The role of platelet adhesion receptor GPIbalpha far exceeds that of its main ligand, von Willebrand factor, in arterial thrombosis.
ABSTRACT: GPIbalpha binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF) exposed at a site of vascular injury is thought to be the first step in the formation of a hemostatic plug. However, our previous studies in VWF-deficient mice demonstrated delayed but not absent arterial thrombus formation, suggesting that, under these conditions, GPIbalpha may bind other ligands or that a receptor other than GPIbalpha can mediate platelet adhesion. Here, we studied thrombus formation in transgenic mice expressing GPIbalpha in which the extracellular domain was replaced by that of the human IL-4 receptor (IL4Ralpha/GPIbalpha-tg mice). Platelet adhesion to ferric chloride-treated mesenteric arterioles in IL4Ralpha/GPIbalpha-tg mice was virtually absent in contrast to avid adhesion in WT mice. As a consequence, arterial thrombus formation was inhibited completely in the mutant mice. Our studies further show that, when infused into WT recipient mice, IL4Ralpha/GPIbalpha-tg platelets or WT platelets lacking the 45-kDa N-terminal domain of GPIbalpha failed to incorporate into growing arterial thrombi, even if the platelets were activated before infusion. Surprisingly, platelets lacking beta3 integrins, which are unable to form thrombi on their own, incorporated efficiently into WT thrombi. Our studies provide in vivo evidence that GPIbalpha absolutely is required for recruitment of platelets to both exposed subendothelium and thrombi under arterial flow conditions. Thus, GPIbalpha contributes to arterial thrombosis by important adhesion mechanisms independent of the binding to VWF.
Project description:Arterial blood flow enhances glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha) binding to vWF, which initiates platelet adhesion to injured vessels. Mutations in the vWF A1 domain that cause type 2B von Willebrand disease (vWD) reduce the flow requirement for adhesion. Here we show that increasing force on GPIbalpha/vWF bonds first prolonged ("catch") and then shortened ("slip") bond lifetimes. Two type 2B vWD A1 domain mutants, R1306Q and R1450E, converted catch bonds to slip bonds by prolonging bond lifetimes at low forces. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of GPIbalpha dissociating from the A1 domain suggested mechanisms for catch bonds and their conversion by the A1 domain mutations. Catch bonds caused platelets and GPIbalpha-coated microspheres to roll more slowly on WT vWF and WT A1 domains as flow increased from suboptimal levels, explaining flow-enhanced rolling. Longer bond lifetimes at low forces eliminated the flow requirement for rolling on R1306Q and R1450E mutant A1 domains. Flowing platelets agglutinated with microspheres bearing R1306Q or R1450E mutant A1 domains, but not WT A1 domains. Therefore, catch bonds may prevent vWF multimers from agglutinating platelets. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif-13 (ADAMTS-13) reduced platelet agglutination with microspheres bearing a tridomain A1A2A3 vWF fragment with the R1450E mutation in a shear-dependent manner. We conclude that in type 2B vWD, prolonged lifetimes of vWF bonds with GPIbalpha on circulating platelets may allow ADAMTS-13 to deplete large vWF multimers, causing bleeding.
Project description:In this study we have examined the mechanism of platelet aggregation under physiological flow conditions using an in vitro flow-based platelet aggregation assay and an in vivo rat thrombosis model. Our studies demonstrate an unexpected complexity to the platelet aggregation process in which platelets in flowing blood continuously tether, translocate, and/or detach from the luminal surface of a growing platelet thrombus at both arterial and venous shear rates. Studies of platelets congenitally deficient in von Willebrand factor (vWf) or integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) demonstrated a key role for platelet vWf in mediating platelet tethering and translocation, whereas integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) mediated cell arrest. Platelet aggregation under flow appears to be a multistep process involving: (a) exposure of vWf on the surface of immobilized platelets; (b) a reversible phase of platelet aggregation mediated by the binding of GPIbalpha on the surface of free-flowing platelets to vWf on the surface of immobilized platelets; and (c) an irreversible phase of aggregation dependent on integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3). Studies of platelet thrombus formation in vivo demonstrate that this multistep adhesion mechanism is indispensable for platelet aggregation in arterioles and also appears to promote platelet aggregate formation in venules. Together, our studies demonstrate an important role for platelet vWf in initiating the platelet aggregation process under flow and challenge the currently accepted view that the vWf-GPIbalpha interaction is exclusively involved in initiating platelet aggregation at elevated shear rates.
