Evaluation of the lytic origins of replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus/human herpesvirus 8 in the context of the viral genome.
ABSTRACT: The lytic origins of DNA replication for human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), oriLyt-L and oriLyt-R, are located between open reading frames K4.2 and K5 and ORF69 and vFLIP, respectively. These lytic origins were elucidated using a transient replication assay. Although this assay is a powerful tool for identifying many herpesvirus lytic origins, it is limited in its ability to evaluate the activity of replication origins in the context of the viral genome. To this end, we investigated the ability of a recombinant HHV8 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to replicate in the absence of oriLyt-R, oriLyt-L, or both oriLyt regions. We generated the HHV8 BAC recombinants (BAC36-DeltaOri-R, BAC36-DeltaOri-L, and BAC36-DeltaOri-RL), which removed one or all of the identified lytic origins. An evaluation of these recombinant BACs revealed that oriLyt-L was sufficient to propagate the viral genome, whereas oriLyt-R alone failed to direct the amplification of viral DNA.
Project description:Open reading frame 45 (ORF45) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes an immediate-early protein. This protein is also present in virions as a tegument protein. ORF45 protein interacts with interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and inhibits virus-induced type I interferon production by blocking activation of IRF-7. To define further the function of ORF45 and the mechanism underlying its action, we constructed an ORF45-null recombinant virus genome (BAC-stop45) by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BAC-stop45 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T BAC36 and 293T BAC-stop45 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate, no significant difference was found between them in overall viral gene expression and lytic DNA replication, but induced 293T BAC-stop45 cells released 10-fold fewer virions to the medium than did 293T BAC36 cells. When ORF45-null virus was used to infect cells, lower infectivity was observed than for wild-type BAC36. These results suggest that KSHV ORF45 plays roles in both early and late stages of viral infection, probably in viral ingress and egress.
Project description:During the lytic phase of infection, replication of herpesvirus genomes initiates at the lytic origin of replication, oriLyt. Many herpesviruses harbor more than one lytic origin, but so far, only one oriLyt has been identified for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Evidence for the existence of additional lytic origins of HCMV has remained elusive. On the basis of transient replication assays with cloned viral fragments, HCMV oriLyt was described as a core region of 1.5 kbp (minimal oriLyt) flanked by auxiliary sequences required for maximal replication activity (complete oriLyt). It remained unclear whether minimal oriLyt alone can drive the replication of HCMV in the absence of its accessory regions. To investigate the sequence requirements of oriLyt in the context of the viral genome, mutant genomes were constructed lacking either minimal or complete oriLyt. These genomes were not infectious, suggesting that HCMV contains only one lytic origin of replication. Either minimal or complete oriLyt was then ectopically reinserted into the oriLyt-depleted genomes. Only the mutant genomes carrying complete oriLyt led to infectious progeny. Remarkably, inversion of the 1.5-kbp core origin relative to its flanking regions resulted in a replication-defective genome. Mutant genomes carrying minimal oriLyt plus the left flanking region gave rise to minifoci, but genomes harboring minimal oriLyt together with the right flanking region were noninfectious. We conclude that the previously defined minimal lytic origin is not sufficient to drive replication of the HCMV genome. Rather, our results underline the importance of the accessory regions and their correct arrangement for the function of HCMV oriLyt.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with Kaposis's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV encodes at least 8 open reading frames (ORFs) that play important roles in its lytic DNA replication. Among which, ORF6 of KSHV encodes an ssDNA binding protein that has been proved to participate in origin-dependent DNA replication in transient assays. To define further the function of ORF6 in the virus life cycle, we constructed a recombinant virus genome with a large deletion within the ORF6 locus by using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. Stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 (wild type) and BAC?6 genomes were generated. When monolayers of 293T-BAC36 and 293T-BAC?6 cells were induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and sodium butyrate, infectious virus was detected from the 293T-BAC36 cell supernatants only and not from the 293T- BAC?6 cell supernatants. DNA synthesis was defective in 293T-BAC?6 cells. Expression of ORF6 in trans in BAC?6-containing cells was able to rescue both defects. Our results provide genetic evidence that ORF6 is essential for KSHV lytic replication. The stable 293T cells carrying the BAC36 and BAC?6 genomes could be used as tools to investigate the detailed functions of ORF6 in the lytic replication of KSHV.
