Expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in different lung compartments of smokers and nonsmokers.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) play an important role in the defense against inhaled toxicants, and expression of CYP enzymes may differ among various lung cells and tissue compartments. METHODS:We studied the effects of tobacco smoke in volunteers and investigated gene expression of 19 CYPs and 3 flavin-containing monooxygenases, as well as isoforms of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and bronchial biopsies derived from smokers (n = 8) and nonsmokers (n = 10). We also investigated gene expression of nuclear transcription factors known to be involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. RESULTS:Gene expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2S1, GSTP1, and EPHX1 was induced in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of smokers, whereas expression of CYP2B6/7, CYP3A5, and UGT2A1 was repressed. In bronchial biopsies of smokers, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2C9, GSTP1, and GSTA2 were induced, but CYP2J2 and EPHX1 were repressed. Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcript abundance resulted in increased activity of the coded enzyme. Finally, expression of the liver X receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor was significantly up-regulated in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of smokers. CONCLUSIONS:We found gene expression of pulmonary xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and certain key transcription factors to be regulated in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and bronchial biopsies of smokers. The observed changes demonstrate tissue specificity in xenobiotic metabolism, with likely implications for the metabolic activation of procarcinogens to ultimate carcinogens of tobacco smoke.
Project description:Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR?=?1.69;95%CI?=?1.11-2.59,p?=?0.01), whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR?=?0.40;95%CI?=?0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR?=?0.51;95%CI?=?0.33-0.78,p?=?0.002 respectively). In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His), SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) or AA (His/His) and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR?=?3.73;95%CI?=?1.33-10.55,p?=?0.006), whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg) and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR?=?2.93;95%CI?=?1.15-7.51,p?=?0.01). MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His) and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His) with testing balance accuracy (TBA) of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with SULT1A1 Arg213His and EPHX1 Tyr113His in smokers and SULT1A1 Arg213His with GSTP1 Ile105Val and CYP1A1*2C in nonsmokers. These results identified distinct gene-gene and gene environment interactions in smokers and non-smokers, which confirms the importance of multifactorial interaction in risk assessment of lung cancer.
Project description:Discovering genetic predictors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) necessitates the evaluation of novel factors including maternal genetic effects, which are a proxy for the intrauterine environment, and robust epidemiologic study designs. Therefore, we evaluated five maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood ALL among 120 case-parent triads. Two of the five haplotypes were significantly associated with risk: GSTM3/GSTM4 (P=0.01) and GSTP1 (P=0.02). The EPHX1 haplotype was marginally associated with risk (P=0.05), whereas haplotypes in CYP1B1 and GSTA4 were not. Our results suggest genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolism is important in childhood ALL etiology.
Project description:Isolated clubfoot is a common orthopedic birth defect that affects approximately 135,000 newborns worldwide. It is characterized by ankle equinus, hindfoot varus, and forefoot adductus. Although numerous studies suggest a multifactorial etiology, the specific genetic and environmental components have yet to be delineated. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the only common environmental factor consistently shown to increase the risk for clubfoot. Moreover, a positive family history of clubfoot, in conjunction with maternal smoking, increases the risk 20-fold. These findings suggest that genetic variation in smoking metabolism (xenobiotic) genes may increase susceptibility to clubfoot. Based on this reasoning, we interrogated eight candidate genes from the xenobiotic metabolism.Twenty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms and two null alleles in these genes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, EPHX1, NAT2, GSTM1, and GSTT1) were genotyped in a dataset composed of non-Hispanic white and Hispanic multiplex and simplex families.Only rs1048943/CYP1A1 had significantly altered transmission in the aggregate and multiplex non-Hispanic white datasets (p = 0.003 and p = 0.009, respectively). Perturbation of CYP1A1 can cause an increase in harmful, adduct-forming metabolic intermediates. A significant interaction between EPHX1 and NAT2 was also found (p = 0.007). Importantly, for CYP1A2, significant maternal (p = 0.03; relative risk [RR] = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.44) and fetal (p = 0.01; RR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.54) genotypic effects were identified, suggesting that both maternal and fetal genotypes can negatively impact limb development. No association was found between maternal smoking status and variation in xenobiotic metabolism genes.Together, these results suggest that xenobiotic metabolism genes are unlikely to play a major role in clubfoot; however, perturbation of this pathway may still play a contributory role.