Project description:The metalloprotease ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats 13) cleaves highly adhesive large von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers after their release from the endothelium. ADAMTS13 deficiency is linked to a life-threatening disorder, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), characterized by platelet-rich thrombi in the microvasculature. Here, we show spontaneous thrombus formation in activated microvenules of Adamts13-/- mice by intravital microscopy. Strikingly, we found that ADAMTS13 down-regulates both platelet adhesion to exposed subendothelium and thrombus formation in injured arterioles. An inhibitory antibody to ADAMTS13 infused in wild-type mice prolonged adhesion of platelets to endothelium and induced thrombi formation with embolization in the activated microvenules. Absence of ADAMTS13 did not promote thrombi formation in alphaIIbbeta3 integrin-inhibited blood. Recombinant ADAMTS13 reduced platelet adhesion and aggregation in histamine-activated venules and promoted thrombus dissolution in injured arterioles. Our findings reveal that ADAMTS13 has a powerful natural antithrombotic activity and recombinant ADAMTS13 could be used as an antithrombotic agent.
Project description:Peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is transported by platelets and released upon stimulation. In the platelet cytoplasm, 5-HT is transamidated to small GTPases, promoting alpha-granule release and primary hemostasis.We hypothesized that 5-HT could also stimulate platelet receptor shedding after binding to the membrane 5-HT receptor (5-HT2AR).Western blot and flow cytometry were used to determine levels of the adhesion receptor glycoprotein (GP)Ibalpha on platelets or its shed fragment glycocalicin in plasma and serum from wild-type mice, Tph1(-/-) mice lacking peripheral 5-HT, and mice lacking functional tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE, ADAM17). Flow chamber experiments and intravital microscopy were used to examine the adhesive properties of platelets after stimulation of 5-HT2AR.Glycocalicin was significantly reduced in Tph1(-/-) plasma and serum. In isolated platelets, 5-HT induced shedding of GPIbalpha, which was increased to 60% when 5-HT uptake was inhibited by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Specific 5-HT2AR agonism and antagonism suggested activation of this receptor. The shedding could not be induced in TACE(DeltaZn/DeltaZn) platelets, suggesting that activated TACE mediated the shedding of GPIbalpha. Intracellular signaling involved phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase rather than G-protein signaling. 5-HT2AR stimulation decreased platelet adhesion to collagen-bound von Willebrand factor under arterial shear (1500 s(-1)) and incorporation into FeCl3-induced thrombi in mesenteric arterioles.Stimulation of 5-HT2AR on platelets induces TACE-mediated shedding of GPIbalpha, the key adhesion molecule under high shear conditions. Our observations demonstrate a new pathway through which 5-HT could modulate cardiovascular disease.
