Conservation of the 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthesis locus among fluorescent Pseudomonas strains from diverse geographic locations.
ABSTRACT: The broad-spectrum antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL) is a major determinant in the biological control of a range of plant pathogens by many fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. A 4.8-kb chromosomal DNA region from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87, carrying PHL biosynthetic genes, was used as a probe to determine if the PHL biosynthetic locus is conserved within PHL-producing Pseudomonas strains of worldwide origin. The phl gene probe hybridized with the genomic DNA of all 45 PHL-producing Pseudomonas strains tested, including well-characterized biocontrol strains from the United States and Europe and strains isolated from disease-suppressive soils from Switzerland, Washington, Italy, and Ghana. The PHL producers displayed considerable phenotypic and genotypic diversity. Two phenotypically distinct groups were detected. The first produced PHL, pyoluteorin, and hydrogen cyanide and consisted of 13 strains from almost all locations sampled in the United States, Europe, and Africa. The second produced only PHL and HCN and consisted of 32 strains from the U.S. and European soils. Analysis of restriction patterns of genomic DNA obtained after hybridization with the phl gene probe and cluster analysis of restriction patterns of amplified DNA coding for 16S rRNA (ARDRA) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers indicated that the strains that produced both PHL and pyoluteorin were genetically highly similar. In contrast, there was more diversity at the genotypic level in the strains that produced PHL but not pyoluteorin. ARDRA analysis of these strains indicated two clusters which, on the basis of RAPD analysis, split into several subgroups with additional polymorphisms. In general, the occurrence of phenotypically and genotypically similar groups of PHL producers did not correlate with the geographic origin of the isolates, and highly similar strains could be isolated from diverse locations worldwide.
Project description:Fourteen strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from different agricultural plant species, including cassava, maize and sugarcane, using nitrogen-deprived selective isolation conditions. Ability to fix nitrogen was verified by the acetylene reduction assay. All potentially nitrogen-fixing strains tested showed positive hybridization signals with a nifH probe derived from Azospirillum brasilense. The strains were characterized by RAPD, ARDRA and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RAPD analyses revealed 8 unique genotypes, the remaining 6 strains clustered into 3 RAPD groups, suggesting a clonal origin. ARDRA and 16S rDNA sequence analyses allowed the assignment of 13 strains to known groups of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including organisms from the genera Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Two strains were classified as Stenotrophomonas ssp. Molecular identification results from 16S rDNA analyses were also corroborated by morphological and biochemical data.
Project description:A Pseudomonas 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing population that occurred naturally on the roots, in rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and in the nonrhizosphere soil was investigated in order to assess the microbial diversity at five stages of plant growth. A total of 1,716 isolates were obtained, and 188 of these isolates were able to produce DAPG. DAPG producers were isolated at each stage of plant growth, indicating that the maize rhizosphere is colonized by natural DAPG producers throughout development. The frequency of DAPG producers was very low in the first stage of plant growth and increased over time. An analysis of the level of biodiversity of the DAPG producers at the species level was performed by comparing the AluI restriction patterns of the 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) amplified by PCR from 167 isolates. This comparison allowed us to cluster the isolates into four amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) groups, and the main group (ARDRA group 1) contained 89.8% of the isolates. The diversity of the 150 isolates belonging to ARDRA group 1 was analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. An analysis of RAPD patterns by a molecular variance method revealed that there was a high level of genetic diversity in this population and that the genetic diversity was related to plant age. Finally, we found that some of the DAPG producers, which originated from all stages of plant growth, had the same genotype. These DAPG producers could be exploited in future screening programs for biocontrol agents.
Project description:Nostoc is a diverse genus of filamentous cyanobacteria with tremendous potential for agricultural and industrial applications. Morphometric methods and routine 16S rDNA-based identification undermines the genetic diversity and impedes strain-level differentiation. A comparative study to deduce the discriminatory power of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) for analyzing the genetic diversity of 20 Nostoc strains of diverse geographical origin was carried out. The RAPD primer used in the study generated 100% polymorphic profile. HIP TG primer produced the highest number of bands and fragments. Five primers, viz. OPA 08, OPA 11, HIP GC, OPAH 02 and OPF 05 could produce unique bands for 11 strains. Cluster analysis using the RAPD profile showed 12.5-25% similarity among the strains. Following in silico restriction analysis, two restriction enzymes, viz. HaeIII and HinfI were selected for ARDRA. However, clustering based on the restriction pattern showed 22.5-100% similarity. Results of the present study clearly indicate higher resolution of RAPD which can be reliably used for strain-level differentiation of Nostoc strains.
