Reaction mechanism of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, concerted or step-wise.
ABSTRACT: We describe a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics investigation of the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase catalyzed reaction, which shows that proton transfer from guanidinoacetate (GAA) to Asp-134 and methyl transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to GAA are concerted. By self-consistent-charge density functional tight binding/molecular mechanics, the bond lengths in the concerted mechanism's transition state are 1.26 A for both the OD1 (Asp-134)-H(E) (GAA) and H(E) (GAA)-N(E) (GAA) bonds, and 2.47 and 2.03 A for the S8 (AdoMet)-C9 (AdoMet) and C9 (AdoMet)-N(E) (GAA) bonds, respectively. The potential-energy barrier (DeltaE++) determined by single-point B3LYP/6-31+G*//MM is 18.9 kcal/mol. The contributions of the entropy (-TDeltaS++) and zero-point energy corrections Delta(ZPE)++ by normal mode analysis are 2.3 kcal/mol and -1.7 kcal/mol, respectively. Thus, the activation enthalpy of this concerted mechanism is predicted to be DeltaH++ = DeltaE++ plus Delta(ZPE)++ = 17.2 kcal/mol. The calculated free-energy barrier for the concerted mechanism is DeltaG++ = 19.5 kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with the value of 19.0 kcal/mol calculated from the experimental rate constant (3.8 +/- 0.2.min(-1)).
Project description:The mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed phosphate transfer and hydrolysis reactions are of great interest due to their importance and abundance in biochemistry. The reaction may proceed in a stepwise fashion, with either a pentavalent phosphorane or a metaphosphate anion intermediate, or by a concerted SN2 mechanism. Despite much theoretical work focused on a few key enzymes, a consensus for the mechanism has not been reached, and examples of all three possibilities have been demonstrated. We have investigated the mechanism of human uridine-cytidine kinase 2 (UCK2, EC 184.108.40.206), which catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the ribose 5'-hydroxyl of cytidine and uridine. UCK2 is normally expressed in human placenta, but is overexpressed in certain cancer cells, where it is responsible for activating a class of antitumor prodrugs. The UCK2 mechanism was investigated by generating a 2D potential energy surface as a function of the P-O bonds forming and breaking, with energies calculated using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential (B3LYP/6-31G(d):AMBER). The mechanism of phosphate transfer is shown to be concerted, and is accompanied by concerted proton transfer from the 5'-hydroxyl to a conserved active site aspartic acid that serves as a catalytic base. The calculated barrier for this reaction is 15.1 kcal/mol, in relatively good agreement with the experimental barrier of 17.5 kcal/mol. The interactions of the enzyme active site with the reactant, transition state, and product are examined for their implications on the design of anticancer prodrugs or positron emission tomography (PET) reporter probes for this enzyme.
Project description:Most mammalian non-nucleic acid methyltransferases share three sequence motifs. To gain insight into the S-adenosyl-methionine (AdoMet)-binding site of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, we mutated several conserved residues that are found in or near motifs I and II. Conversion of either of two glycine residues of motif I (Gly67 and Gly69) to an alanine resulted in an inactive enzyme. These enzymes, although having UV absorption, fluorescence and far-UV CD spectra virtually identical with those of the wild-type enzyme, seem to be conformationally different from the wild-type enzyme as judged by near-UV CD spectra and the extent of urea denaturation, and are apparently not capable of binding AdoMet. Mutation of Tyr136 of motif II to a valine resulted in a decrease in Kcat/Km values for substrates. Changing this residue to a phenylalanine caused only a minor change in Kcat/Km for AdoMet. This suggests that the aromatic side chain stabilizes the binding of AdoMet. Mutagenic changes of Glu89, which is the residue corresponding to the conserved acidic residue on the C-terminal side of motif I, indicated its contribution to AdoMet binding. These results are consistent with the idea that both motifs I and II are crucial in forming the AdoMet binding site of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase.
Project description:Aldose reductase is the first enzyme of the polyol pathway in which glucose is converted to fructose via sorbitol. The understanding of this key enzyme is important as it has been linked to some diabetes mellitus complications. The mechanism of the enzyme was investigated using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method. It was found that depending on the protonation state of His110 the mechanism can be concerted or stepwise and the proton donor can be either Tyr48 or His110. These findings are different from the previous theoretical studies based on QM/MM calculations using either AM1 or HF/4-31G, in which the reduction is, respectively, a stepwise or one-step process. The QM/MM energy barriers for the reduction of d-glyceraldehyde were evaluated at a B3LYP/6-31G* level for both HIP and HIE protonation states of His110. These were, respectively, 6.5 ± 2.2 and 16.7 ± 1.0 kcal/mol, which makes only the HIE protonation state consistent with the experimental value of 14.8 kcal/mol derived from kinetics experiments and makes Tyr48 the most probable proton donor.
