LRRTM3 promotes processing of amyloid-precursor protein by BACE1 and is a positional candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT: Rare familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are thought to be caused by elevated proteolytic production of the Abeta42 peptide from the beta-amyloid-precursor protein (APP). Although the pathogenesis of the more common late-onset AD (LOAD) is not understood, BACE1, the protease that cleaves APP to generate the N terminus of Abeta42, is more active in patients with LOAD, suggesting that increased amyloid production processing might also contribute to the sporadic disease. Using high-throughput siRNA screening technology, we assessed 15,200 genes for their role in Abeta42 secretion and identified leucine-rich repeat transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3) as a neuronal gene that promotes APP processing by BACE1. siRNAs targeting LRRTM3 inhibit the secretion of Abeta40, Abeta42, and sAPPbeta, the N-terminal APP fragment produced by BACE1 cleavage, from cultured cells and primary neurons by up to 60%, whereas overexpression increases Abeta secretion. LRRTM3 is expressed nearly exclusively in the nervous system, including regions affected during AD, such as the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, LRRTM3 maps to a region of chromosome 10 linked to both LOAD and elevated plasma Abeta42, and is structurally similar to a family of neuronal receptors that includes the NOGO receptor, an inhibitor of neuronal regeneration and APP processing. Thus, LRRTM3 is a functional and positional candidate gene for AD, and, given its receptor-like structure and restricted expression, a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Leucine rich repeat transmembrane protein 3 (LRRTM3) is member of a synaptic protein family. LRRTM3 is a nested gene within ?-T catenin (CTNNA3) and resides at the linkage peak for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk and plasma amyloid ? (A?) levels. In-vitro knock-down of LRRTM3 was previously shown to decrease secreted A?, although the mechanism of this is unclear. In SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing APP and transiently transfected with LRRTM3 alone or with BACE1, we showed that LRRTM3 co-localizes with both APP and BACE1 in early endosomes, where BACE1 processing of APP occurs. Additionally, LRRTM3 co-localizes with APP in primary neuronal cultures from Tg2576 mice transduced with LRRTM3-expressing adeno-associated virus. Moreover, LRRTM3 co-immunoprecipitates with both endogenous APP and overexpressed BACE1, in HEK293T cells transfected with LRRTM3. SH-SY5Y cells with knock-down of LRRTM3 had lower BACE1 and higher CTNNA3 mRNA levels, but no change in APP. Brain mRNA levels of LRRTM3 showed significant correlations with BACE1, CTNNA3 and APP in ?400 humans, but not in LRRTM3 knock-out mice. Finally, we assessed 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within and flanking LRRTM3 in 1,567 LOADs and 2,082 controls and identified 8 SNPs within a linkage disequilibrium block encompassing 5'UTR-Intron 1 of LRRTM3 that formed multilocus genotypes (MLG) with suggestive global association with LOAD risk (p?=?0.06), and significant individual MLGs. These 8 SNPs were genotyped in an independent series (1,258 LOADs and 718 controls) and had significant global and individual MLG associations in the combined dataset (p?=?0.02-0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that protein interactions between LRRTM3, APP and BACE1, as well as complex associations between mRNA levels of LRRTM3, CTNNA3, APP and BACE1 in humans might influence APP metabolism and ultimately risk of AD.