Project description:This study used recombinant A1A2A3 tri-domain proteins to demonstrate that A domain association in von Willebrand factor (VWF) regulates the binding to platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha). We performed comparative studies between wild type (WT) A1 domain and the R1450E variant that dissociates the tri-domain complex by destabilizing the A1 domain. Using urea denaturation and differential scanning calorimetry, we demonstrated the destabilization of the A1 domain structure concomitantly results in a reduced interaction among the three A domains. This dissociation results in spontaneous binding of R1450E to GPIbalpha without ristocetin with an apparent K(D) of 85 +/- 34 nm, comparable with that of WT (36 +/- 12 nm) with ristocetin. The mutant blocked 100% ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, whereas WT failed to inhibit. The mutant enhanced shear-induced platelet aggregation at 500 and 5000 s(-1) shear rates, reaching 42 and 66%, respectively. Shear-induced platelet aggregation did not exceed 18% in the presence of WT. A1A2A3 variants were added before perfusion over a fibrin(ogen)-coated surface. At 1500 s(-1), platelets from blood containing WT adhered <10% of the surface area, whereas the mutant induced platelets to rapidly bind, covering 100% of the fibrin(ogen) surface area. Comparable results were obtained with multimeric VWF when ristocetin (0.5 mg/ml) was added to blood before perfusion. EDTA or antibodies against GPIbalpha and alphaIIbbeta3 blocked the effect of the mutant and ristocetin on platelet activation/adhesion. Therefore, the termination of A domain association within VWF in solution results in binding to GPIba and platelet activation under high shear stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelet cross-linking during arterial thrombosis involves von Willebrand Factor (VWF) multimers. Therefore, proteolysis of VWF appears promising to disaggregate platelet-rich thrombi and restore vessel patency in acute thrombotic disorders such as ischemic stroke, acute coronary syndrome, or acute limb ischemia. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC, a clinically approved mucolytic drug) can reduce intrachain disulfide bonds in large polymeric proteins. In the present study, we postulated that NAC might cleave the VWF multimers inside occlusive thrombi, thereby leading to their dissolution and arterial recanalization. METHODS:Experimental models of thrombotic stroke induced by either intra-arterial thrombin injection or ferric chloride application followed by measurement of cerebral blood flow using a combination of laser Doppler flowmetry and MRI were performed to uncover the effects of NAC on arterial thrombi. To investigate the effect of NAC on larger vessels, we also performed ferric chloride-induced carotid artery thrombosis. In vitro experiments were performed to study the molecular bases of NAC thrombolytic effect, including platelet aggregometry, platelet-rich thrombi lysis assays, thromboelastography (ROTEM), and high-shear VWF string formation using microfluidic devices. We also investigated the putative prohemorrhagic effect of NAC in a mouse model of intracranial hemorrhage induced by in situ collagenase type VII injection. RESULTS:We demonstrated that intravenous NAC administration promotes lysis of arterial thrombi that are resistant to conventional approaches such as recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, direct thrombin inhibitors, and antiplatelet treatments. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, we provide evidence that the molecular target underlying the thrombolytic effects of NAC is principally the VWF that cross-link platelets in arterial thrombi. Coadministration of NAC and a nonpeptidic GpIIb/IIIa inhibitor further improved its thrombolytic efficacy, essentially by accelerating thrombus dissolution and preventing rethrombosis. Thus, in a new large-vessel thromboembolic stroke model in mice, this cotreatment significantly improved ischemic lesion size and neurological outcome. It is important to note that NAC did not worsen hemorrhagic stroke outcome, suggesting that it exerts thrombolytic effects without significantly impairing normal hemostasis. CONCLUSIONS:We provide evidence that NAC is an effective and safe alternative to currently available antithrombotic agents to restore vessel patency after arterial occlusion.
Project description:Mice lacking both of the best-known platelet ligands, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, can still form occlusive thrombi in injured arterioles. The platelets of these animals accumulate excessive amounts of fibronectin (FN). These observations led us to examine the contribution of plasma FN (pFN) to thrombus formation. Inactivation of the FN gene in FN conditional knockout mice reduced pFN levels to <2% and platelet FN to approximately 20% of the levels in similarly treated control mice. The mice were then observed in a model of arterial injury to evaluate their capacity to form thrombi. The deficiency of pFN did not affect the initial platelet adhesion, but a delay of several minutes in thrombus formation was observed in the arterioles of pFN-deficient mice as compared with control mice. The thrombi that formed in the absence of pFN were stably anchored to the vessel wall but continuously shed platelets or small platelet clumps, thus slowing their growth significantly; the platelet/platelet cohesion was apparently diminished. Consequently the occlusion of pFN-deficient vessels was delayed, with the majority of vessels remaining patent at the end of the 40-min observation period. We conclude that, in addition to von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen, FN plays a significant role in thrombus initiation, growth, and stability at arterial shear rates and that deficiency in each of the three platelet ligands has its own specific impact on platelet plug formation.
