Targeted ablation of IKK2 improves skeletal muscle strength, maintains mass, and promotes regeneration.
ABSTRACT: NF-kappaB is a major pleiotropic transcription factor modulating immune, inflammatory, cell survival, and proliferative responses, yet the relevance of NF-kappaB signaling in muscle physiology and disease is less well documented. Here we show that muscle-restricted NF-kappaB inhibition in mice, through targeted deletion of the activating kinase inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase 2 (IKK2), shifted muscle fiber distribution and improved muscle force. In response to denervation, IKK2 depletion protected against atrophy, maintaining fiber type, size, and strength, increasing protein synthesis, and decreasing protein degradation. IKK2-depleted mice with a muscle-specific transgene expressing a local Igf-1 isoform (mIgf-1) showed enhanced protection against muscle atrophy. In response to muscle damage, IKK2 depletion facilitated skeletal muscle regeneration through enhanced satellite cell activation and reduced fibrosis. Our results establish IKK2/NF-kappaB signaling as an important modulator of muscle homeostasis and suggest a combined role for IKK inhibitors and growth factors in the therapy of muscle diseases.
Project description:Initial Ca2+-dependent contraction of the intestinal smooth muscle mediated by G(q)-coupled receptors is attenuated by RGS4 (regulator of G-protein signalling 4). Treatment of colonic muscle cells with IL-1beta (interleukin-1beta) inhibits acetylcholine-stimulated initial contraction through increasing the expression of RGS4. NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) signalling is the dominant pathway activated by IL-1beta. In the present study we show that RGS4 is a new target gene regulated by IL-1beta/NF-kappaB signalling. Exposure of cultured rabbit colonic muscle cells to IL-1beta induced a rapid increase in RGS4 mRNA expression, which was abolished by pretreatment with a transcription inhibitor, actinomycin D, implying a transcription-dependent mechanism. Existence of the canonical IKK2 [IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) kinase 2]/IkappaBalpha pathway of NF-kappaB activation induced by IL-1beta in rabbit colonic muscle cells was validated with multiple approaches, including the induction of reporter luciferase activity and endogenous NF-kappaB-target gene expression, NF-kappaB-DNA binding activity, p65 nuclear translocation, IkappaBalpha degradation and the phosphorylation of IKK2 at Ser(177/181) and p65 at Ser(536). RGS4 up-regulation by IL-1beta was blocked by selective inhibitors of IKK2, IkappaBalpha or NF-kappaB activation, by effective siRNA (small interfering RNA) of IKK2, and in cells expressing either the kinase-inactive IKK2 mutant (K44A) or the phosphorylation-deficient IkappaBalpha mutant (S32A/S36A). An IKK2-specific inhibitor or effective siRNA prevented IL-1beta-induced inhibition of acetylcholine-stimulated PLC-beta (phopsholipase C-beta) activation. These results suggest that the canonical IKK2/IkappaBalpha pathway of NF-kappaB activation mediates the up-regulation of RGS4 expression in response to IL-1beta and contributes to the inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on acetylcholine-stimulated PLC-beta-dependent initial contraction in rabbit colonic smooth muscle.
Project description:Activation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) system and expression of proinflammatory mediators are major events in acute pancreatitis. However, the in vivo consequences of IKK activation on the onset and progression of acute pancreatitis remain unclear. Therefore, we modulated IKK activity conditionally in pancreatic acinar cells. Transgenic mice expressing the reverse tetracycline-responsive transactivator (rtTA) gene under the control of the rat elastase promoter were generated to mediate acinar cell-specific expression of IKK2 alleles. Expression of dominant-negative IKK2 ameliorated cerulein-induced pancreatitis but did not affect activation of trypsin, an initial event in experimental pancreatitis. Notably, expression of constitutively active IKK2 was sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis. This acinar cell-specific phenotype included edema, cellular infiltrates, necrosis, and elevation of serum lipase levels as well as pancreatic fibrosis. IKK2 activation caused increased expression of known NF-kappaB target genes, including mediators of the inflammatory response such as TNF-alpha and ICAM-1. Indeed, inhibition of TNF-alpha activity identified this cytokine as an important effector of IKK2-induced pancreatitis. Our data identify the IKK/NF-kappaB pathway in acinar cells as being key to the development of experimental pancreatitis and the major factor in the inflammatory response typical of this disease.
