MIMOX: a web tool for phage display based epitope mapping.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Phage display is widely used in basic research such as the exploration of protein-protein interaction sites and networks, and applied research such as the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics. It has also become a promising method for epitope mapping. Research on new algorithms that assist and automate phage display based epitope mapping has attracted many groups. Most of the existing tools have not been implemented as an online service until now however, making it less convenient for the community to access, utilize, and evaluate them. RESULTS: We present MIMOX, a free web tool that helps to map the native epitope of an antibody based on one or more user supplied mimotopes and the antigen structure. MIMOX was coded in Perl using modules from the Bioperl project. It has two sections. In the first section, MIMOX provides a simple interface for ClustalW to align a set of mimotopes. It also provides a simple statistical method to derive the consensus sequence and embeds JalView as a Java applet to view and manage the alignment. In the second section, MIMOX can map a single mimotope or a consensus sequence of a set of mimotopes, on to the corresponding antigen structure and search for all of the clusters of residues that could represent the native epitope. NACCESS is used to evaluate the surface accessibility of the candidate clusters; and Jmol is embedded to view them interactively in their 3D context. Initial case studies show that MIMOX can reproduce mappings from existing tools such as FINDMAP and 3DEX, as well as providing novel, rational results. CONCLUSION: A web-based tool called MIMOX has been developed for phage display based epitope mapping. As a publicly available online service in this area, it is convenient for the community to access, utilize, and evaluate, complementing other existing programs. MIMOX is freely available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~hjian/mimox.
Project description:In the post-genomic era, validation of candidate gene targets frequently requires proteinbased strategies. Phage display is a powerful tool to define protein-protein interactions by generating peptide binders against target antigens. Epitope phage display libraries have the potential to enrich coding exon sequences from human genomic loci. We evaluated genomic and cDNA phage display strategies to identify genes in the 5q31 Interleukin gene cluster and to enrich cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase genes from a breast cancer cDNA library. A genomic display library containing 2 x 106 clones with exon-sized inserts was selected with antibodies specific for human Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13. The library was enriched significantly after two selection rounds and DNA sequencing revealed unique clones. One clone matched a cognate IL-4 epitope; however, the majority of clone insert sequences corresponded to E. coli genomic DNA. These bacterial sequences act as 'mimotopes' (mimetic sequences of the true epitope), correspond to open reading frames, generate displayed peptides, and compete for binding during phage selection. The specificity of these mimotopes for IL-4 was confirmed by competition ELISA. Other E. coli mimotopes were generated using additional antibodies. Mimotopes for a receptor tyrosine kinase gene were also selected using a breast cancer SKBR-3 cDNA phage display library, screened against an anti-erbB2 monoclonal antibody. Identification of mimotopes in genomic and cDNA phage libraries is essential for phage display-based protein validation assays and two-hybrid phage approaches that examine protein-protein interactions. The predominance of E. coli mimotopes suggests that the E. coli genome may be useful to generate peptide diversity biased towards protein coding sequences.
