearrangements might play a major role in the onset of reproductive isolation in this species.