Project description:The beta-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) mediates the first cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) to yield the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), a key pathogenic agent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using a proteomic approach based on in-cell chemical cross-linking and tandem affinity purification (TAP), we herein identify sorting nexin 6 (SNX6) as a BACE1-associated protein. SNX6, a PX domain protein, is a putative component of retromer, a multiprotein cargo complex that mediates the retrograde trafficking of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) and sortilin. RNA interference suppression of SNX6 increased BACE1-dependent secretion of soluble APP (sAPPbeta) and cell-associated fragments (C99), resulting in increased Abeta secretion. Furthermore, SNX6 reduction led to elevated steady-state BACE1 levels as well as increased retrograde transport of BACE1 in the endocytic pathway, suggesting that SNX6 modulates the retrograde trafficking and basal levels of BACE1, thereby regulating BACE1-mediated APP processing and Abeta biogenesis. Our study identifies a novel cellular pathway by which SNX6 negatively modulates BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an insidious and progressive disease with a genetically complex and heterogenous etiology. More than 200 fully penetrant mutations in the amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP), presenilin 1 (or PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) have been linked to early-onset familial AD (FAD). 177 PSEN1 FAD mutations have been identified so far and account for more than approximately 80% of all FAD mutations. All PSEN1 FAD mutations can increase the Abeta42:Abeta40 ratio with seemingly different and incompletely understood mechanisms. A recent study has shown that the 286 amino acid N-terminal fragment of APP (N-APP), a proteolytic product of beta-secretase-derived secreted form of APP (sAPPbeta), could bind the death receptor, DR6, and lead to neurodegeneration. Here we asked whether PSEN1 FAD mutations lead to neurodegeneration by modulating sAPPbeta levels. All four different PSEN1 FAD mutations tested (in three mammalian cell lines) did not alter sAPPbeta levels. Therefore PS1 mutations do not appear to contribute to AD pathogenesis via altered production of sAPPbeta.
Project description:Mutations of the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). PS1 mutations alter the activity of the gamma-secretase on the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), leading to selective overproduction of beta-amyloid (Abeta) 42 peptides, the species that forms oligomers that may exert toxic effects on neurons. Here we show that PS1 mutations, expressed both transiently and stably, in non-neuronal and neuronal cell lines increase the expression and the activity of the beta-secretase (BACE1), the rate-limiting step of Abeta production. Also, BACE1 expression and activity are elevated in brains of PS1 mutant knock-in mice compared with wild type littermates as well as in cerebral cortex of FAD cases bearing various PS1 mutations compared with in sporadic AD cases and controls. The up-regulation of BACE1 by PS1 mutations requires the gamma-secretase cleavage of APP and is proportional to the amount of secreted Abeta42. Abeta42, and not AICD (APP intracellular domain), is indeed the APP derivative that mediates the overexpression of BACE1. The effect of PS1 mutations on BACE1 may contribute to determine the wide clinical and pathological phenotype of early onset FAD.
Project description:Processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases leads to the generation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides with varying lengths. Particularly Abeta42 contributes to cytotoxicity and amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise molecular mechanism of Abeta42 generation has remained unclear. Here, we show that an amino-acid motif GxxxG within the APP transmembrane sequence (TMS) has regulatory impact on the Abeta species produced. In a neuronal cell system, mutations of glycine residues G29 and G33 of the GxxxG motif gradually attenuate the TMS dimerization strength, specifically reduce the formation of Abeta42, leave the level of Abeta40 unaffected, but increase Abeta38 and shorter Abeta species. We show that glycine residues G29 and G33 are part of a dimerization site within the TMS, but do not impair oligomerization of the APP ectodomain. We conclude that gamma-secretase cleavages of APP are intimately linked to the dimerization strength of the substrate TMS. The results demonstrate that dimerization of APP TMS is a risk factor for AD due to facilitating Abeta42 production.
