The WD repeat-containing protein IFTA-1 is required for retrograde intraflagellar transport.
ABSTRACT: The assembly and maintenance of cilia require intraflagellar transport (IFT), a microtubule-dependent bidirectional motility of multisubunit protein complexes along ciliary axonemes. Defects in IFT and the functions of motile or sensory cilia are associated with numerous human ailments, including polycystic kidney disease and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Here, we identify a novel Caenorhabditis elegans IFT gene, IFT-associated gene 1 (ifta-1), which encodes a WD repeat-containing protein with strong homology to a mammalian protein of unknown function. Both the C. elegans and human IFTA-1 proteins localize to the base of cilia, and in C. elegans, IFTA-1 can be observed to undergo IFT. IFTA-1 is required for the function and assembly of cilia, because a C. elegans ifta-1 mutant displays chemosensory abnormalities and shortened cilia with prominent ciliary accumulations of core IFT machinery components that are indicative of retrograde transport defects. Analyses of C. elegans IFTA-1 localization/motility along bbs mutant cilia, where anterograde IFT assemblies are destabilized, and in a che-11 IFT gene mutant, demonstrate that IFTA-1 is closely associated with the IFT particle A subcomplex, which is implicated in retrograde IFT. Together, our data indicate that IFTA-1 is a novel IFT protein that is required for retrograde transport along ciliary axonemes.
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a process required for flagella and cilia assembly that describes the dynein and kinesin mediated movement of particles along axonemes that consists of an A and a B complex, defects in which disrupt retrograde and anterograde transport, respectively. Herein, we describe a novel Caenorhabditis elegans gene, xbx-1, that is required for retrograde IFT and shares homology with a mammalian dynein light intermediate chain (D2LIC). xbx-1 expression in ciliated sensory neurons is regulated by the transcription factor DAF-19, as demonstrated previously for genes encoding IFT complex B proteins. XBX-1 localizes to the base of the cilia and undergoes anterograde and retrograde movement along the axoneme. Disruption of xbx-1 results in cilia defects and causes behavioral abnormalities observed in other cilia mutants. Analysis of cilia in xbx-1 mutants reveals that they are shortened and have a bulb like structure in which IFT proteins accumulate. The role of XBX-1 in IFT was further confirmed by analyzing the effect that other IFT mutations have on XBX-1 localization and movement. In contrast to other IFT proteins, retrograde XBX-1 movement was detected in complex A mutants. Our results suggest that the DLIC protein XBX-1 functions together with the CHE-3 dynein in retrograde IFT, downstream of the complex A proteins.
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a bi-directional process by which particles are carried within the cilia or flagella. This process is essential for ciliary growth and functional maintenance. The IFT complex B (IFTB) is linked to a kinesin motor for anterograde transport towards the ciliary tip. The IFT complex A (IFTA) is connected to a dynein motor for retrograde transport towards the ciliary basis. This study focuses on IFT46, an IFTB member that participates in this process. In Paramecium, a GFP-labelled IFT46 protein was found in basal bodies and in some cilia, mostly those undergoing biogenesis. RNA interference against IFT46 in Paramecium triggered severe defects in ciliary growth and architecture, including a decreased cilia number and shortened cilia length. This result differed from that obtained from the cells that were depleted of IFT80, another IFTB protein. Moreover, IFT57-GFP fusion protein abnormally accumulated in the cortex and cytoplasm in IFT46-depleted cells compared with the control. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis showed that IFT46 depletion induced the abnormal expression of several genes that encodeding kinesin and dynein chains. These findings together indicate that IFT46 plays important roles in trafficking IFT proteins between the cytoplasm and cilia of Paramecium.
