Tracking of quantum dot-labeled CFTR shows near immobilization by C-terminal PDZ interactions.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-regulated chloride channel, cause cystic fibrosis. To investigate interactions of CFTR in living cells, we measured the diffusion of quantum dot-labeled CFTR molecules by single particle tracking. In multiple cell lines, including airway epithelia, CFTR diffused little in the plasma membrane, generally not moving beyond 100-200 nm. However, CFTR became mobile over micrometer distances after 1) truncations of the carboxy terminus, which contains a C-terminal PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) binding motif; 2) blocking PDZ binding by C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusion; 3) disrupting CFTR association with actin by expression of a mutant EBP50/NHERF1 lacking its ezrin binding domain; or 4) skeletal disruption by latrunculin. CFTR also became mobile when the cytoskeletal adaptor protein binding capacity was saturated by overexpressing CFTR or its C terminus. Our data demonstrate remarkable and previously unrecognized immobilization of CFTR in the plasma membrane and provide direct evidence that C-terminal coupling to the actin skeleton via EBP50/ezrin is responsible for its immobility.
Project description:Members of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family of membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins have NH2- and COOH-terminal domains that associate with the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. To search for ERM binding partners potentially involved in membrane association, tissue lysates were subjected to affinity chromatography on the immobilized NH2-terminal domains of ezrin and moesin, which comprise the ezrin-radixin-moesin-association domain (N-ERMAD). A collection of polypeptides at 50-53 kD from human placenta and at 58-59 kD from bovine brain bound directly to both N-ERMADs. The 50-53-kD placental proteins migrated as a major 50-kD species after phosphatase treatment, indicating that the heterogeneity is due to different phosphorylation states. We refer to these polypeptides as ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50). Sequence analysis of human EBP50 was used to identify an approximately 2-kb human cDNA that encodes a 357-residue polypeptide. Recombinant EBP50 binds tightly to the N-ERMADs of ezrin and moesin. Peptide sequences from the brain candidate indicated that it is closely related to EBP50. EBP50 has two PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1-like (PDZ) domains and is most likely a homologue of rabbit protein cofactor, which is involved in the protein kinase A regulation of the renal brush border Na+/H+ exchanger. EBP50 is widely distributed in tissues, and is particularly enriched in those containing polarized epithelia. Immunofluorescence microscopy of cultured cells and tissues revealed that EBP50 colocalizes with actin and ezrin in the apical microvilli of epithelial cells, and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that it is specifically associated with the microvilli of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. Moreover, EBP50 and ezrin can be coimmunoprecipitated as a complex from isolated human placental microvilli. These findings show that EBP50 is a physiologically relevant ezrin binding protein. Since PDZ domains are known to mediate associations with integral membrane proteins, one mode of membrane attachment of ezrin is likely to be mediated through EBP50.
Project description:The cortical scaffolding proteins EBP50 (ERM-binding phosphoprotein-50) and E3KARP (NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein) contain two PDZ (PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1-like) domains followed by a COOH-terminal sequence that binds to active ERM family members. Using affinity chromatography, we identified polypeptides from placental microvilli that bind the PDZ domains of EBP50. Among these are 64- and/or 65-kD differentially phosphorylated polypeptides that bind preferentially to the first PDZ domain of EBP50, as well as to E3KARP, and that we call EPI64 (EBP50-PDZ interactor of 64 kD). The gene for human EPI64 lies on chromosome 22 where nine exons specify a protein of 508 residues that contains a Tre/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)/rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain. EPI64 terminates in DTYL, which is necessary for binding to the PDZ domains of EBP50, as a mutant ending in DTYLA no longer interacts. EPI64 colocalizes with EBP50 and ezrin in syncytiotrophoblast and cultured cell microvilli, and this localization in cultured cells is abolished by introduction of the DTYLA mutation. In addition to EPI64, immobilized EBP50 PDZ domains retain several polypeptides from placental microvilli, including an isoform of nadrin, a rhoGAP domain-containing protein implicated in regulating vesicular transport. Nadrin binds EBP50 directly, probably through its COOH-terminal STAL sequence. Thus, EBP50 appears to bind membrane proteins as well as factors potentially involved in regulating membrane traffic.