Project description:The Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor ibrutinib induces platelet dysfunction and causes increased risk of bleeding. Off-target inhibition of Tec is believed to contribute to platelet dysfunction and other side effects of ibrutinib. The second-generation Btk inhibitor acalabrutinib was developed with improved specificity for Btk over Tec. We investigated platelet function in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) receiving ibrutinib or acalabrutinib by aggregometry and by measuring thrombus formation on collagen under arterial shear. Both patient groups had similarly dysfunctional aggregation responses to collagen and collagen-related peptide, and comparison with mechanistic experiments in which platelets from healthy donors were treated with the Btk inhibitors suggested that both drugs inhibit platelet Btk and Tec at physiological concentrations. Only ibrutinib caused dysfunctional thrombus formation, whereas size and morphology of thrombi following acalabrutinib treatment were of normal size and morphology. We found that ibrutinib but not acalabrutinib inhibited Src family kinases, which have a critical role in platelet adhesion to collagen that is likely to underpin unstable thrombus formation observed in ibrutinib patients. We found that platelet function was enhanced by increasing levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII (FVIII) ex vivo by addition of intermediate purity FVIII (Haemate P) to blood from patients, resulting in consistently larger thrombi. We conclude that acalabrutinib avoids major platelet dysfunction associated with ibrutinib therapy, and platelet function may be enhanced in patients with B-cell NHL by increasing plasma VWF and FVIII.
Project description:The commensal microbiota is a recognized enhancer of arterial thrombus growth. While several studies have demonstrated the prothrombotic role of the gut microbiota, the molecular mechanisms promoting arterial thrombus growth are still under debate. Here, we demonstrate that germ-free (GF) mice, which from birth lack colonization with a gut microbiota, show diminished static deposition of washed platelets to type I collagen compared with their conventionally raised (CONV-R) counterparts. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that platelets from GF mice show diminished activation of the integrin ?IIb?3 (glycoprotein IIbIIIa) when activated by the platelet agonist adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Furthermore, washed platelets from Toll-like receptor-2 (Tlr2)-deficient mice likewise showed impaired static deposition to the subendothelial matrix component type I collagen compared with wild-type (WT) controls, a process that was unaffected by GPIb?-blockade but influenced by von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels. Collectively, our results indicate that microbiota-triggered steady-state activation of innate immune pathways via TLR2 enhances platelet deposition to subendothelial matrix molecules. Our results link host colonization status with the ADP-triggered activation of integrin ?IIb?3, a pathway promoting platelet deposition to the growing thrombus.
Project description:The mechanism by which thrombotic vessel occlusion occurs independently of plaque development or endothelial cell (EC) disruption remains unclear, largely because of an inability to visualize the formation of thrombus, especially at the single-platelet level in real time. Here we demonstrate that rapidly developing thrombi composed of discoid platelets can be induced in the mesenteric capillaries, arterioles, and large-sized arteries of living mice, enabling characterization of the kinetics of thrombosis initiation and the multicellular interrelationships during thrombus development. Platelet aggregation without EC disruption was triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) photochemically induced by moderate power laser irradiation. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1 could be key components of the EC response, acting through regulation of VWF mobilization to the cell surface. Thrombus formation was then initiated by the binding of platelet GPIb? to endothelial VWF in our model, and this effect was inhibited by the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Actin linker talin-dependent activation of alphaIIb-beta3 integrin or Rac1 in platelets was required for late-phase thrombus stability. Our novel imaging technology illustrates the molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-based thrombus formation by discoid platelets on undisrupted ECs and suggests control of ROS could be a useful therapeutic target for the prevention of thrombotic diseases.