Project description:Primary cilia are sensory organelles that are essential for eukaryotic development and health. These antenna-like structures are synthesized by intraflagellar transport protein complexes, IFT-B and IFT-A, which mediate bidirectional protein trafficking along the ciliary axoneme. Here using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), we investigate the ciliary roles of two mammalian orthologues of Chlamydomonas IFT-A gene, IFT139, namely Thm1 (also known as Ttc21b) and Thm2 (Ttc21a). Thm1 loss causes perinatal lethality, and Thm2 loss allows survival into adulthood. At E14.5, the number of Thm1;Thm2 double mutant embryos is lower than that for a Mendelian ratio, indicating deletion of Thm1 and Thm2 causes mid-gestational lethality. We examined the ciliary phenotypes of mutant MEF. Thm1-mutant MEF show decreased cilia assembly, increased cilia disassembly, shortened primary cilia, a retrograde IFT defect for IFT and BBS proteins, and reduced ciliary entry of membrane-associated proteins. Thm1-mutant cilia also show a retrograde transport defect for the Hedgehog transducer, Smoothened, and an impaired response to Smoothened agonist, SAG. Thm2-null MEF show normal ciliary dynamics and Hedgehog signaling, but additional loss of a Thm1 allele impairs response to SAG. Further, Thm1;Thm2 double-mutant MEF show enhanced cilia disassembly, and increased impairment of INPP5E ciliary import. Thus, Thm1 and Thm2 have unique and redundant roles in MEF. Thm1 regulates cilia assembly, and alone and together with Thm2, regulates cilia disassembly, ciliary entry of membrane-associated protein, Hedgehog signaling, and embryogenesis. These findings shed light on mechanisms underlying Thm1-, Thm2- or IFT-A-mediated ciliopathies.
Project description:Primary cilia are built and maintained by intraflagellar transport (IFT), whereby the two IFT complexes, IFTA and IFTB, carry cargo via kinesin and dynein motors for anterograde and retrograde transport, respectively. Many signaling pathways, including platelet- derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/??, are linked to primary cilia. Active PDGF-AA/?? signaling results in phosphorylation of Akt at two residues: P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473), and previous work showed decreased P-Akt(S473) in response to PDGF-AA upon anterograde transport disruption. In this study, we investigated PDGF-AA/?? signaling via P-Akt(T308) and P-Akt(S473) in distinct ciliary transport mutants. We found increased Akt phosphorylation in the absence of PDGF-AA stimulation, which we show is due to impaired dephosphorylation resulting from diminished PP2A activity toward P-Akt(T308). Anterograde transport mutants display low platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)? levels, whereas retrograde mutants exhibit normal PDGFR? levels. Despite this, neither shows an increase in P-Akt(S473) or P-Akt(T308) upon PDGF-AA stimulation. Because mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is increased in ciliary transport mutant cells and mTOR signaling inhibits PDGFR? levels, we demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1 rescues PDGFR? levels as well as PDGF-AA-dependent phosphorylation of Akt(S473) and Akt(T308) in ciliary transport mutant MEFs. Taken together, our data indicate that the regulation of mTORC1 signaling and PP2A activity by ciliary transport plays key roles in PDGF-AA/?? signaling.
Project description:Cilia play key roles in development and homeostasis, and defects in cilia structure or function lead to an array of human diseases. Ciliogenesis is accomplished by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, a set of proteins governing bidirectional transport of cargoes within ciliary axonemes. In this paper, we present a novel platform for in vivo analysis of vertebrate IFT dynamics. Using this platform, we show that the planar cell polarity (PCP) effector Fuz was required for normal IFT dynamics in vertebrate cilia, the first evidence directly linking PCP to the core machinery of ciliogenesis. Further, we show that Fuz played a specific role in trafficking of retrograde, but not anterograde, IFT proteins. These data place Fuz in the small group of known IFT effectors outside the core machinery and, additionally, identify Fuz as a novel cytoplasmic effector that differentiates between the retrograde and anterograde IFT complexes.
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a highly conserved mechanism for motor-driven transport of cargo within cilia, but how this cargo is selectively transported to cilia is unclear. WDR35/IFT121 is a component of the IFT-A complex best known for its role in ciliary retrograde transport. In the absence of WDR35, small mutant cilia form but fail to enrich in diverse classes of ciliary membrane proteins. In <i>Wdr35</i> mouse mutants, the non-core IFT-A components are degraded and core components accumulate at the ciliary base. We reveal deep sequence homology of WDR35 and other IFT-A subunits to α and ß' COPI coatomer subunits and demonstrate an accumulation of 'coat-less' vesicles that fail to fuse with <i>Wdr35</i> mutant cilia. We determine that recombinant non-core IFT-As can bind directly to lipids and provide the first in situ evidence of a novel coat function for WDR35, likely with other IFT-A proteins, in delivering ciliary membrane cargo necessary for cilia elongation.