Project description:PDZK1 and ezrin, radixin, moesin binding phosphoprotein 50 kDa (EBP50) are postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens (PDZ)-domain-containing scaffolding proteins found in the apical microvilli of polarized epithelial cells. Binary interactions have been shown between the tail of PDZK1 and the PDZ domains of EBP50, as well as between EBP50 and the membrane-cytoskeletal linking protein ezrin. Here, we show that these molecules form a regulated ternary complex in vitro and in vivo. Complex formation is cooperative because ezrin positively influences the PDZK1/EBP50 interaction. Moreover, the interaction of PDZK1 with EBP50 is enhanced by the occupancy of EBP50's adjacent PDZ domain. The complex is further regulated by location, because PDZK1 shuttles from the nucleus in low confluence cells to microvilli in high confluence cells, and this regulates the formation of the PDZK1/EBP50/ezrin complex in vivo. Knockdown of EBP50 decreases the presence of microvilli, a phenotype that can be rescued by EBP50 re-expression or expression of a PDZK1 chimera that is directly targeted to ezrin. Thus, when appropriately located, PDZK1 can provide a function necessary for microvilli formation normally provided by EBP50. By entering into the ternary complex, PDZK1 can both enhance the scaffolding at the apical membrane as well as augment EBP50's role in microvilli formation.
Project description:Scaffolding proteins containing PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/discs large/zonula occludens-1) domains are believed to provide relatively stable linkages between components of macromolecular complexes and in some cases to bridge to the actin cytoskeleton. The microvillar scaffolding protein EBP50 (ERM-binding phosphoprotein of 50 kD), consisting of two PDZ domains and an ezrin-binding site, retains specific proteins in microvilli and is necessary for microvillar biogenesis. Our analysis of the dynamics of microvillar proteins in vivo indicated that ezrin and microvillar membrane proteins had dynamics consistent with actin treadmilling and microvillar lifetimes. However, EBP50 was highly dynamic, turning over within seconds. EBP50 turnover was reduced by mutations that inactivate its PDZ domains and was enhanced by protein kinase C phosphorylation. Using a novel in vitro photoactivation fluorescence assay, the EBP50-ezrin interaction was shown to have a slow off-rate that was dramatically enhanced in a PDZ-regulated manner by addition of cell extract to near in vivo levels. Thus, the linking of relatively stable microvillar components can be mediated by surprisingly dynamic EBP50, a finding that may have important ramifications for other scaffolding proteins.
Project description:The closely related apical scaffolding proteins ERM-binding phosphoprotein of 50 kDa (EBP50) and NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein (E3KARP) both consist of two postsynaptic density 95/disks large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domains and a tail ending in an ezrin-binding domain. Scaffolding proteins are thought to provide stable linkages between components of multiprotein complexes, yet in several types of epithelial cells, EBP50, but not E3KARP, shows rapid exchange from microvilli compared with its binding partners. The difference in dynamics is determined by the proteins' tail regions. Exchange rates of EBP50 and E3KARP correlated strongly with their abilities to precipitate ezrin in vivo. The EBP50 tail alone is highly dynamic, but in the context of the full-length protein, the dynamics is lost when the PDZ domains are unable to bind ligand. Proteomic analysis of the effects of EBP50 dynamics on binding-partner preferences identified a novel PDZ1 binding partner, the I-BAR protein insulin receptor substrate p53 (IRSp53). Additionally, the tails promote different microvillar localizations for EBP50 and E3KARP, which localized along the full length and to the base of microvilli, respectively. Thus the tails define the localization and dynamics of these scaffolding proteins, and the high dynamics of EBP50 is regulated by the occupancy of its PDZ domains.
Project description:It remains unclear how GPI-anchored proteins (GPIAPs), which lack cytoplasmic domains, transduce signals triggered by specific ligation. Such signal transduction has been speculated to require the ligated GPIAP to associate with membrane-spanning proteins that communicate with obligate cytoplasmic proteins. Transient anchorage of crosslinked proteins on the cell surface was previously characterized by single-particle tracking, and temporary association with the actin cytoskeleton was hypothesized to cause regulated anchorage. GPIAPs, such as Thy-1, require clustering, cholesterol and Src-family kinase (SFK) activity to become transiently anchored. By contrast, a transmembrane protein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which has a PDZ-binding motif in its cytoplasmic C-terminus that binds the ERM adaptor EBP50, exhibits anchorage that strictly requires EBP50 but has little dependence on cholesterol or SFK. We hypothesized that a transmembrane protein would be required to mediate the linkage between Thy-1 and the cytoskeleton. Here, we present evidence, obtained by shRNA knockdown, that the transmembrane protein Csk-binding protein (CBP) plays an obligatory role in the transient anchorage of Thy1. Furthermore, either a dominant-negative form of CBP that did not bind EBP50 or a dominant-negative EBP50 drastically reduced transient anchorage of Thy-1, indicating the involvement of this adaptor. Finally, we speculate on the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of transient anchorage.