Project description:More than 3,000 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads have been collected from plant roots in Japan and screened for the presence of antibiotic-synthesizing genes. In total, 927 hydrogen cyanide (HCN)-, 47 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL)-, 6 pyoluteorin (PLT)-, 14 pyrrolnitrin (PRN)-, and 8 phenazine (PHZ)-producing isolates have been detected. A cluster analysis (?99% identity) identified 10 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in antibiotic biosynthesis gene-possessing pseudomonads. OTU HLR (PHL, PLT, and PRN) contained four antibiotics: HCN, PHL, PLT, and PRN, while OTU RZ (PRN and PHZ) contained three: HCN, PRN, and PHZ. OTU H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, and H7 (PHL1-7) contained two antibiotics: HCN and PHL, while OTU H8 (PHL8) contained one: PHL. Isolates belonging to OTU HLR and RZ suppressed damping-off disease in cabbage seedlings caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Effective strains belonging to OTU HLR and RZ were related to Pseudomonas protegens and Pseudomonas chlororaphis, respectively. Antibiotic biosynthesis gene-possessing fluorescent pseudomonads are distributed among different geographical sites in Japan and plant species.
Project description:A Burkholderia cepacia population naturally occurring in the rhizosphere of Zea mays was investigated in order to assess the degree of root association and microbial biodiversity at five stages of plant growth. The bacterial strains isolated on semiselective PCAT medium were mostly assigned to the species B. cepacia by an analysis of the restriction patterns produced by amplified DNA coding for 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) (ARDRA) with the enzyme AluI. Partial 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences of some randomly chosen isolates confirmed the ARDRA results. Throughout the study, B. cepacia was strictly associated with maize roots, ranging from 0.6 to 3.6% of the total cultivable microflora. Biodiversity among 83 B. cepacia isolates was analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique with two 10-mer primers. An analysis of RAPD patterns by the analysis of molecular variance method revealed a high level of intraspecific genetic diversity in this B. cepacia population. Moreover, the genetic diversity was related to divergences among maize root samplings, with microbial genetic variability markedly higher in the first stages of plant growth; in other words, the biodiversity of this rhizosphere bacterial population decreased over time.
Project description:The biodiversity of wheat associated bacteria was deciphered from the peninsular zone of India. A total of 264 isolated bacteria were analyzed through amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA, using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I and Hae III, which led to the clustering of these isolates into 12-16 groups for the different sites at >75% similarity index, adding up to 70 groups). 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis, revealed that all the bacteria belonged to three phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria of 32 distinct species of 15 genera namely: Achromobacter, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Delftia, Enterobacter, Exiguobacterium, Klebsiella, Methylobacterium, Micrococcus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodobacter, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Representative strains from each cluster were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits. Among plant growth promoting activities, siderophore producers were highest (15%), when compared to indole acetic acid producers (13%), Zn-solubilizers (11%), P-solubilizers (11%), ammonia (10%), hydrogen cyanide producers (9%), biocontrol (8%), N2-fixers (7%), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (6%), GA producers (6%) and K-solubilizers (5%). Among 32 representative strains, Alcaligenes faecalis, Arthrobacter sp., Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus subtilis, Delftia acidovorans, Methylobacterium mesophilicum, Methylobacterium sp., Pseudomonas poae, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas stutzeri exhibited more than six different plant growth promoting activities at high temperature. Thermotolerant bacterial isolates may have application as inoculants for plant growth promotion and biocontrol agents for crops growing at high temperature conditions.