Project description:Mutations in amyloid ? precursor protein (APP) gene alter APP processing, either causing familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) or protecting against dementia. Under normal conditions, ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) cleaves APP at minor Asp1 site to generate C99 for amyloid ? protein (A?) production, and predominantly at major Glu11 site to generate C89, resulting in truncated A? production. We discovered that A673V mutation, the only recessive AD-associated APP mutation, shifted the preferential ?-cleavage site of BACE1 in APP from the Glu11 site to the Asp1 site both in male and female transgenic mice in vivo and in cell lines and primary neuronal culture derived from timed pregnant rats in vitro, resulting in a much higher C99 level and C99/C89 ratio. All other mutations at this site, including the protective Icelandic A673T mutation, reduced C99 generation, and decreased the C99/C89 ratio. Furthermore, A673V mutation caused stronger dimerization between mutant and wild-type APP, enhanced the lysosomal degradation of the mutant APP, and inhibited ?-secretase cleavage of the mutant C99 to generate A?, leading to recessively inherited AD. The results demonstrate that APP673 regulates APP processing and the BACE1 cleavage site selection is critical for amyloidogenesis in AD pathogenesis, and implicate a pharmaceutical potential for targeting the APP673 site for AD drug development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is essential for amyloid ? protein production. We discovered that A673V mutation shifted the BACE1 cleavage site from the Glu11 to the Asp1 site, resulting in much higher C99 level and C99/C89 ratio. All other mutations at this site of amyloid ? precursor protein (APP) reduced C99 generation and decreased the C99/C89 ratio. Furthermore, A673V mutation resulted in stronger dimerization between mutant and wild-type APP, enhanced the lysosomal degradation of the mutant APP, and inhibited ?-secretase cleavage of the mutant C99 to generate amyloid ? protein, leading to recessively inherited Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results demonstrate that APP673 regulates APP processing, and the BACE1 cleavage site selection is critical for amyloidogenesis in AD pathogenesis, and implicate a pharmaceutical potential for targeting the APP673 site for AD drug development.
Project description:Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques, which are predominantly composed of amyloid-? peptide. Two principal physiological pathways either prevent or promote amyloid-? generation from its precursor, ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP), in a competitive manner. Although APP processing has been studied in great detail, unknown proteolytic events seem to hinder stoichiometric analyses of APP metabolism in vivo. Here we describe a new physiological APP processing pathway, which generates proteolytic fragments capable of inhibiting neuronal activity within the hippocampus. We identify higher molecular mass carboxy-terminal fragments (CTFs) of APP, termed CTF-?, in addition to the long-known CTF-? and CTF-? fragments generated by the ?- and ?-secretases ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) and BACE1 (?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1), respectively. CTF-? generation is mediated in part by membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinases such as MT5-MMP, referred to as ?-secretase activity. ?-Secretase cleavage occurs primarily at amino acids 504-505 of APP695, releasing a truncated ectodomain. After shedding of this ectodomain, CTF-? is further processed by ADAM10 and BACE1 to release long and short A? peptides (termed A?-? and A?-?). CTFs produced by ?-secretase are enriched in dystrophic neurites in an AD mouse model and in human AD brains. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of BACE1 activity results in robust accumulation of CTF-? and A?-?. In mice treated with a potent BACE1 inhibitor, hippocampal long-term potentiation was reduced. Notably, when recombinant or synthetic A?-? was applied on hippocampal slices ex vivo, long-term potentiation was lowered. Furthermore, in vivo single-cell two-photon calcium imaging showed that hippocampal neuronal activity was attenuated by A?-?. These findings not only demonstrate a major functionally relevant APP processing pathway, but may also indicate potential translational relevance for therapeutic strategies targeting APP processing.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels beta 2 (Nav?2, encoded by SCN2B) is a substrate of ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and regulates cell surface expression of channels in neurons. Previous studies reported enhanced Nav?2 processing by BACE1 in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model and patients. We investigated whether changes in Nav?2 expression affect neuronal seizure and amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in an AD mouse model. Our study used eight-month-old APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) mice and transgenic Nav?2 knockdown [by 61% vs. wild type (WT)] APP/PS1 mice (APP/PS1/Nav?2-kd), with age-matched WT and Nav?2 knockdown (Nav?2-kd) mice as controls. We found that Nav?2 knockdown in APP/PS1 mice partially reversed the abnormal Nav?2 cleavage and the changes in intracellular and total Nav1.1? expression. It also restored sodium currents density in hippocampal neurons and neuronal activity, as indicated by EEG tracing; improved Morris water maze performance; and shifted APP amyloidogenic metabolism towards non-amyloidogenic processing. There were no differences in these indicators between WT and Nav?2-kd mice. These results suggest Nav?2 knockdown may be a promising strategy for treating AD.