Project description:The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; or human herpesvirus-8)-encoded protein called K-bZIP (also named K8) was found to be multifunctional. In this study, we discovered that K-bZIP interacts with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1/2 in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated BCBL-1 lymphocyte cells. K-bZIP appears to repress HDAC activity through this interaction, which we determined to be independent of K-bZIP SUMOylation. We dissected the domains of K-bZIP and found that the leucine zipper (LZ) domain is essential for the interaction of K-bZIP and HDAC. In addition, we constructed a KSHV bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) with LZ domain-deleted K-bZIP (KSHVdLZ) and transfected this mutated KSHV BAC DNA into HEK 293T cells. As a result, it was consistently found that K-bZIP without its LZ domain failed to interact with HDAC2. We also showed that the interaction between K-bZIP and HDAC is necessary for the inhibition of the lytic gene promoters (ORF50 and OriLyt) of KSHV by K-bZIP. Furthermore, we found that the LZ domain is also important for the interaction of K-bZIP with the promoters of ORF50 and OriLyt. Most interestingly, although it was found to have suppressive effects on the promoters of ORF50 and OriLyt, KSHVdLZ replicates at a significantly lower level than its BAC-derived revertant (KSHVdLZRev) or KSHVWT (BAC36) in HEK 293T cells. The defectiveness of KSHVdLZ replication can be partially rescued by siRNA against HDAC2. Our results suggest that the function of K-bZIP interaction with HDAC is two-layered. 1) K-bZIP inhibits HDAC activity generally so that KSHVdLZ replicates at a lower level than does KSHVWT. 2) K-bZIP can recruit HDAC to the promoters of OriLyt and ORF50 through interaction with HDAC for K-bZIP to have a temporary repressive effect on the two promoters.
Project description:Use of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) bacterial artificial chromosome 36 (KSHV-BAC36) genome permits reverse genetics approaches to study KSHV biology. While sequencing the complete KSHV-BAC36 genome, we noted a duplication of a 9-kb fragment of the long unique region in the terminal repeat region. This duplication covers a part of open reading frame (ORF) 19, the complete ORFs 18, 17, 16, K7, K6, and K5, and the putative ORF in the left origin of lytic replication, and it contains the BAC cassette. This observation needs to be kept in mind if viral genes located within the duplicated region are to be mutated in KSHV-BAC36.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with Kaposi's sarcoma and several other malignancies. The lack of an efficient infection system has impeded the understanding of KSHV-related pathogenesis. A genetic approach was used to isolate infectious KSHV. Recombinant bacteria artificial chromosome (BAC) KSHV containing hygromycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) markers was generated by homologous recombination in KSHV-infected BCBL-1 cells. Recombinant KSHV genomes from cell clones that were resistant to hygromycin, expressed GFP, and produced infectious virions after induction with tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) were rescued in Escherichia coli and reconstituted in 293 cells. Several 293 cell lines resulting from infection with recombinant virions induced from a full-length recombinant KSHV genome, named BAC36, were obtained. BAC36 virions established stable latent infection in 293 cells, harboring 1 to 2 copies of viral genome per cell and expressing viral latent proteins, with approximately 0.5% of cells undergoing spontaneous lytic replication, which is reminiscent of KSHV infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tumors. TPA treatment induced BAC36-infected 293 cell lines into productive lytic replication, expressing lytic proteins and producing virions that efficiently infected normal 293 cells with a approximately 50% primary infection rate. BAC36 virions were also infectious to HeLa and E6E7-immortalized human endothelial cells. Since BAC36 can be efficiently shuttled between bacteria and mammalian cells, it is useful for KSHV genetic analysis. The feasibility of the system was illustrated through the generation of a KSHV mutant with the vIRF gene deleted. This cellular model is useful for the investigation of KSHV infection and pathogenesis.