Project description:Ten multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains producing VIM-1-like acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), isolated from four European countries (Greece, Hungary, Italy, and Sweden), were analyzed for genetic relatedness by several methodologies, including fliC sequence analysis, macrorestriction profiling of genomic DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The four approaches yielded consistent results overall but showed different resolution powers in establishing relatedness between isolates (PFGE>RAPD>MLST>fliC typing) and could usefully complement each other to address issues in the molecular epidemiology of P. aeruginosa strains producing acquired MBLs. In particular, the recently developed MLST approach was useful in revealing clonal relatedness between isolates when this was not readily apparent using RAPD and PFGE, and it suggested a common ancestry for some of the VIM-1-like MBL-positive P. aeruginosa strains currently spreading in Europe. The MBL producers belonged in three clonal complexes/burst groups (BGs). Of these, one corresponded to the previously described BG4 and included serotype O12 strains from Hungary and Sweden, while the other two were novel and included serotype O11 or nonserotypable strains from Greece, Sweden, and/or Italy. Comparison of the integrons carrying blaVIM-1-like cassettes of various isolates revealed a remarkable structural heterogeneity, suggesting the possibility that multiple independent events of acquisition of different blaVIM-containing integrons had occurred in members of the same clonal lineage, although a contribution of integrase-mediated cassette shuffling or other recombination mechanisms during the evolution of similar strains could also have played a role in determining this variability.
Project description:We have analyzed 20 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers against 36 Streptomyces strains, including 17 taxonomically undefined strains, 25 nonstreptomycete actinomycetes, and 12 outgroups consisting of gram-positive and -negative species. Most of the primers were useful in identifying unique DNA polymorphisms of all strains tested. We have used RAPD techniques to develop a genus-specific probe, one not necessarily targeting the ribosomal gene, for Streptomyces, and a strain-specific probe for the biological control agent Streptomyces lydicus WYEC108. In the course of these investigations, small-scale DNA isolations were also developed for efficiently isolating actinomycete DNA. Various modifications of isolation procedures for soil DNA were compared, and the reliability and specificity of the RAPD methodology were tested by specifically detecting the S. lydicus WYEC108 in DNA isolated from soil.
Project description:The antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) are major determinants of biological control of soilborne plant pathogens by various strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we described primers and probes that enable specific and efficient detection of a wide variety of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains that produce various phenazine antibiotics or Phl. PCR analysis and Southern hybridization demonstrated that specific genes within the biosynthetic loci for Phl and PCA are conserved among various Pseudomonas strains of worldwide origin. The frequency of Phl- and PCA-producing fluorescent pseudomonads was determined on roots of wheat grown in three soils suppressive to take-all disease of wheat and four soils conducive to take-all by colony hybridization followed by PCR. Phenazine-producing strains were not detected on roots from any of the soils. However, Phl-producing fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated from all three take-all-suppressive soils at densities ranging from approximately 5 x 10(sup5) to 2 x 10(sup6) CFU per g of root. In the complementary conducive soils, Phl-producing pseudomonads were not detected or were detected at densities at least 40-fold lower than those in the suppressive soils. We speculate that fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. that produce Phl play an important role in the natural suppressiveness of these soils to take-all disease of wheat.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to construct PCR-DNA probe assays specific for Prevotella intermedia sensu stricto and Prevotella nigrescens based on the ability of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting to generate species-specific markers. The strategy included four steps: (i) construction of first-generation DNA probes from a 850-bp RAPD marker for P. intermedia sensu stricto and a 1,300-bp RAPD marker for P. nigrescens, (ii) cloning and sequencing of each RAPD marker, (iii) designing of primer pairs flanking specific internal sequences of 754 bp for P. intermedia sensu stricto and of ca. 1,100 bp for P. nigrescens, and (iv) synthesis (by PCR amplification) and digoxigenin labeling of quantities of DNA probes 754 and ca. 1,100 bp in size. The PCR-DNA probe assays combine either PCR amplification of a 754-bp specific sequence in the genomic DNA of strains of P. intermedia sensu stricto and hybridization with the 754-bp digoxigenin-labeled probe or amplification of a ca. 1,100-bp sequence of P. nigrescens and hybridization with the ca. 1,100-bp probe. Specific hybridization was observed with the amplified DNAs from 25 strains of P. intermedia and 24 strains of P. nigrescens, and no reaction was observed with the PCR products from 20 foreign species. The PCR-DNA probe assays described here should allow a highly specific and sensitive detection of P. intermedia sensu stricto and P. nigrescens in mixed infections.