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LRRTM3 promotes processing of amyloid-precursor protein by BACE1 and is a positional candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

ABSTRACT: Rare familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are thought to be caused by elevated proteolytic production of the Abeta42 peptide from the beta-amyloid-precursor protein (APP). Although the pathogenesis of the more common late-onset AD (LOAD) is not understood, BACE1, the protease that cleaves APP to generate the N terminus of Abeta42, is more active in patients with LOAD, suggesting that increased amyloid production processing might also contribute to the sporadic disease. Using high-throughput siRNA screening technology, we assessed 15,200 genes for their role in Abeta42 secretion and identified leucine-rich repeat transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3) as a neuronal gene that promotes APP processing by BACE1. siRNAs targeting LRRTM3 inhibit the secretion of Abeta40, Abeta42, and sAPPbeta, the N-terminal APP fragment produced by BACE1 cleavage, from cultured cells and primary neurons by up to 60%, whereas overexpression increases Abeta secretion. LRRTM3 is expressed nearly exclusively in the nervous system, including regions affected during AD, such as the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, LRRTM3 maps to a region of chromosome 10 linked to both LOAD and elevated plasma Abeta42, and is structurally similar to a family of neuronal receptors that includes the NOGO receptor, an inhibitor of neuronal regeneration and APP processing. Thus, LRRTM3 is a functional and positional candidate gene for AD, and, given its receptor-like structure and restricted expression, a potential therapeutic target.

SUBMITTER: Majercak J 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC1635650 | BioStudies | 2006-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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