SPIN90/WISH interacts with PSD-95 and regulates dendritic spinogenesis via an N-WASP-independent mechanism.
ABSTRACT: SPIN90/WISH (SH3 protein interacting with Nck, 90 kDa/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) interacting SH3 protein) regulates actin polymerization through its interaction with various actin-regulating proteins. It is highly expressed in the brain, but its role in the nervous system is largely unknown. We report that it is expressed in dendritic spines where it associates with PSD-95. Its overexpression increased the number and length of dendritic filopodia/spines via an N-WASP-independent mechanism, and knock down of its expression with small interfering RNA reduced dendritic spine density. The increase in spinogenesis is accompanied by an increase in synaptogenesis in contacting presynaptic neurons. Interestingly, PSD-95-induced dendritic spinogenesis was completely abolished by knock down of SPIN90/WISH. Finally, in response to chemically induced long-term potentiation, SPIN90/WISH associated with PSD-95 and was redistributed to dendritic spines. Our results suggest that SPIN90/WISH associates with PSD-95, and so becomes localized to dendritic spines where it modulates actin dynamics to control dendritic spinogenesis. They also raise the possibility that SPIN90/WISH is a downstream effector of PSD-95-dependent synaptic remodeling.
Project description:The importance of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) in the regulation of synapse morphology and plasticity has been well established. SH3 protein interacting with Nck, 90 kDa (SPIN90), an Nck-interacting protein highly expressed in synapses, is essential for actin remodeling and dendritic spine morphology. Synaptic targeting of SPIN90 to spine heads or dendritic shafts depends on its phosphorylation state, leading to blockage of cofilin-mediated actin depolymerization and spine shrinkage. However, the physiological role of SPIN90 in long-term plasticity, learning and memory are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that Spin90-knockout (KO) mice exhibit substantial deficits in synaptic plasticity and behavioral flexibility. We found that loss of SPIN90 disrupted dendritic spine density in CA1 neurons of the hippocampus and significantly impaired long-term depression (LTD), leaving basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) intact. These impairments were due in part to deficits in AMPA receptor endocytosis and its pre-requisites, GluA1 dephosphorylation and postsynaptic density (PSD) 95 phosphorylation, but also by an intrinsic activation of Akt-GSK3? signaling as a result of Spin90-KO. In accordance with these defects, mice lacking SPIN90 were found to carry significant deficits in object-recognition and behavioral flexibility, while learning ability was largely unaffected. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a novel modulatory role for SPIN90 in hippocampal LTD and behavioral flexibility.
Project description:The small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 are key regulators of the morphogenesis of actin-rich dendritic spines in neurons. However, little is known about how activated Rac1/Cdc42 regulates dendritic spines. Insulin receptor substrate 53 (IRSp53), which is highly expressed in the postsynaptic density (PSD), is known to link activated Rac1/Cdc42 to downstream effectors for actin regulation in non-neural cells. Here, we report that IRSp53 interacts with two specific members of the PSD-95 family, PSD-95 and chapsyn-110/PSD-93, in brain. An IRSp53 mutant lacking the C-terminal PSD-95-binding motif shows significant loss of synaptic localization in cultured neurons. Overexpression of IRSp53 in cultured neurons increases the density of dendritic spines but does not affect their length or width. Conversely, short-interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of IRSp53 reduces the density, length, and width of spines. In addition, the density and size of spines are decreased by a dominant-negative IRSp53 with a point mutation in the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and a dominant-negative proline-rich region of WAVE2 (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family Verprolin-homologous protein), a downstream effector of IRSp53 that binds to the SH3 domain of IRSp53. These results suggest that PSD-95 interaction is an important determinant of synaptic IRSp53 localization and that the SH3 domain of IRSp53 links activated Rac1/Cdc42 to downstream effectors for the regulation of spine morphogenesis.