Project description:Cellular topoisomerases and helicases are thought to play an essential role in herpesvirus replication and gene expression and are considered to be potential targets for antiviral therapies. Topoisomerase I (Topo I) and Topo II inhibitors can selectively inhibit Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle DNA replication. We found that the Topo I inhibitor camptothecin and, to a lesser extent, the Topo II inhibitor etoposide are potent inhibitors of the transcription and replication function of the EBV-encoded immediate-early protein Zta (also referred to as ZEBRA, EB1, and BZLF1). Camptothecin inhibited the Zta transcription activation of endogenous and reporter-linked viral promoters. Small interfering RNA depletion of Topo I also inhibited the Zta-dependent activation of lytic cycle DNA replication. Topo I could be coimmunoprecipitated with Zta, but this interaction was restricted to EBV-positive cells, suggesting that other viral proteins stabilize the interaction between Zta and Topo I. We also found that the RecQL1 helicase, which is known to associate with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) OriLyt, interacts with EBV OriLyt. Treatment with camptothecin reduced both Zta and RecQL1 binding to OriLyt in vivo, suggesting that Topo I promotes replication protein assembly at OriLyt.
Project description:The herpesvirus nuclear egress complex (NEC) is composed of two viral proteins. They play key roles in mediating the translocation of capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by facilitating the budding of capsids into the perinuclear space (PNS). The NEC of alphaherpesvirus can induce the formation of virion-like vesicles from the nuclear membrane in the absence of other viral proteins. However, whether the NEC of gammaherpesvirus harbors the ability to do so in mammalian cells remains to be determined. In this study, we first constructed open reading frame 67 (ORF67)-null and ORF69-null mutants of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and demonstrated that both ORF67 and ORF69 play critical roles in nuclear egress and hence viral lytic replication. Biochemical and bioimaging analyses showed that ORF67 and ORF69 interacted with each other and were sufficient to induce the formation of virion-like vesicles from the nuclear membrane in mammalian cells. Thus, we designated ORF67 and ORF69 components of MHV-68 NEC. Furthermore, we identified amino acids critical for mediating the interaction between ORF67 and ORF69 through homology modeling and verified their function in nuclear egress, providing insights into the molecular basis of NEC formation in gammaherpesviruses.IMPORTANCE Increasing amounts of knowledge indicate that the nuclear egress complex (NEC) is critical for the nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids, which can be viewed as a vesicle-mediated transport pathway through the nuclear membrane. In this study, we identified open reading frame 67 (ORF67) and ORF69 as components of the NEC in murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and demonstrated that they efficiently induce virion-like vesicles from the nuclear membrane in mammalian cells. This is the first time that the NEC of a gammaherpesvirus has been found to demonstrate such an essential characteristic. In addition, we identified amino acids critical for mediating the interaction between ORF67 and ORF69 as well as nuclear egress. Notably, these amino acids are conserved in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), providing a structural basis to design antigammaherpesvirus drugs.
Project description:Karposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is found predominantly in a latent state in most cell types, impeding investigations of the lytic replication cycle. Here, we engineered the cloned KSHV genome, bacterial artificial chromosome 36 (BAC36), to enforce constitutive expression of the main lytic switch regulator, the replication and transcription activator (RTA) (open reading frame 50 [ORF50]). The resulting virus, KSHV-lyt, activated by default the lytic cycle and replicated to high titers in various cells. Using KSHV-lyt, we showed that ORF33 (encoding a tegument protein) is essential for lytic KSHV replication in cell culture, but ORF73 (encoding the latent nuclear antigen [LANA]) is not. Thus, KSHV-lyt should be highly useful to study viral gene function during lytic replication.
Project description:There is increasing evidence for a connection between DNA replication and the expression of adjacent genes. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether a herpesvirus origin of replication can be used to activate or increase the expression of adjacent genes. Cell lines carrying an episomal vector, in which reporter genes are linked to the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) origin of lytic replication (oriLyt), were constructed. Reporter gene expression was silenced by a histone-deacetylase-dependent mechanism, but was resolved upon lytic infection with MCMV. Replication of the episome was observed subsequent to infection, leading to the induction of gene expression by more than 1000-fold. oriLyt-based regulation thus provided a unique opportunity for virus-induced conditional gene expression without the need for an additional induction mechanism. This principle was exploited to show effective late trans-complementation of the toxic viral protein M50 and the glycoprotein gO of MCMV. Moreover, the application of this principle for intracellular immunization against herpesvirus infection was demonstrated. The results of the present study show that viral infection specifically activated the expression of a dominant-negative transgene, which inhibited viral growth. This conditional system was operative in explant cultures of transgenic mice, but not in vivo. Several applications are discussed.