Project description:The role of water molecules in assisting proton transfer (PT) is investigated for the proton-pumping protein ferredoxin I (FdI) from Azotobacter vinelandii. It was shown previously that individual water molecules can stabilize between Asp(15) and the buried [3Fe-4S](0) cluster and thus can potentially act as a proton relay in transferring H(+) from the protein to the μ(2) sulfur atom. Here, we generalize molecular mechanics with proton transfer to studying proton transfer reactions in the condensed phase. Both umbrella sampling simulations and electronic structure calculations suggest that the PT Asp(15)-COOH + H(2)O + [3Fe-4S](0) → Asp(15)-COO(-) + H(2)O + [3Fe-4S](0) H(+) is concerted, and no stable intermediate hydronium ion (H(3)O(+)) is expected. The free energy difference of 11.7 kcal/mol for the forward reaction is in good agreement with the experimental value (13.3 kcal/mol). For the reverse reaction (Asp(15)-COO(-) + H(2)O + [3Fe-4S](0)H(+) → Asp(15)-COOH + H(2)O + [3Fe-4S](0)), a larger barrier than for the forward reaction is correctly predicted, but it is quantitatively overestimated (23.1 kcal/mol from simulations versus 14.1 from experiment). Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Compared with the water-assisted process (ΔE ≈ 10 kcal/mol), water-unassisted proton transfer yields a considerably higher barrier of ΔE ≈ 35 kcal/mol.
Project description:Supplementation of broiler breeder hens with beneficial additives bears great potential for affecting nutrient deposition into the fertile egg. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the endogenous precursor of creatine that is used as a feed additive for improving cellular energy metabolism in animal nutrition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GAA supplementation in broiler breeder feed affects creatine deposition into the hatching egg and molecular mechanisms of creatine transport and synthesis within hens and their progeny. For this, broiler breeder hens of 47 wk of age were supplemented with 0.15% GAA for 15 wk, and samples from their tissues, hatching eggs and progeny were compared with those of control, nonsupplemented hens. A significant increase in creatine content was found within the yolk and albumen of hatching eggs obtained from the GAA group, compared with the control group. The GAA group exhibited a significant increased creatine transporter gene expression compared with the control group in their small intestines and oviduct. In GAA group progeny, a significant decrease in creatine transporter expression at embryonic day 19 and day of hatch was found, compared with control group progeny. At the day of hatch, creatine synthesis genes (arginine glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase) exhibited significant decrease in expression in the GAA group progeny compared with control group progeny. These results indicate that GAA supplementation in broiler breeder feed increases its absorbance and deposition into hatching eggs, subsequently affecting GAA and creatine absorbance and synthesis within broiler progeny.
Project description:The nucleotidyl-transfer reaction coupled with the conformational transitions in DNA polymerases is critical for maintaining the fidelity and efficiency of DNA synthesis. We examine here the possible reaction pathways of a Y-family DNA polymerase, Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), for the correct insertion of dCTP opposite 8-oxoguanine using the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach, both from a chemistry-competent state and a crystal closed state. The latter examination is important for understanding pre-chemistry barriers to interpret the entire enzyme mechanism, since the crystal closed state is not an ideal state for initiating the chemical reaction. The most favorable reaction path involves initial deprotonation of O3'H via two bridging water molecules to O1A, overcoming an overall potential energy barrier of approximately 20.0 kcal/mol. The proton on O1A-P(alpha) then migrates to the gamma-phosphate oxygen of the incoming nucleotide as O3' attacks P(alpha), and the P(alpha)-O3A bond breaks. The other possible pathway in which the O3'H proton is transferred directly to O1A on P(alpha) has an overall energy barrier of 25.0 kcal/mol. In both reaction paths, the rate-limiting step is the initial deprotonation, and the trigonal-bipyramidal configuration for P(alpha) occurs during the concerted bond formation (O3'-P(alpha)) and breaking (P(alpha)-O3A), indicating the associative nature of the chemical reaction. In contrast, the Dpo4/DNA complex with an imperfect active-site geometry corresponding to the crystal state must overcome a much higher activation energy barrier (29.0 kcal/mol) to achieve a tightly organized site due to hindered O3'H deprotonation stemming from larger distances and distorted conformation of the proton acceptors. This significant difference demonstrates that the pre-chemistry reorganization in Dpo4 costs approximately 4.0 to 9.0 kcal/mol depending on the primer terminus environment. Compared to the higher fidelity DNA polymerase beta from the X-family, Dpo4 has a higher chemical reaction barrier (20.0 vs 15.0 kcal/mol) due to the more solvent-exposed active site.
