The CRY box: a second APCcdh1-dependent degron in mammalian cdc20.
ABSTRACT: Cdc20 and cdh1 are coactivators of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). APC(cdc20) is necessary for the metaphase-anaphase transition and, at the end of mitosis, vertebrate cdc20 itself becomes a target for degradation through KEN-box-dependent APC(cdh1) activity. By studying the degradation of fluorescent protein chimaeras in mammalian oocytes and early embryos, we found that cdc20 was degraded through two independent degradation signals (degrons), the KEN box and a newly described CRY box. In both oocytes and G1-stage embryos, the rate of degradation through the CRY box was greater than through the KEN box, although both were mediated by APC(cdh1). Thus, mammalian oocytes and embryos have the capacity to recognize two degrons in cdc20.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) promotes anaphase onset and mitotic exit through ubiquitinating securin and cyclin B1. The mitotic APC/C activator, the cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20) protein, directly interacts with APC/C degrons--the destruction (D) and KEN boxes. APC/C(Cdc20) is the target of the spindle checkpoint. Checkpoint inhibition of APC/C(Cdc20) requires the binding of a BubR1 KEN box to Cdc20. How APC/C recognizes substrates is not understood. We report the crystal structures of human Cdc20 alone or bound to a BubR1 KEN box. Cdc20 has a disordered N-terminal region and a C-terminal WD40 ? propeller with a preformed KEN-box-binding site at its top face. We identify a second conserved surface at the side of the Cdc20 ? propeller as a D-box-binding site. The D box of securin, but not its KEN box, is critical for securin ubiquitination by APC/C(Cdc20). Although both motifs contribute to securin ubiquitination by APC/C(Cdh1), securin mutants lacking either motif are efficiently ubiquitinated. Furthermore, D-box peptides diminish the ubiquitination of KEN-box substrates by APC/C(Cdh1), suggesting possible competition between the two motifs. Our results indicate the lack of strong positive cooperativity between the two degrons of securin. We propose that low-cooperativity, multisite target recognition enables APC/C to robustly ubiquitinate diverse substrates and helps to drive cell cycle oscillations.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) controls a variety of cellular processes through its ability to target numerous protein substrates for timely degradation. Substrate selection by this ubiquitin ligase depends on related activator proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1, which bind and activate the APC/C at distinct cell cycle stages. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that Cdc20 and Cdh1 carry conserved receptor domains to recognize specific sequence motifs in substrates, such as D and KEN boxes. The mechanisms for ordered degradation of APC/C substrates, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we describe minimal degradation sequences (degrons) sufficient for rapid APC/C-Cdh1-specific in vivo degradation. The polo kinase Cdc5-derived degron contained an essential KEN motif, whereas a single RxxL-type D box was the relevant signal in the Cdc20-derived degradation domain, indicating that either motif may support specific recognition by Cdh1. In both degrons, the APC/C recognition motif was flanked by a nuclear localization sequence. Forced localization of the degron constructs revealed that proteolysis mediated by APC/C-Cdh1 is restricted to the nucleus and maximally active in the nucleoplasm. Levels of Iqg1, a cytoplasmic Cdh1 substrate, decreased detectably later than the nucleus-localized Cdh1 substrate Ase1, indicating that confinement to the nucleus may allow for temporal control of APC/C-Cdh1-mediated proteolysis.
Project description:The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) regulates sister chromatid segregation and the exit from mitosis. Selection of most APC/C substrates is controlled by coactivator subunits (either Cdc20 or Cdh1) that interact with substrate destruction motifs--predominantly the destruction (D) box and KEN box degrons. How coactivators recognize D box degrons and how this is inhibited by APC/C regulatory proteins is not defined at the atomic level. Here, from the crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Cdh1 in complex with its specific inhibitor Acm1, which incorporates D and KEN box pseudosubstrate motifs, we describe the molecular basis for D box recognition. Additional interactions between Acm1 and Cdh1 identify a third protein-binding site on Cdh1 that is likely to confer coactivator-specific protein functions including substrate association. We provide a structural rationalization for D box and KEN box recognition by coactivators and demonstrate that many noncanonical APC/C degrons bind APC/C coactivators at the D box coreceptor.