Project description:Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are ubiquitous enzymes that repress gene expression by deacetylating histone tails and promoting chromatin compaction. Pro-inflammatory agents activate programmes of gene expression through transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), even in the context of ubiquitous HDAC activity. How this is accomplished remains unknown. We found that cells treated with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha rapidly and substantially reduced HDAC1 protein levels without affecting other class I HDACs. In addition, HDAC1 depletion occurred through protein degradation, required IKK2 activity and resulted in increased transcription from both NF-kappaB-associated and unassociated gene promoters. Our study suggests that the activation of programmes of gene expression by pro-inflammatory agents requires global changes in specific critical epigenetic regulators such as HDAC1.
Project description:Inflammation is a major factor in heart disease. IÎºB kinase (IKK) and its downstream target NF-ÎºB are regulators of inflammation and are activated in cardiac disorders, but their precise contributions and targets are unclear. We analyzed IKK/NF-ÎºB function in the heart by a gain-of-function approach, generating an inducible transgenic mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of constitutively active IKK2 (IKK2-CA). In adult animals, IKK2 activation led to inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Transgenic hearts showed infiltration with CD11b+ cells, fibrosis, fetal reprogramming, and atrophy of myocytes with strong constitutively active IKK2 expression. To gain insight into proximal events after activation of IKK2/NF-ÎºB, we isolated cardiomyocytes and activated the transgene in vitro, thus avoiding interference of other cell types. Gene expression analysis revealed up-regulation of transcripts of chemotactic cytokines, adhesion molecules, and a striking number of IFN-regulated genes in cardiomyocytes expressing IKK2-CA. In addition, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes were up-regulated.
Project description:Inflammatory destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts is a common cause of vanishing bile duct syndrome and cholestasis, often progressing to biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of inflammatory biliary disease are poorly understood. Here, we show that the two IkappaB kinases, IKK1/IKKalpha and IKK2/IKKbeta, display distinct collaborative and specific functions that are essential to protect the liver from cytokine toxicity and bile duct disease. Combined conditional ablation of IKK1 and IKK2, but not of each kinase alone, sensitized the liver to in vivo LPS challenge, uncovering a redundant function of the two IkappaB kinases in mediating canonical NF-kappaB signaling in hepatocytes and protecting the liver from TNF-induced failure. Unexpectedly, mice with combined ablation of IKK1 and IKK2 or IKK1 and NEMO spontaneously developed severe jaundice and fatal cholangitis characterized by inflammatory destruction of small portal bile ducts. This bile duct disease was caused by the combined impairment of canonical NF-kappaB signaling together with inhibition of IKK1-specific functions affecting the bile-blood barrier. These results reveal a novel function of the two IkappaB kinases in cooperatively regulating liver immune homeostasis and bile duct integrity and suggest that IKK signaling may be implicated in human biliary diseases.
Project description:Initial Ca(2+)-dependent contraction of intestinal smooth muscle is inhibited upon IL-1beta treatment. The decrease in contraction reflects the upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling-4 (RGS4) via the canonical inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase-2 (IKK2)/IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB pathway. Here, we show that the activation of various protein kinases, including ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), differentially modulates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 in rabbit colonic muscle cells. IL-1beta treatment caused a transient phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. It also caused the phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta), sequential downstream effectors of PI3K. Pretreatment with PD-98059 (an ERK inhibitor) and SB-203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. In contrast, LY-294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) augmented, whereas GSK3beta inhibitors inhibited, IL-1beta-induced RGS4 expression. PD-98059 blocked IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunit p65, whereas SB-203580 had a marginal effect, implying that the effect of ERK1/2 is exerted on the canonical IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 pathway of NF-kappaB activation but that the effect of p38 MAPK may not predominantly involve NF-kappaB signaling. The increase in RGS4 expression enhanced by LY-294002 was accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of IKK2/IkappaB-alpha/p65 and blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of IKK2 (IKK2-IV) and IkappaB-alpha (MG-132). Inhibition of GSK3beta abolished IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IKK2/p65. These findings suggest that ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK enhance IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4; the effect of ERK1/2 reflects its ability to promote IKK2 phosphorylation and increase NF-kappaB activity. GSK3beta acts normally to augment the activation of the canonical NF-kappaB signaling. The PI3K/Akt/GSK3beta pathway attenuates IL-1beta-induced upregulation of RGS4 expression by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation.