Project description:Tocilizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody showing high-affinity binding to both soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and membrane bound IL-6R (mIL-6R), thereby preventing pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6. However, therapeutic antibodies still have practical limitations. To overcome these limitations, we generated Tocilizumab specific epitope mimics by using the phage display technology and tested whether the peptide mimics could induce similar humoral responses in mice immunized with the peptides.Seven phage mimics were obtained by using phage display peptide library. Four phage mimics (YHTTDKLFYMMR, YSAYEFEYILSS, KTMSAEEFDNWL and LTSHTYRSQADT) were shown to mimic Tocilizumab epitope using immunoassays. The mimotopes were conjugated to immunogenic carrier proteins and used to intraperitoneally immunize BALB/c mice. Sera from the mimotopes immunized mice not only showed specific binding to recombinant IL-6R, but can also IL-6R expressed in Hela, U-937, Jurkat cell lines and in fibroblast-like synoviocytes from patients with RA (FLS-RA). Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with mimotopes-KLH conjugate could reduce the level of phosphorylated- signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT3), STAT3, phosphorylated- extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2 and Erk1/2 in HeLa and Jurkat cells. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay showed that antibodies induced by mimotopes-KLH conjugate could elicit specific lysis in Hela and U-937 cells.From phage display library, we successfully isolated four Tocilizumab mimotopes which induced specific humoral and cellular reponses in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A B-cell epitope is a group of residues on the surface of an antigen which stimulates humoral responses. Locating these epitopes on antigens is important for the purpose of effective vaccine design. In recent years, mapping affinity-selected peptides screened from a random phage display library to the native epitope has become popular in epitope prediction. These peptides, also known as mimotopes, share the similar structure and function with the corresponding native epitopes. Great effort has been made in using this similarity between such mimotopes and native epitopes in prediction, which has resulted in better outcomes than statistics-based methods can. However, it cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in various circumstances. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a new method that maps a group of mimotopes back to a source antigen so as to locate the interacting epitope on the antigen. The core of this method is a searching algorithm that is incorporated with both dynamic programming (DP) and branch and bound (BB) optimization and operated on a series of overlapping patches on the surface of a protein. These patches are then transformed to a number of graphs using an adaptable distance threshold (ADT) regulated by an appropriate compactness factor (CF), a novel parameter proposed in this study. Compared with both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf, two leading graph-based search tools, on average from the results of 18 test cases, MimoPro, the Web-based implementation of our proposed method, performed better in sensitivity, precision, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) than both did in epitope prediction. In addition, MimoPro is significantly faster than both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf in processing. CONCLUSIONS: Our search algorithm designed for processing well constructed graphs using an ADT regulated by CF is more sensitive and significantly faster than other graph-based approaches in epitope prediction. MimoPro is a viable alternative to both PepSurf and Pep-3D-Search for epitope prediction in the same kind, and freely accessible through the MimoPro server located at http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/MimoPro.
Project description:A mimotope is an antibody-epitope-mimicking peptide retrieved from a phage display random peptide library. Immunization with antitumor antibody-derived mimotopes is promising for inducing antitumor immunity in hosts. In this study, we isolated linear and constrained mimotopes from HBJ127, a tumor-suppressing anti-CD98 heavy chain mAb, and determined their abilities for induction of antitumor activity equal to that of the parent antibody. We detected elevated levels of antipeptide responses, but failed to detect reactivity against native CD98-expressing HeLa cells in sera of immunized mice. Phage display panning and selection of mimotope-immunized mouse spleen-derived antibody Fab library showed that HeLa cell-reactive Fabs were successfully retrieved from the library. This finding indicates that native antigen-reactive Fab clones represented an undetectable minor population in mimotope-induced antibody repertoire. Functional and structural analysis of retrieved Fab clones revealed that they were almost identical to the parent antibody. From these results, we confirmed that mimotope immunization was promising for retrieving antitumor antibodies equivalent to the parent antibody, although the co-administration of adjuvant compounds such as T-cell epitope peptides and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist peptides is likely to be necessary for inducing stronger antitumor immunity than mimotope injection alone.
Project description:Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the major causative agent in a syndrome of reproductive failure in swine. Much has been learned about the structure and function of PPV in recent years, but nothing is known about the epitopes of the structural protein VP1, which is an important antigen of PPV. In this study, the monoclonal antibody C4 against VP1 of PPV was prepared and was used to biopan a 12-mer phage peptide library three times. The selected phage clones were identified by ELISA and then sequencing. The amino acid sequences detected by phage display were analyzed, and a mimic immuno-dominant epitope was identified. The epitope of VP1 is located in the N-terminal and contains the role amino acid sequence R-K-R. Immunization of mice indicated that the phage-displayed peptide induces antibodies against PPV. This study shows that peptide mimotopes have potential as alternatives to the complex antigens currently used for diagnosis of PPV infection or for development of vaccines.
Project description:Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23-30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92-102), VPP (131-133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tumor angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth, infiltration and metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and targeting it is important in reducing angiogenesis. Bevacizumab (Avastin), a monoclonal antibody that reacts directly against VEGF, has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for various cancers such as rectal cancer, colon carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer, etc. RESULTS: In the current study, we used the phage display technique to generate mimotopes that complemented the screening Avastin antibody (Ab). The candidate mimotopes of VEGF were isolated from a 12-mer peptide library. The phage displaying peptide DHTLYTPYHTHP (designated as 12P) exhibited high affinity to Avastin. The chemically synthesized 12P was conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) by glutaraldehyde (GA) to form vaccine KLH-12 peptide (KLH-12P). This epitope vaccine significantly induced humoral immunity in mice. The blood serum from KLH-12P-immunized mice associated with VEGF and blocked its binding to VEGFR, thus inhibiting vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the isolated mimotope 12P reported here could potentially elicit specific antibodies against VEGF and result in the induction of anti-angiogenesis responses.