Project description:Conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) particle proteins and IFT-associated motors are needed to assemble most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. Proteins in an IFT-A subcomplex are generally required for dynein-driven retrograde IFT, from the ciliary tip to the base. We describe novel structural and functional roles for IFT-A proteins in chordotonal organs, insect mechanosensory organs with cilia that are both sensory and motile.The reduced mechanoreceptor potential A (rempA) locus of Drosophila encodes the IFT-A component IFT140. Chordotonal cilia are shortened in rempA mutants and an IFT-B protein accumulates in the mutant cilia, consistent with a defect in retrograde IFT. A functional REMPA-YFP fusion protein concentrates at the site of the ciliary dilation (CD), a highly structured axonemal inclusion of hitherto unknown composition and function. The CD is absent in rempA mutants, and REMPA-YFP is undetectable in the absence of another IFT-A protein, IFT122. In a mutant lacking the IFT dynein motor, the CD is disorganized and REMPA-YFP is mislocalized. A TRPV ion channel, required to generate sensory potentials and regulate ciliary motility, is normally localized in the cilia, proximal to the CD. This channel spreads into the distal part of the cilia in dynein mutants and is undetectable in rempA mutants.IFT-A proteins are located at and required by the ciliary dilation, which separates chordotonal cilia into functionally distinct zones. A requirement for IFT140 in stable TRPV channel expression also suggests that IFT-A proteins may mediate preciliary transport of some membrane proteins.
Project description:Genetic disorders caused by cilia dysfunction, termed ciliopathies, frequently involve the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system. Mutations in IFT subunits-including IFT-dynein motor DYNC2H1-impair ciliary structures and Hedgehog signalling, typically leading to "skeletal" ciliopathies such as Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Intriguingly, IFT gene mutations also cause eye, kidney and brain ciliopathies often linked to defects in the transition zone (TZ), a ciliary gate implicated in Hedgehog signalling. Here, we identify a C. elegans temperature-sensitive (ts) IFT-dynein mutant (che-3; human DYNC2H1) and use it to show a role for retrograde IFT in anterograde transport and ciliary maintenance. Unexpectedly, correct TZ assembly and gating function for periciliary proteins also require IFT-dynein. Using the reversibility of the novel ts-IFT-dynein, we show that restoring IFT in adults (post-developmentally) reverses defects in ciliary structure, TZ protein localisation and ciliary gating. Notably, this ability to reverse TZ defects declines as animals age. Together, our findings reveal a previously unknown role for IFT in TZ assembly in metazoans, providing new insights into the pathomechanism and potential phenotypic overlap between IFT- and TZ-associated ciliopathies.
Project description:The dynein-2 motor complex drives retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), playing a pivotal role in the assembly and functions of cilia. However, the mechanisms that regulate dynein-2 motility remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the Caenorhabditis elegans WDR60 homologue, WDR-60, and dissect the roles of this intermediate chain using genome editing and live imaging of endogenous dynein-2/IFT components. We find that loss of WDR-60 impairs dynein-2 recruitment to cilia and its incorporation onto anterograde IFT trains, reducing retrograde motor availability at the ciliary tip. Consistent with this, we show that fewer dynein-2 motors power WDR-60-deficient retrograde IFT trains, which move at reduced velocities and fail to exit cilia, accumulating on the distal side of the transition zone. Remarkably, disrupting the transition zone's NPHP module almost fully restores ciliary exit of underpowered retrograde trains in wdr-60 mutants. This work establishes WDR-60 as a major contributor to IFT, and the NPHP module as a roadblock to dynein-2 passage through the transition zone.
Project description:MIP-T3 is a human protein found previously to associate with microtubules and the kinesin-interacting neuronal protein DISC1 (Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1), but whose cellular function(s) remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the C. elegans MIP-T3 ortholog DYF-11 is an intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein that plays a critical role in assembling functional kinesin motor-IFT particle complexes. We have cloned a loss of function dyf-11 mutant in which several key components of the IFT machinery, including Kinesin-II, as well as IFT subcomplex A and B proteins, fail to enter ciliary axonemes and/or mislocalize, resulting in compromised ciliary structures and sensory functions, and abnormal lipid accumulation. Analyses in different mutant backgrounds further suggest that DYF-11 functions as a novel component of IFT subcomplex B. Consistent with an evolutionarily conserved cilia-associated role, mammalian MIP-T3 localizes to basal bodies and cilia, and zebrafish mipt3 functions synergistically with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome protein Bbs4 to ensure proper gastrulation, a key cilium- and basal body-dependent developmental process. Our findings therefore implicate MIP-T3 in a previously unknown but critical role in cilium biogenesis and further highlight the emerging role of this organelle in vertebrate development.