Project description:Unlike the WASP family of Arp2/3 complex activators, WISH/DIP/SPIN90 (WDS) family proteins activate actin filament nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex without the need for a preformed actin filament. This allows WDS proteins to initiate branched actin network assembly by providing seed filaments that activate WASP-bound Arp2/3 complex. Despite their important role in actin network initiation, it is unclear how WDS proteins drive the activating steps that require both WASP and pre-existing actin filaments during WASP-mediated nucleation. Here, we show that SPIN90 folds into an armadillo repeat domain that binds a surface of Arp2/3 complex distinct from the two WASP sites, straddling a hinge point that may stimulate movement of the Arp2 subunit into the activated short-pitch conformation. SPIN90 binds a surface on Arp2/3 complex that overlaps with actin filament binding, explaining how it could stimulate the same structural rearrangements in the complex as pre-existing actin filaments. By revealing how WDS proteins activate the Arp2/3 complex, these data provide a molecular foundation to understand initiation of dendritic actin networks and regulation of Arp2/3 complex by its activators.
Project description:Arp2/3 complex is a key actin cytoskeletal regulator that creates branched actin filament networks in response to cellular signals. WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex assembles branched actin networks by nucleating new filaments from the sides of pre-existing ones. WASP-mediated activation requires seed filaments, to which the WASP-bound Arp2/3 complex can bind to form branches, but the source of the first substrate filaments for branching is unknown.Here we show that Dip1, a member of the WISH/DIP/SPIN90 family of actin regulators, potently activates Arp2/3 complex without preformed filaments. Unlike other Arp2/3 complex activators, Dip1 does not bind actin monomers or filaments, and it interacts with the complex using a non-WASP-like binding mode. In addition, Dip1-activated Arp2/3 complex creates linear instead of branched actin filament networks.Our data show the mechanism by which Dip1 and other WISH/DIP/SPIN90 proteins can provide seed filaments to Arp2/3 complex to serve as master switches in initiating branched actin assembly. This mechanism is distinct from other known activators of Arp2/3 complex.
Project description:Actin plays a fundamental role in the regulation of spine morphology (both shrinkage and enlargement) upon synaptic activation. In particular, actin depolymerization is crucial for the spine shrinkage in NMDAR-mediated synaptic depression. Here, we define the role of SPIN90 phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in regulating actin depolymerization via modulation of cofilin activity. When neurons were treated with NMDA, SPIN90 was dephosphorylated by STEP61 (striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase) and translocated from the spines to the dendritic shafts. In addition, phosphorylated SPIN90 bound cofilin and then inhibited cofilin activity, suggesting that SPIN90 dephosphorylation is a prerequisite step for releasing cofilin so that cofilin can adequately sever actin filaments into monomeric form. We found that SPIN90 YE, a phosphomimetic mutant, remained in the spines after NMDAR activation where it bound cofilin, thereby effectively preventing actin depolymerization. This led to inhibition of the activity-dependent redistribution of cortactin and drebrin A, as well as of the morphological changes in the spines that underlie synaptic plasticity. These findings indicate that NMDA-induced SPIN90 dephosphorylation and translocation initiates cofilin-mediated actin dynamics and spine shrinkage within dendritic spines, thereby modulating synaptic activity.
Project description:We identified a novel adaptor protein that contains a Src homology (SH)3 domain, SH3 binding proline-rich sequences, and a leucine zipper-like motif and termed this protein WASP interacting SH3 protein (WISH). WISH is expressed predominantly in neural tissues and testis. It bound Ash/Grb2 through its proline-rich regions and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) through its SH3 domain. WISH strongly enhanced N-WASP-induced Arp2/3 complex activation independent of Cdc42 in vitro, resulting in rapid actin polymerization. Furthermore, coexpression of WISH and N-WASP induced marked formation of microspikes in Cos7 cells, even in the absence of stimuli. An N-WASP mutant (H208D) that cannot bind Cdc42 still induced microspike formation when coexpressed with WISH. We also examined the contribution of WISH to a rapid actin polymerization induced by brain extract in vitro. Arp2/3 complex was essential for brain extract-induced rapid actin polymerization. Addition of WISH to extracts increased actin polymerization as Cdc42 did. However, WISH unexpectedly could activate actin polymerization even in N-WASP-depleted extracts. These findings suggest that WISH activates Arp2/3 complex through N-WASP-dependent and -independent pathways without Cdc42, resulting in the rapid actin polymerization required for microspike formation.