Project description:The framework effect of H-mordenite (H-MOR) zeolite on monomolecular dehydration of ethanol to ethylene has been simulated based on density functional theory. It is indicated that both the reaction mechanism and the activation energy barriers are significantly affected by the pore-confinement effect. In the 12-membered ring (12-MR), the energy barriers of the stepwise mechanism and the concerted mechanism are 35.0 and 42.4 kcal mol-1, respectively, suggesting that ethylene can be competitively formed through both pathways. While in the 8-membered ring (8-MR), the barrier of the concerted mechanism is 43.4 kcal mol-1, which is much lower than that of the stepwise mechanism with the ethoxy intermediate formation barrier of 53.7 kcal mol-1. Furthermore, the water molecule acts as the intermediate to stabilize the transition states (TSs) for both stepwise and concerted mechanisms and helps to transport protons during the reaction.
Project description:The energetics of the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions of several 1,3-dienes with acrylonitrile, and the energetics of formation of diradicals, were investigated with density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X) and compared to experimental data (Hall et al., J. Org. Chem.1993, 58, 7049-7058). For the reaction of 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene with acrylonitrile, the concerted reaction is favored over the diradical pathway by 2.5 kcal/mol using B3LYP/6-31G(d); experimentally, this reaction gives both cycloadduct and copolymer. The concerted cycloaddition of cyclopentadiene with acrylonitrile is preferred computationally over the stepwise pathway by 5.9 kcal/mol; experimentally, only the Diels-Alder adduct is formed. For the reactions of (E)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, both cycloaddition and copolymerization were observed experimentally; these trends were mimicked by the computational results, which showed only a 1.2 kcal/mol preference for the concerted pathway. For the reactions of (Z)-1,3-pentadiene and acrylonitrile, the stepwise pathway is preferred by 3.9 kcal/mol, in agreement with previous experimental findings that only polymerization occurs. M06-2X is known to give more accurate activation and reaction energetics (Pieniazek, et al., Angew. Chem. Int.2008, 47, 7746-7749), but the energies of diradicals are too high.
Project description:Molecular models of six anthracycline antibiotics and their complexes with 32 distinct DNA octamer sequences were created and analyzed using HINT (Hydropathic INTeractions) to describe binding. The averaged binding scores were then used to calculate the free energies of binding for comparison with experimentally determined values. In parsing our results based on specific functional groups of doxorubicin, our calculations predict a free energy contribution of -3.6 +/- 1.1 kcal x mol(-1) (experimental -2.5 +/- 0.5 kcal x mol(-1)) from the groove binding daunosamine sugar. The net energetic contribution of removing the hydroxyl at position C9 is -0.7 +/- 0.7 kcal x mol(-1) (-1.1 +/- 0.5 kcal x mol(-1)). The energetic contribution of the 3' amino group in the daunosamine sugar (when replaced with a hydroxyl group) is -3.7 +/- 1.1 kcal x mol(-1) (-0.7 +/- 0.5 kcal x mol(-1)). We propose that this large discrepancy may be due to uncertainty in the exact protonation state of the amine. The energetic contribution of the hydroxyl group at C14 is +0.4 +/- 0.6 kcal x mol(-1) (-0.9 +/- 0.5 kcal x mol(-1)), largely due to unfavorable hydrophobic interactions between the hydroxyl oxygen and the methylene groups of the phosphate backbone of the DNA. Also, there appears to be considerable conformational uncertainty in this region. This computational procedure calibrates our methodology for future analyses where experimental data are unavailable.
Project description:We calculate the free energy profile for the postulated hydride transfer reaction mechanism for the catalysis of lysine demethylation by lysine-specific demethylase LSD1. The potential energy surface is obtained by using combined electrostatically embedded multiconfiguration molecular mechanics (EE-MCMM) and single-configuration molecular mechanics (MM). We employ a constant valence bond coupling term to obtain analytical energies and gradients of the EE-MCMM subsystem, which contains 45 quantum mechanics (QM) atoms and which is parametrized with density functional calculations employing specific reaction parameters obtained by matching high-level wave function calculations. In the MM region, we employ the Amber ff03 and TIP3P force fields. The free energy of activation at 300 K is calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) umbrella sampling on a system with 102,090 atoms as the maximum of the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate as obtained by the weighted histogram analysis method with 17 umbrella sampling windows. This yields a free energy of activation of only 10 kcal/mol, showing that the previously postulated direct hydride transfer reaction mechanism is plausible, although we find that it is better interpreted as a concerted transfer of a hydrogen atom and an electron.