Project description:Because selected xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes process pro-carcinogens that could initiate ovarian carcinogenesis, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Cases with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (N?=?1571 including 956 of serous sub-type) and controls (N?=?2046) from three studies were genotyped at 11 SNPs in EPHX1, ADH4, ADH1A, NQO2, NAT2, GSTP1, CYP1A1, and NQO1, following an initial SNP screen in a subset of participants. Logistic regression analysis of genotypes obtained via Illumina GoldenGate and Sequenom iPlex technologies revealed the following age- and study-adjusted associations: EPHX1 rs1051740 with increased serous ovarian cancer risk [per-allele odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-1.32, P?=?0.01), ADH4 r1042364 with decreased ovarian cancer risk (OR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.81-1.00, P?=?0.05), and NQO1 rs291766 with increased ovarian cancer risk (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00-1.23, P?=?0.04). These findings are consistent with prior studies implicating these genes in carcinogenesis and suggest that this collection of variants is worthy of follow-up in additional studies.
Project description:To explore the potential role for estrogen in lung cancer susceptibility, candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in tobacco and estrogen metabolism genes were evaluated. Population-based cases (n = 504) included women aged 18-74, diagnosed with NSCLC in metropolitan Detroit between November 2001 and October 2005. Population-based controls (n = 527) were identified through random digit dialing and matched on race and age. Eleven SNPs in 10 different genes were examined in relation to risk: CYP1A1 Msp1, CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP17, CYP19A1, XRCC1 Gln399Arg, COMT Val158Met, NQO1 Pro187Ser, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 Ile105Val. Lung cancer risk associated with individual SNPs was seen for GSTP1 [A allele; odds ratio (OR) = 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-3.27] and XRCC1 (A/A genotype; OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01-2.79) in white women and CYP1B1 (G allele; OR = 11.1; 95% CI, 1.18-104) in black women smokers. White women smokers carrying two risk genotypes at the following loci were at increased risk of lung cancer compared with individuals not carrying risk alleles at these loci: CYP17 and GSTM1, COMT and GSTM1, CYP17 and GSTT1, XRCC1 and GSTP1, CYP1B1 and XRCC1 and COMT and XRCC1. The most parsimonious model of lung cancer risk in white smoking women included age, family history of lung cancer, history of chronic lung disease, pack-years, body mass index, XRCC1 A/A genotype, GSTM1 null and COMT A/G or G/G genotype. These findings support the need for continued study of estrogen in relation to lung cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the tobacco metabolism, estrogen metabolism and DNA repair pathways will be useful in developing more predictive models of individual risk.
Project description:Use of tobacco is responsible for approximately 30% of all cancer-related deaths in the United States, including cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. In the current study, 40 current and 40 age- and gender-matched never smokers underwent buccal biopsies to evaluate the effects of smoking on the transcriptome. Microarray analyses were carried out using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2 arrays. Smoking altered the expression of numerous genes: 32 genes showed increased expression and 9 genes showed reduced expression in the oral mucosa of smokers versus never smokers. Increases were found in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidant stress, eicosanoid synthesis, nicotine signaling, and cell adhesion. Increased numbers of Langerhans cells were found in the oral mucosa of smokers. Interestingly, smoking caused greater induction of aldo-keto reductases, enzymes linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced genotoxicity, in the oral mucosa of women than men. Striking similarities in expression changes were found in oral compared with the bronchial mucosa. The observed changes in gene expression were compared with known chemical signatures using the Connectivity Map database and suggested that geldanamycin, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, might be an antimimetic of tobacco smoke. Consistent with this prediction, geldanamycin caused dose-dependent suppression of tobacco smoke extract-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in vitro. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke, support the potential use of oral epithelium as a surrogate tissue in future lung cancer chemoprevention trials, and illustrate the potential of computational biology to identify chemopreventive agents.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and emphysematous alveolar destruction. In this study, we have investigated whether chitotriosidase (ChTRase) and acidic mammalian chitinase, two chitinases with chitinolytic activity, are selectively augmented in COPD and contribute to its pathogenesis. We found that smokers with COPD, but not asthmatics, had higher chitinolytic activity and increased levels of ChTRase in bronchoalveolar lavage, more ChTRase-positive cells in bronchial biopsies, and an elevated proportion of alveolar macrophages expressing ChTRase than smokers without COPD or never-smokers. ChTRase accounted for approximately 80% of bronchoalveolar lavage chitinolytic activity, while acidic mammalian chitinase was undetectable. Bronchoalveolar lavage chitinolytic activity and ChTRase were associated with airflow obstruction and emphysema and with the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-8, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and its type II soluble receptor. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated ChTRase release only from alveolar macrophages from smokers with COPD, and exposure of these cells to ChTRase promoted the release of IL-8, monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1, and metalloproteinase-9. Finally, ChTRase overexpression in the lung of normal mice promoted macrophage recruitment and the synthesis of the murine homologue of IL-8, keratinocyte-derived cytokine, and of monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1. We conclude that pulmonary ChTRase overexpression may represent a novel important mechanism involved in COPD onset and progression.