Project description:Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides play a key role in synaptic damage and memory deficits in the early pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal accumulation of Aβ at nerve terminals leads to synaptic pathology and ultimately to neurodegeneration. β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the major neuronal β-secretase for Aβ generation. However, the mechanisms regulating BACE1 distribution in axons and β cleavage of APP at synapses remain largely unknown. Here, we reveal that dynein-Snapin-mediated retrograde transport regulates BACE1 trafficking in axons and APP processing at presynaptic terminals. BACE1 is predominantly accumulated within late endosomes at the synapses of AD-related mutant human APP (hAPP) transgenic (Tg) mice and patient brains. Defective retrograde transport by genetic ablation of snapin in mice recapitulates late endocytic retention of BACE1 and increased APP processing at presynaptic sites. Conversely, overexpressing Snapin facilitates BACE1 trafficking and reduces synaptic BACE1 accumulation by enhancing the removal of BACE1 from distal AD axons and presynaptic terminals. Moreover, elevated Snapin expression via stereotactic hippocampal injections of adeno-associated virus particles in mutant hAPP Tg mouse brains decreases synaptic Aβ levels and ameliorates synapse loss, thus rescuing cognitive impairments associated with hAPP mice. Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the complex regulation of BACE1 trafficking and presynaptic localization through Snapin-mediated dynein-driven retrograde axonal transport, thereby suggesting a potential approach of modulating Aβ levels and attenuating synaptic deficits in AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) trafficking and synaptic localization significantly influence its β secretase activity and amyloid-β (Aβ) production. In AD brains, BACE1 is accumulated within dystrophic neurites, which is thought to augment Aβ-induced synaptotoxicity by Aβ overproduction. However, it remains largely unknown whether axonal transport regulates synaptic APP processing. Here, we demonstrate that Snapin-mediated retrograde transport plays a critical role in removing BACE1 from presynaptic terminals toward the soma, thus reducing synaptic Aβ production. Adeno-associated virus-mediated Snapin overexpression in the hippocampus of mutant hAPP mice significantly decreases synaptic Aβ levels, attenuates synapse loss, and thus rescues cognitive deficits. Our study uncovers a new pathway that controls synaptic APP processing by enhancing axonal BACE1 trafficking, thereby advancing our fundamental knowledge critical for ameliorating Aβ-linked synaptic pathology.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by pathological brain lesions and a decline in cognitive function. ?-Amyloid peptides (A?), derived from proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), play a central role in AD pathogenesis. ?-Site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), the transmembrane aspartyl protease which initiates A? production, is axonally transported in neurons and accumulates in dystrophic neurites near cerebral amyloid deposits in AD. BACE1 is modified by S-palmitoylation at four juxtamembrane cysteine residues. S-palmitoylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is important for trafficking and function of several synaptic proteins. Here, we investigated the in vivo significance of BACE1 S-palmitoylation through the analysis of knock-in mice with cysteine-to-alanine substitution at the palmitoylated residues (4CA mice). BACE1 expression, as well as processing of APP and other neuronal substrates, was unaltered in 4CA mice despite the lack of BACE1 S-palmitoylation and reduced lipid raft association. Whereas steady-state A? levels were similar, synaptic activity-induced endogenous A? production was not observed in 4CA mice. Furthermore, we report a significant reduction of cerebral amyloid burden and BACE1 accumulation in dystrophic neurites in the absence of BACE1 S-palmitoylation in mouse models of AD amyloidosis. Studies in cultured neurons suggest that S-palmitoylation is required for dendritic spine localization and axonal targeting of BACE1. Finally, the lack of BACE1 S-palmitoylation mitigates cognitive deficits in 5XFAD mice. Using transgenic mouse models, these results demonstrate that intrinsic posttranslational S-palmitoylation of BACE1 has a significant impact on amyloid pathogenesis and the consequent cognitive decline.