Project description:The anaphase promoting complex (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase that promotes the degradation of cell-cycle regulators by the 26S proteasome. Cdc20 and Cdh1 are WD40-containing APC co-activators that bind destruction boxes (DB) and KEN boxes within substrates to recruit them to the APC for ubiquitination. Acm1 is an APC(Cdh1) inhibitor that utilizes a DB and a KEN box to bind Cdh1 and prevent substrate binding, although Acm1 itself is not a substrate. We investigated what differentiates an APC substrate from an inhibitor. We identified the Acm1 A-motif that interacts with Cdh1 and together with the DB and KEN box is required for APC(Cdh1) inhibition. A genetic screen identified Cdh1 WD40 domain residues important for Acm1 A-motif interaction and inhibition that appears to reside near Cdh1 residues important for DB recognition. Specific lysine insertion mutations within Acm1 promoted its ubiquitination by APC(Cdh1) whereas lysine removal from the APC substrate Hsl1 converted it into a potent APC(Cdh1) inhibitor. These findings suggest that tight Cdh1 binding combined with the inaccessibility of ubiquitinatable lysines contributes to pseudosubstrate inhibition of APC(Cdh1).
Project description:Progression through mitosis and cytokinesis requires the sequential proteolysis of several cell-cycle regulators. This proteolysis is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, with the E3 ligase being the anaphase-promoting complex, also known as the cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C is regulated by two activators, namely Cdc20 and Cdh1. The current view is that prior to anaphase, the APC/C is activated by Cdc20, but that following anaphase, APC/C switches to Cdh1-dependent activation. However, here we present an analysis of the kinetochore protein Cenp-F that is inconsistent with this notion. Although it has long been appreciated that Cenp-F is degraded sometime during or after mitosis, exactly when and how has not been clear. Here we show that degradation of Cenp-F initiates about six minutes after anaphase, and that this is dependent on a C-terminal KEN-box. Although these two observations are consistent with Cenp-F being a substrate of Cdh1-activated APC/C, Cenp-F is degraded normally in Cdh1-null cells. By contrast, RNAi-mediated repression of APC/C subunits or Cdc20 does inhibit Cenp-F degradation. These findings therefore suggest that the APC/C does not simply 'switch' upon anaphase onset; rather, our observations indicate that Cdc20 also contributes to post-anaphase activation of the APC/C. We also show that the post-anaphase, KEN-box-dependent degradation of Cenp-F requires it to be farnesylated, a post-translational modification usually linked to membrane association. Because so many of the behaviours of Cenp-F are farnesylation-dependent, we suggest that this modification plays a more global role in Cenp-F function.
Project description:Mitotic progression is driven by proteolytic destruction of securin and cyclins. These proteins are labeled for destruction by an ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase (E3) known as the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C). The APC/C requires activators (Cdc20 or Cdh1) to efficiently recognize its substrates, which are specified by destruction (D box) and/or KEN box signals. The spindle assembly checkpoint responds to unattached kinetochores and to kinetochores lacking tension, both of which reflect incomplete biorientation of chromosomes, by delaying the onset of anaphase. It does this by inhibiting Cdc20-APC/C. Certain checkpoint proteins interact directly with Cdc20, but it remains unclear how the checkpoint acts to efficiently inhibit Cdc20-APC/C activity. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we find that the Mad3 and Mad2 spindle checkpoint proteins interact stably with the APC/C in mitosis. Mad3 contains two KEN boxes, conserved from yeast Mad3 to human BubR1, and mutation of either of these abrogates the spindle checkpoint. Strikingly, mutation of the N-terminal KEN box abolishes incorporation of Mad3 into the mitotic checkpoint complex (Mad3-Mad2-Slp1 in S. pombe, where Slp1 is the Cdc20 homolog that we will refer to as Cdc20 hereafter) and stable association of both Mad3 and Mad2 with the APC/C. Our findings demonstrate that this Mad3 KEN box is a critical mediator of Cdc20-APC/C inhibition, without which neither Mad3 nor Mad2 can associate with the APC/C or inhibit anaphase onset.