Project description:In addition to being causally linked to the formation of multiple tumor types, tobacco use has been associated with decreased efficacy of anticancer treatment and reduced survival time. A detailed understanding of the cellular mechanisms that are affected by tobacco smoke (TS) should facilitate the development of improved preventive and therapeutic strategies. We have investigated the effects of a TS extract on the transcriptome of MSK-Leuk1 cells, a cellular model of oral leukoplakia. Using Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2 arrays, 411 differentially expressed probe sets were identified. The observed transcriptome changes were grouped according to functional information and translated into molecular interaction network maps and signaling pathways. Pathways related to cellular proliferation, inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue injury seemed to be perturbed. Analysis of networks connecting the affected genes identified specific modulated molecular interactions, hubs, and key transcription regulators. Thus, TS was found to induce several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands forming an EGFR-centered molecular interaction network, as well as several aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent genes, including the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Notably, the latter findings in vitro are consistent with our parallel finding that CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 levels were increased in oral mucosa of smokers. Collectively, these results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the procarcinogenic effects of TS and raise the possibility that inhibitors of EGFR or aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling will prevent or delay the development of TS-related tumors. Moreover, the inductive effects of TS on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes may help explain the reduced efficacy of chemotherapy, and suggest targets for chemopreventive agents in smokers.
Project description:Polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes that activate tobacco lung carcinogens may generate inter-individual differences in lung cancer risk. Previous studies had limited sample sizes, poor exposure characterization, and a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested in candidate genes. We analyzed 25 SNPs (some previously untested) in 2101 primary lung cancer cases and 2120 population controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study from six phase I metabolic genes, including cytochrome P450s, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and myeloperoxidase. We evaluated the main genotype effects and genotype-smoking interactions in lung cancer risk overall and in the major histology subtypes. We tested the combined effect of multiple SNPs on lung cancer risk and on gene expression. Findings were prioritized based on significance thresholds and consistency across different analyses, and accounted for multiple testing and prior knowledge. Two haplotypes in EPHX1 were significantly associated with lung cancer risk in the overall population. In addition, CYP1B1 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms were inversely associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma risk, respectively. Moreover, the association between CYP1A1 rs2606345 genotype and lung cancer was significantly modified by intensity of cigarette smoking, suggesting an underlying dose-response mechanism. Finally, increasing number of variants at CYP1A1/A2 genes revealed significant protection in never smokers and risk in ever smokers. Results were supported by differential gene expression in non-tumor lung tissue samples with down-regulation of CYP1A1 in never smokers and up-regulation in smokers from CYP1A1/A2 SNPs. The significant haplotype associations emphasize that the effect of multiple SNPs may be important despite null single SNP-associations, and warrants consideration in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our findings emphasize the necessity of post-GWAS fine mapping and SNP functional assessment to further elucidate cancer risk associations.
Project description:Individuals with Lynch syndrome are predisposed to cancer due to an inherited DNA mismatch repair gene mutation. However, there is significant variability observed in disease expression likely due to the influence of other environmental, lifestyle, or genetic factors. Polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes may modify cancer risk by influencing the metabolism and clearance of potential carcinogens from the body. In this retrospective analysis, we examined key candidate gene polymorphisms in CYP1A1, EPHX1, GSTT1, GSTM1, and GSTP1 as modifiers of age at onset of colorectal cancer among 257 individuals with Lynch syndrome. We found that subjects heterozygous for CYP1A1 I462V (c.1384A>G) developed colorectal cancer 4 years earlier than those with the homozygous wild-type genotype (median ages, 39 and 43 years, respectively; log-rank test P = 0.018). Furthermore, being heterozygous for the CYP1A1 polymorphisms, I462V and Msp1 (g.6235T>C), was associated with an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer [adjusted hazard ratio for AG relative to AA, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.74; P = 0.008; hazard ratio for TC relative to TT, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.22; P = 0.02]. Because homozygous variants for both CYP1A1 polymorphisms were rare, risk estimates were imprecise. None of the other gene polymorphisms examined were associated with an earlier onset age for colorectal cancer. Our results suggest that the I462V and Msp1 polymorphisms in CYP1A1 may be an additional susceptibility factor for disease expression in Lynch syndrome because they modify the age of colorectal cancer onset by up to 4 years.