Project description:Heat shock protein 25/27 (Hsp25/27) is a cytoprotective protein that is ubiquitously expressed in most cells, and is up-regulated in response to cellular stress. Previous work, in nonmuscle cells, has shown that Hsp27 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activation. During skeletal muscle disuse, Hsp25/27 levels are decreased and NF-kappaB activity increased, and this increase in NF-kappaB activity is required for disuse muscle atrophy. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to determine whether electrotransfer of Hsp27 into the soleus muscle of rats, prior to skeletal muscle disuse, is sufficient to inhibit skeletal muscle disuse atrophy and NF-kappaB activation. The 35% disuse muscle-fiber atrophy observed in nontransfected fibers was attenuated by 50% in fibers transfected with Hsp27. Hsp27 also inhibited the disuse-induced increase in MuRF1 and atrogin-1 transcription by 82 and 40%, respectively. Furthermore, disuse- and IKKbeta-induced NF-kappaB transactivation were abolished by Hsp27. In contrast, Hsp27 had no effect on Foxo transactivation. In conclusion, Hsp27 is a negative regulator of NF-kappaB in skeletal muscle, in vivo, and is sufficient to inhibit MuRF1 and atrogin-1 and attenuate skeletal muscle disuse atrophy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition that contributes to morbidity in a variety of conditions including denervation, cachexia, and aging. Muscle atrophy is characterized as decreased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and protein content due, in part, to the proteolytic activities of two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases: muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx or Atrogin-1). The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway has emerged as a critical signaling network in skeletal muscle atrophy and has become a prime therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle diseases. Unfortunately, none of the NF-?B targeting drugs are currently being used to treat these diseases, likely because of our limited knowledge and specificity, for muscle biology and disease. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) protein is a positive regulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-mediated classical NF-?B signaling, and cIAP1 loss has been shown to enhance muscle regeneration during acute and chronic injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Sciatic nerve transection in wild-type, cIAP1-null and Smac mimetic compound (SMC)-treated mice was performed to investigate the role of cIAP1 in denervation-induced atrophy. Genetic in vitro models of C2C12 myoblasts and primary myoblasts were also used to examine the role of classical NF-?B activity in cIAP1-induced myotube atrophy.<h4>Results</h4>We found that cIAP1 expression was upregulated in denervated muscles compared to non-denervated controls 14?days after denervation. Genetic and pharmacological loss of cIAP1 attenuated denervation-induced muscle atrophy and overexpression of cIAP1 in myotubes was sufficient to induce atrophy. The induction of myotube atrophy by cIAP1 was attenuated when the classical NF-?B signaling pathway was inhibited.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results demonstrate the cIAP1 is an important mediator of NF-?B/MuRF1 signaling in skeletal muscle atrophy and is a promising therapeutic target for muscle wasting diseases.
Project description:Constitutive Kras and NF-kappaB activation is identified as signature alterations in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the mechanisms of constitutive NF-kappaB activation in KrasG12D-induced PDAC are not yet understood. Here, we report that pancreas-targeted IKK2/beta inactivation inhibited NF-kappaB activation and completely suppressed PDAC development in KrasG12D and KrasG12D;Ink4a/Arf mutant mice, demonstrating a genetic link between IKK2/beta and KrasG12D in PDAC inception. Our findings reveal that KrasG12D-activated AP-1 induces IL-1alpha, which in turn activates NF-kappaB and its target genes IL-1alpha and p62, to initiate IL-1alpha/p62 feedforward loops for inducing and sustaining NF-kappaB activity. Furthermore, IL-1alpha overexpression correlates with Kras mutation, constitutive NF-kappaB activity, and poor survival in PDAC patients. Therefore, our findings establish a pathway linking duel feedforward loops of IL-1alpha/p62 through which IKK2/beta/NF-kappaB is activated by KrasG12D. To study Kras-induced inflammatory responses and to identify differentially expressed genes between the pancreatic tissues of Pdx1-Cre;KrasLSL-G12D and Pdx1-Cre;KrasLSL-G12D;IKK2/betaF/F mice, cDNA microarray analysis was performed.
Project description:NF?B signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of development, innate immunity, and inflammation. Ikk2 is one of the two critical kinases that regulate the NF?B signaling pathway. While the role of Ikk2 in immunity, inflammation and oncogenesis has received attention, an understanding of the role of Ikk2 in vertebrate development has been compounded by the embryonic lethality seen in mice lacking Ikk2. We find that despite abnormal angiogenesis in IKK2 zygotic mutants of zebrafish, the maternal activity of Ikk2 supports embryogenesis and maturation of fertile animals and allows to study the role of IKK2 in development. Maternal-zygotic ikk2 mutants represent the first vertebrates globally devoid of maternal and zygotic Ikk2 activity. They are defective in cell proliferation as evidenced by abnormal cytokinesis, nuclear enlargement and syncytialisation of a significant portion of blastoderm. We further document that reduced phosphorylation of Aurora A by Ikk2 could underlie the basis of these defects in cell division.