Project description:Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an E3 ubiquitin ligase incorporated with Cdh1 and/or Cdc20 recognizes and interacts with specific substrates, and faithfully orchestrates the proper cell cycle events by targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. Experimental identification of APC/C substrates is largely dependent on the discovery of APC/C recognition motifs, e.g., the D-box and KEN-box. Although a number of either stringent or loosely defined motifs proposed, these motif patterns are only of limited use due to their insufficient powers of prediction. We report the development of a novel GPS-ARM software package which is useful for the prediction of D-boxes and KEN-boxes in proteins. Using experimentally identified D-boxes and KEN-boxes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-ARM performance was found to be much better than the one using simple motifs. With this powerful tool, we predicted 4,841 potential D-boxes in 3,832 proteins and 1,632 potential KEN-boxes in 1,403 proteins from H. sapiens, while further statistical analysis suggested that both the D-box and KEN-box proteins are involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes beyond the cell cycle. In addition, with the co-localization information, we predicted hundreds of mitosis-specific APC/C substrates with high confidence. As the first computational tool for the prediction of APC/C-mediated degradation, GPS-ARM is a useful tool for information to be used in further experimental investigations. The GPS-ARM is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://arm.biocuckoo.org.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C, also known as the cyclosome) regulates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of specific cell-cycle proteins to coordinate chromosome segregation in mitosis and entry into the G1 phase. The catalytic activity of the APC/C and its ability to specify the destruction of particular proteins at different phases of the cell cycle are controlled by its interaction with two structurally related coactivator subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Coactivators recognize substrate degrons, and enhance the affinity of the APC/C for its cognate E2 (refs 4-6). During mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and polo-like kinase (Plk) control Cdc20- and Cdh1-mediated activation of the APC/C. Hyperphosphorylation of APC/C subunits, notably Apc1 and Apc3, is required for Cdc20 to activate the APC/C, whereas phosphorylation of Cdh1 prevents its association with the APC/C. Since both coactivators associate with the APC/C through their common C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs, the mechanism underlying this differential regulation is unclear, as is the role of specific APC/C phosphorylation sites. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical analysis, we define the molecular basis of how phosphorylation of human APC/C allows for its control by Cdc20. An auto-inhibitory segment of Apc1 acts as a molecular switch that in apo unphosphorylated APC/C interacts with the C-box binding site and obstructs engagement of Cdc20. Phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment displaces it from the C-box-binding site. Efficient phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment, and thus relief of auto-inhibition, requires the recruitment of Cdk-cyclin in complex with a Cdk regulatory subunit (Cks) to a hyperphosphorylated loop of Apc3. We also find that the small-molecule inhibitor, tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester, preferentially suppresses APC/C(Cdc20) rather than APC/C(Cdh1), and interacts with the binding sites of both the C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs. Our results reveal the mechanism for the regulation of mitotic APC/C by phosphorylation and provide a rationale for the development of selective inhibitors of this state.
Project description:The ubiquitylation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins by the large multimeric anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) controls sister chromatid segregation and the exit from mitosis. Selection of APC/C targets is achieved through recognition of destruction motifs, predominantly the destruction (D)-box and KEN (Lys-Glu-Asn)-box. Although this process is known to involve a co-activator protein (either Cdc20 or Cdh1) together with core APC/C subunits, the structural basis for substrate recognition and ubiquitylation is not understood. Here we investigate budding yeast APC/C using single-particle electron microscopy and determine a cryo-electron microscopy map of APC/C in complex with the Cdh1 co-activator protein (APC/C(Cdh1)) bound to a D-box peptide at ?10 Å resolution. We find that a combined catalytic and substrate-recognition module is located within the central cavity of the APC/C assembled from Cdh1, Apc10--a core APC/C subunit previously implicated in substrate recognition--and the cullin domain of Apc2. Cdh1 and Apc10, identified from difference maps, create a co-receptor for the D-box following repositioning of Cdh1 towards Apc10. Using NMR spectroscopy we demonstrate specific D-box-Apc10 interactions, consistent with a role for Apc10 in directly contributing towards D-box recognition by the APC/C(Cdh1) complex. Our results rationalize the contribution of both co-activator and core APC/C subunits to D-box recognition and provide a structural framework for understanding mechanisms of substrate recognition and catalysis by the APC/C.
Project description:The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) ensures genomic stability by preventing sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are attached to the spindle. It catalyzes the production of the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC), which inhibits Cdc20 to inactivate the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). Here we show that two Cdc20-binding motifs in BubR1 of the recently identified ABBA motif class are crucial for the MCC to recognize active APC/C-Cdc20. Mutating these motifs eliminates MCC binding to the APC/C, thereby abolishing the SAC and preventing cells from arresting in response to microtubule poisons. These ABBA motifs flank a KEN box to form a cassette that is highly conserved through evolution, both in the arrangement and spacing of the ABBA-KEN-ABBA motifs, and association with the amino-terminal KEN box required to form the MCC. We propose that the ABBA-KEN-ABBA cassette holds the MCC onto the APC/C by binding the two Cdc20 molecules in the MCC-APC/C complex.