Project description:We identified a group of actin-binding-bundling proteins that are expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) but are not detected in other neurons of the CNS. These proteins are novel isoforms of the actin-bundling protein espin that arise through the use of a unique site for transcriptional initiation and differential splicing. Light and electron microscopic localization studies demonstrated that these espin isoforms are enriched in the dendritic spines of PCs. They were detected in the head and neck and in association with the postsynaptic density (PSD) of dendritic spines in synaptic contact with parallel or climbing fibers. They were also highly enriched in PSD fractions isolated from cerebellum. The PC espins efficiently bound and bundled actin filaments in vitro, and these activities were not inhibited by Ca2+. When expressed in transfected neuronal cell lines, the PC espins colocalized with actin filaments and elicited the formation of coarse cytoplasmic actin bundles. The insulin receptor substrate p53 (IRSp53), an Src homology 3 (SH3) adapter protein and regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, was identified as an espin-binding protein in yeast two-hybrid screens. Cotransfection studies and pull-down assays showed that this interaction was direct and required the N-terminal proline-rich peptide of the PC espins. Thus, the PC espins exhibit the properties of modular actin-bundling proteins with the potential to influence the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in PC dendritic spines and to participate in multiprotein complexes involving SH3 domain-containing proteins, such as IRSp53.
Project description:PSD-95 MAGUK family scaffold proteins are multi-domain organisers of synaptic transmission that contain three PDZ domains followed by an SH3-GK domain tandem. This domain architecture allows coordinated assembly of protein complexes composed of neurotransmitter receptors, synaptic adhesion molecules and downstream signalling effectors. Here we show that binding of monomeric CRIPT-derived PDZ3 ligands to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95 induces functional changes in the intramolecular SH3-GK domain assembly that influence subsequent homotypic and heterotypic complex formation. We identify PSD-95 interactors that differentially bind to the SH3-GK domain tandem depending on its conformational state. Among these interactors, we further establish the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gnb5 as a PSD-95 complex partner at dendritic spines of rat hippocampal neurons. The PSD-95 GK domain binds to Gnb5, and this interaction is triggered by CRIPT-derived PDZ3 ligands binding to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95, unraveling a hierarchical binding mechanism of PSD-95 complex formation.
Project description:Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin filaments important for cellular motility, endocytosis, meiosis, and cellular differentiation [1-4]. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins (WASPs), the prototypical Arp2/3 complex activators, activate Arp2/3 complex only once it is bound to the side of an actin filament [5, 6]. This ensures WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex only nucleates branched actin filaments but means branched actin networks must be seeded with an initial preformed filament. Dip1 and other WISH/DIP/SPIN90 family proteins activate Arp2/3 complex without preformed filaments , creating seed filaments that activate WASP-bound Arp2/3 complex . Importantly, Dip1-mediated activation of Arp2/3 complex creates linear filaments instead of branches . Cells may therefore need to limit Dip1 activity relative to WASP to preserve the dendritic nature of actin networks, although it is unclear whether such regulatory mechanisms exist. Here, we use total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to show that Dip1 causes actin assembled with WASP and Arp2/3 complex to form disconnected networks with many linear filaments rather than highly branched arrays. We discover a key biochemical difference between Dip1 and WASP that may limit linear filament nucleation in cells; although WASP must be released for nucleation, Dip1 stays associated with Arp2/3 complex on the pointed ends of nucleated actin filaments, so Dip1 is consumed in the reaction. Using live-cell imaging of fission yeast, we provide evidence that Dip1 is a single-turnover activator of Arp2/3 complex in vivo, revealing a mechanism by which Dip1 can initiate branched actin networks at endocytic sites without disrupting their branched architectures.
Project description:PSD-95 is an abundant postsynaptic density (PSD) protein involved in the formation and regulation of excitatory synapses and dendritic spines, but the underlying mechanisms are not comprehensively understood. Here we report a novel PSD-95-interacting protein Preso that regulates spine morphogenesis. Preso is mainly expressed in the brain and contains WW (domain with two conserved Trp residues), PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1), FERM (4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin), and C-terminal PDZ-binding domains. These domains associate with actin filaments, the Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor betaPix, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, and the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, respectively. Preso overexpression increases the density of dendritic spines in a manner requiring WW, PDZ, FERM, and PDZ-binding domains. Conversely, knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of Preso decreases spine density, excitatory synaptic transmission, and the spine level of filamentous actin. These results suggest that Preso positively regulates spine density through its interaction with the synaptic plasma membrane, actin filaments, PSD-95, and the betaPix-based Rac1 signaling pathway.