Project description:Antigen-binding fragments (Fab fragments) and single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) were produced by phage display technology. SEB epitopes were first identified by phage display approach using the commercial anti-SEB monoclonal antibody ab53981 as the target. Heptamer and dodecamer mimotope peptides recognized by ab53981 were screened from Ph.D-7 or Ph.D-12 random peptide phage libraries expressed in Escherichia coli. The isolated 7-mer and 12-mer mimotopes were shown to share a sequence homologous to ?PDELHK¹?S in the amino acid sequence of SEB. The N-terminal 15-mer peptide of SEB was determined to be an epitope of ab53981. After immunization of mice with maltose-binding protein-tagged N-terminal 15-mer peptide, a phage display Fab library was constructed using cDNA prepared from the mRNAs of spleen cells. Three phage clones displaying the Fab molecule which recognized SEB were isolated through three rounds of panning. Only one of them produced a soluble Fab fragment from the transformed cells, and the fragment fused with a histidine tag sequence was produced in E. coli cells and converted into scFv. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the dissociation constants of these proteins with SEB were (4.1 ± 1.1) × 10?? M and (8.4 ± 2.3) × 10?¹? M, respectively. The produced molecule was applied to the determination of SEB by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis.
Project description:In the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome, a significant proportion of IgE is directed against high molecular weight (HMW) glycoproteins, including the celery allergen Api g 5. BIP3, a monoclonal antibody originally raised against birch pollen, recognizes HMW allergens in birch and mugwort pollens, celery, and Apiaceae spices. Our aim was to generate mimotopes using BIP3 for immunization against the HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice cross reactivity syndrome.Mimotopes were selected from a random-peptide display library by BIP3 and applied in IgE inhibition assays. The 3 phage clones with the highest inhibitory capacity were chosen for immunization of BALB/c mice. Mouse immune sera were tested for IgG binding to blotted birch pollen extract and used for inhibiting patients' IgE binding. Furthermore, sera were tested for binding to Api g 5, to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a second glycoprotein, or to non-glycosylated control allergen Phl p 5 in ELISA, and the specific Api g 5-specific IgG titers were determined.Three rounds of biopanning resulted in phage clones exhibiting 7 different sequences including 1 dominant, 1-6-cyclo-CHKLRCDKAIA. Three phage clones had the capacity to inhibit human IgE binding and induced IgG to the HMW antigen when used for immunizing BALB/c mice. The induced BIP3-mimotope IgG reached titers of 1:500 specifically to Api g 5, but hardly reacted to glycoprotein HRP, revealing a minor role of carbohydrates in their epitope.The mimotopes characterized in this study mimic the epitope of BIP3 relevant for Api g 5, one of the cross-reactive HMW allergens relevant in the celery-mugwort-birch-spice syndrome. BIP3 mimotopes may be used in the future for hyposensitization in this clinical syndrome by virtue of good and specific immunogenicity.
Project description:Antibody engineering must be accompanied by mapping strategies focused on identifying the epitope recognized by each antibody to define its unique functional identity. High throughput fine specificity determination remains technically challenging. We review recent experiences aimed at revisiting the oldest and most extended display technology to develop a robust epitope mapping platform, based on the ability to manipulate target-derived molecules (ranging from the whole native antigen to antigen domains and smaller fragments) on filamentous phages. Single, multiple and combinatorial mutagenesis allowed comprehensive scanning of phage-displayed antigen surface that resulted in the identification of clusters of residues contributing to epitope formation. Functional pictures of the epitope(s) were thus delineated in the natural context. Successful mapping of antibodies against interleukin-2, epidermal growth factor and its receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor showed the versatility of these procedures, which combine the accuracy of site-directed mutagenesis with the high throughput potential of phage display.