Project description:EPI64 is a TBC domain-containing protein that binds the PDZ domains of EBP50, which binds ezrin, a major actin-binding protein of microvilli. High-resolution light microscopy revealed that ezrin and EBP50 localize exclusively to the membrane-surrounded region of microvilli, whereas EPI64 localizes to variable regions in the structures. Overexpressing EPI64 results in its and EBP50's relocalization to the base of microvilli, including to the actin rootlet devoid of ezrin or plasma membrane. Uncoupling EPI64's binding to EBP50, expression of any construct mislocalizing its TBC domain, or knock down of EBP50 results in loss of microvilli. The TBC domain of EPI64 binds directly to Arf6-GTP. Overexpressing the TBC domain increases Arf6-GTP levels, and expressing dominant-active Arf6 results in microvillar loss. These data reveal that microvilli have distinct cytoskeletal subdomains and that EPI64 regulates microvillar structure.
Project description:The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride channel mutated in patients with cystic fibrosis. Its expression and functional interactions in the apical membrane are regulated by several PDZ (PSD-95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) proteins, which mediate protein-protein interactions, typically by binding C-terminal recognition motifs. In particular, the CFTR-associated ligand (CAL) limits cell-surface levels of the most common disease-associated mutant DeltaF508-CFTR. CAL also mediates degradation of wild-type CFTR, targeting it to lysosomes following endocytosis. Nevertheless, wild-type CFTR survives numerous cycles of uptake and recycling. In doing so, how does it repeatedly avoid CAL-mediated degradation? One mechanism may involve competition between CAL and other PDZ proteins including Na (+)/H (+) exchanger-3 regulatory factors 1 and 2 (NHERF1 and NHERF2), which functionally stabilize cell-surface CFTR. Thus, to understand the biochemical basis of WT-CFTR persistence, we need to know the relative affinities of these partners. However, no quantitative binding data are available for CAL or the individual NHERF2 PDZ domains, and published estimates for the NHERF1 PDZ domains conflict. Here we demonstrate that the affinity of the CAL PDZ domain for the CFTR C-terminus is much weaker than those of NHERF1 and NHERF2 domains, enabling wild-type CFTR to avoid premature entrapment in the lysosomal pathway. At the same time, CAL's affinity is evidently sufficient to capture and degrade more rapidly cycling mutants, such as DeltaF508-CFTR. The relatively weak affinity of the CAL:CFTR interaction may provide a pharmacological window for stabilizing rescued DeltaF508-CFTR in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Project description:Loss of cell polarity is one of the initial alterations in the development of human epithelial cancers. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF) homologous adaptors 1 and 2 are membrane-associated proteins composed of two amino (N)-terminal PDZ domains and an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding (EB) carboxyl (C)-terminal region. We describe here an intramolecular conformation of NHERF1/EBP50 (ERM-binding phosphoprotein 50) in which the C-terminal EB region binds to the PDZ2 domain. This novel head-to-tail conformation masked the interaction of both PDZ domains with PDZ domain-specific ligands, such as PTEN and beta-catenin. An EB region composite structure comprising an alpha-helix ending in a PDZ-binding motif imparted opposite effects to NHERF1 associations, mediating binding to ERM proteins and inhibiting binding of PDZ domain ligands. The PDZ domain inhibition was released by prior association of ezrin with the EB region, a condition that occurs in vivo and likely disrupts NHERF1 head-to-tail interaction. In contrast, NHERF2 did not present a regulatory mechanism for protein complex formation. Functionally, NHERF1 is required to organize complexes at the apical membranes of polarized epithelial cells. The regulation of NHERF1 interactions at the apical membrane thus appears to be a dynamic process that is important for maintaining epithelial-tissue integrity.
Project description:CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR's PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs.